Devdas (Bengali: দেবদাস, transliterated as Debdās) is a Bengali romance novel written by Sarat Chandra Chatterjee. Despite being finished in September 1900,[1] the novel was not published till June 1917 due to Chatterjee's hesitance probably over some autobiographical elements.[2] According to Chatterjee's own words, he wrote it under the influence of drink and was ashamed of the work.[2]

The story pivots a tragic triangle linking Devdas, an archetypal lover in viraha (separation); Paro, his forbidden childhood love; and Chandramukhi, a reformed courtesan.[3] Devdas was adapted on screen 19 times.

Front cover of the Bengali novel Devdas
Devdas - front cover
AuthorSarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
Publication date
30 June 1917
Media typePrint (hardback and paperback)

Plot summary

Devdas is a young man from a wealthy Bengali Brahmin family in India in the early 1900s. Parvati (Paro) is a young woman from a middle class Bengali Brahmin family. The two families live in a village called Taalshonapur in Bengal, and Devdas and Parvati are childhood friends.

Devdas goes away for a couple of years to live and study in the city of Calcutta (now Kolkata). During vacations, he returns to his village. Suddenly both realise that their easy comfort in each other's innocent comradeship has changed to something deeper. Devdas sees that Parvati is no longer the small girl he knew. Parvati looks forward to their childhood love blossoming into a happy lifelong journey in marriage. According to prevailing social custom, Parvati's parents would have to approach Devdas's parents and propose marriage of Parvati to Devdas as Parvati longs for.

Parvati's mother approaches Devdas's mother, Harimati, with a marriage proposal. Although Devdas's mother loves Parvati very much she isn't so keen on forming an alliance with the family next door. Besides, Parvati's family has a long-standing tradition of accepting dowry from the groom's family for marriage rather than sending dowry with the bride. The alternative family tradition of Parvati's family influences Devdas's mother's decision not to consider Parvati as Devdas' bride, especially as Parvati belongs to a trading (becha -kena chottoghor) lower family. The "trading" label is applied in context of the marriage custom followed by Parvati's family. Devdas's father, Narayan Mukherjee, who also loves Parvati, does not want Devdas to get married so early in life and isn't keen on the alliance. Parvati's father, Nilkantha Chakravarti, feeling insulted at the rejection, finds an even richer husband for Parvati.

When Parvati learns of her planned marriage, she stealthily meets Devdas at night, desperately believing that he will accept her hand in marriage. Devdas has never previously considered Parvati as his would-be wife. Surprised by Parvati's boldly visiting him alone at night, he also feels pained for her. Making up his mind, decides he tells his father he wants to marry Parvati. Devdas's father disagrees.

In a confused state, Devdas flees to Calcutta. From there, he writes a letter to Parvati, saying that they should simply continue only as friends. Within days, however, he realizes that he should have been bolder. He goes back to his village and tells Parvati that he is ready to do anything needed to save their love.

By now, Parvati's marriage plans are in an advanced stage. She refuses to go back to Devdas and chides him for his cowardice and vacillation. She, however requests Devdas to come and see her before she dies. He vows to do so.

Devdas goes back to Calcutta and Parvati is married off to the widower, Bhuvan Choudhuri, who has three children. An elderly gentleman and zamindar of Hatipota he had found his house and home so empty and lustreless after his wife's death, that he decided to marry again. After marrying Parvati, he spent most of his day in Pujas and looking after the zamindari.

In Calcutta, Devdas's carousing friend, Chunni Lal, introduces him to a courtesan named Chandramukhi. Devdas takes to heavy drinking at the courtesan's place; she falls in love with him, and looks after him. His health deteriorates through excessive drinking and despair - a drawn-out form of suicide. In his mind, he frequently compares Parvati and Chandramukhi. Strangely he feels betrayed by Parvati,though it was she who had loved him first, and confessed her love for him. Chandramukhi knows and tells him how things had really happened. This makes Devdas, when sober, hate and loathe her very presence. He drinks more and more to forget his plight. Chandramukhi sees it all happen, suffering silently. She senses the real man behind the fallen, aimless Devdas he has become and can't help but love him.

Knowing death approaches him fast, Devdas goes to Hatipota to meet Parvati to fulfill his vow. He dies at her doorstep on a dark, cold night. On hearing of his death, Parvati runs towards the door, but her family members prevent her from stepping out of the house.

The novella powerfully depicts the customs of society that prevailed in Bengal in the early 1900s, which largely prevented a happy ending to a true and tender love story.

Film, TV, and theatrical adaptations

Kundal Lal Saigal and Jamuna in Devdas, Barua's 1936 Hindi version

The novel has been made into films in many Indian languages, including Bengali, Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Urdu, Assamese and Malayalam.[4][5][6] It is the most filmed non-epic story in India.

Notable film versions of the novella include:

Year Title Language Director Cast Notes
Devdas Parvati Chandramukhi
1928 Devdas Silent film Naresh Mitra Phani Burma Tarakbala Niharbala/Miss Parul
1935 Devdas Bengali P.C. Barua P.C. Barua Jamuna Barua Chandrabati Devi
1936 Devdas Hindi P.C. Barua K.L. Saigal Jamuna Barua Rajkumari
1937 Devdas Assamese P.C. Barua Phani Sarma Zubeida Mohini
1953 Devadasu Telugu
Vedantam Raghavaiah Akkineni Nageswara Rao Savitri Lalitha known as Devadas in Tamil
1955 Devdas Hindi Bimal Roy Dilip Kumar Suchitra Sen Vyjayanthimala
1965 Devdas Urdu Khawaja Sarfaraz Habib Taalish Shamim Ara Nayyar Sultana Pakistani film
1974 Devadasu Telugu Vijaya Nirmala Ghattamaneni Krishna Vijaya Nirmala Jayanthi
1979 Devdas Bengali Dilip Roy Soumitra Chatterjee Sumitra Mukherjee Supriya Choudhury also known as Debdas
1982 Devdas Bengali Chashi Nazrul Islam Bulbul Ahmed Kabori Sarwar Anwara Bangladeshi film
1989 Devadas Malayalam Crossbelt Mani Venu Nagavally Parvathy Ramya Krishnan
2002 Devdas Bengali Shakti Samanta Prasenjit Chatterjee Arpita Pal Indrani Halder
2002 Devdas Hindi Sanjay Leela Bhansali Shah Rukh Khan Aishwarya Rai Madhuri Dixit
2009 Dev.D Hindi Anurag Kashyap Abhay Deol Mahi Gill Kalki Koechlin modern-day take on Devdas
2010 Devdas Urdu Iqbal Kasmiri Nadeem Shah Zara Sheikh Meera Pakistani film
2013 Devdas Bengali Chashi Nazrul Islam Shakib Khan Apu Biswas Moushumi Bangladeshi film
2017 Devi Bengali Rick Basu Paoli Dam Shubh Mukherjee Shataf Figar modern-day take on Devdas
genderbent versions of characters
2017 - present Dev DD Hindi Ken Ghosh Asheema Vardaan Akhil Kapur Sanjay Suri web series
modern-day take on Devdas
genderbent versions of characters
2018 Daas Dev Hindi Sudhir Mishra Rahul Bhat Richa Chadda Aditi Rao Hydari modern-day take on Devdas

See also


  1. ^ Sen, Sukumar (1353 Bengali Year). Bangla Sahityer Itihas বাঙ্গালা সাহিত্যের ইতিহাস [History of Bengali Literature]. V:3. Calcutta: Modern Book Agency. p. 552.
  2. ^ a b "শতবর্ষে দেবদাস". Prothom Alo (in Bengali). Retrieved 2018-12-23.
  3. ^ "The DEVDAS Phenomenon". The University of Iowa. Retrieved 2018-12-24.
  4. ^ Sharma, Sanjukta (June 7, 2008). "Multiple Takes: Devdas's journey in Indian cinema - from the silent era of the 1920s to the opulent Hindi blockbuster of 2002". Livemint. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
  5. ^ The Hindu : The immortal lover
  6. ^ Devdas phenomenon Archived January 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Peene Walon Ko Peene Ka Bahana Chahiye - Haath Ki Safai 1974 1080p HD

External links

48th Filmfare Awards

The 48th Filmfare Awards were held in Mumbai on 21 February 2003.The awards were dominated by Devdas.Manikchand Group of Companies sponsored this event.

4th Filmfare Awards

The 4th Filmfare Awards were held in 5 May 1957, in Bombay, honoring the best films in Hindi cinema for the year 1956. Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje became the biggest winner; it was awarded Best Film of 1956 and Best Director, both for V. Shantaram. Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje had the highest number of nomination, with four, and won all four awards. Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje was followed by Bimal Roy's Devdas with three nominations, all of which it won.

Dilip Kumar won his third Best Actor trophy for Devdas. Nutan won her first Best Actress trophy for Seema. Vyjayanthimala won her first Filmfare in the Supporting Actress category for Devdas, but declined her award as she thought that her role was not supporting and was equally important as that film's other female lead. She was the first person to decline the Filmfare Award. However, she later won the Filmfare Best Actress trophy for Sadhna in 1958, followed by two more awards in the same category.

While most of the nominated films were released in 1956, some films which won most of the main awards were 1955 releases. Devdas, Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje, Seema and Shree 420 were 1955 films but were not considered for the 3rd Filmfare Awards.

Bairi Piya

"Bairi Piya" (Hindi: बैरी पिया) is a song from the 2002 Blockbuster Bollywood film, Devdas. The song is composed by Ismail Darbar and sung by Shreya Ghoshal along with Udit Narayan. The lyrics were penned by Nusrat Badr. The song features Aishwarya Rai and Shah Rukh Khan in the video. Shreya Ghoshal received many accolades for her honey-soaked rendition of the song.

Chandramukhi (character)

Chandramukhi is one of the pivotal characters in the 1917 Bengali novel Devdas by Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay. Her character was inspired by the Hindu mystical singer Meera, who devoted her life to Lord Krishna; similarly Chandramukhi devoted her life to Devdas. Chandramukhi is portrayed as a hooker with a heart of gold in the novel and its film adaptations. Chandramukhi means "moon faced" or "as beautiful as the moon" in Sanskrit.

Daas Dev

Daas Dev is a romantic political thriller directed by Sudhir Mishra, Story concept by Zuhaebb, Dialogues written by Sudhir mishra and Shubhra chaterjji. starring Rahul Bhat as Dev Pratap Chauhan, Richa Chadda as Paro, Aditi Rao Hydari as Chandni, and Saurabh Shukla, Vineet Kumar Singh and Dalip Tahil in complex supporting roles along with Anil George, Deepraj Rana with Anurag Kashyap in a guest appearance. The film was released on 27 April 2018.


Dev.D is an Indian romantic black comedy drama film released on 6 February 2009. Written and directed by Anurag Kashyap, it is a modern-day take on Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay's classic Bengali novel Devdas, previously adapted for the screen by P.C. Barua and Bimal Roy and more recently by Sanjay Leela Bhansali. Dev.D was embraced by the media, critics and public. The film is set in contemporary Punjab and Delhi, where familial ties are negotiated by the traditions of patriarchy and marriages are reduced to a game of power and "honour".


Devadas is a 1989 Malayalam film based on the Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay novel, Devdas.

Devadasu (1953 film)

Devadasu is a 1953 Indian bilingual romance film, directed by Vedantam Raghavaiah and produced by D. L. Narayana for Vinodha Pictures. Aluri Chakrapani wrote the script based on Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay's novel, Devdas. C. R. Subbaraman composed the film's music. The film was edited by P. V. Narayanan, while B. S. Ranga provided the cinematography.

The film focuses on Devadasu and Parvati, who have been in love since childhood. Parvati's father objects to the relationship and forces her to marry a middle-aged zamindar. Unable to cope with his failure to win Parvati, Devadas turns into a drunkard, and the rest of the film is about whether or not Devadas meets Parvati again.

The film was produced in Telugu and Tamil languages (the latter titled Devadas) with slightly different casts. Akkineni Nageswara Rao, Savitri, and Lalitha played the lead roles in both versions; supporting roles were played by S. V. Ranga Rao, Chilakalapudi Seeta Rama Anjaneyulu, Dorasamy and Surabhi Kamalabai.

Devadasu was released on 26 June 1953, and the Tamil version was released three months later, on 11 September 1953. Both versions were critically and commercially successful. It has since achieved cult status, with terms and phrases from the film being widely cited. Both versions proved to be a major breakthrough in Nageswara Rao's career, although they also led to him being typecast in similar roles.

Devdas (1935 film)

Devdas is a 1935 Bengali film directed by Pramathesh Barua and based on the Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay novel, Devdas. It stars Barua himself as Devdas and Jamuna Barua as Parvati (Paro) and Chandrabati Devi as Chandramukhi. Later this film released in another two languages. In 1936 in Hindi and in 1938 in assamese.

Sharat Chandra Chatterjee's classic novel Devdas is about two lovers - Debdas and Parbati - who can never unite as mortals because of the class system in the society. Sharat Chandra Chaterjee is believed to be in his teens when he wrote Devdas in 1901. But it was published in 1917. This classic masterpiece sensitively criticizes the feudalistic society that prevailed. Devdas novel was made more than 7 times in different languages. Apparently Devdas was received with great enthusiasm in every generation and any changing trend.

All Indian prints of this Bengali version were destroyed decades ago in a fire that ravaged New Theatre’s studios. Currently, there is only one copy of the film which belongs to the Bangladesh Film Archives. And of that too almost 40 percent is destroyed.

Devdas (1936 film)

Devdas is a 1935 Bengali film based on the Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay novella, Devdas. Directed by Pramathesh Barua, it stars K.L. Saigal as Devdas, Jamuna Barua as Parvati (Paro) and Rajkumari as Chandramukhi. It was later released in Hindi in 1936 and in Assamese in 1938.

Devdas (1937 film)

Devdas is a 1937 Assamese film based on the Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay novella, Devdas. Directed by Pramathesh Barua, it stars Phani Sarma as Devdas, Mohini as Chandramukhi, and Zubeida as Paro. The songs were playbacked by Shamshad Begum and Bhupen Hazarika. This was Barua's last of three language versions, the first being in Bengali and the second in Hindi.

Devdas (1955 film)

Devdas (Hindi: देवदास) is a 1955 Indian Drama movie directed by Bimal Roy, based on the Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay novel Devdas. The film had Dilip Kumar in the title role and Vyjayanthimala in her first dramatic role where she played as Chandramukhi, a hooker with a heart of gold and Suchitra Sen in her Bollywood debut as Parvati in the lead. Motilal, Nazir Hussain, Murad, Pratima Devi, Iftekhar and Shivraj were playing other significant roles with Pran and Johnny Walker in extended cameo appearances.

In 2005, Indiatimes Movies ranked the movie amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films. Devdas was also ranked at Number 2 on University of Iowa's List of Top 10 Bollywood Films by Corey K. Creekmur. The film was also noted for its cinematography and lighting under Kamal Bose, that enhanced the emotional torment of the tight-lipped protagonist played by Dilip Kumar.

Devdas (2002 Bengali film)

Devdas is a 2002 Bengali film based on the Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay novella, Devdas.

Devdas (2002 Hindi film)

Devdas is a 2002 Indian romantic drama film directed by Sanjay Leela Bhansali and based on the 1917 Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay's novel Devdas. This is the third Hindi version and the first film version of the story in Hindi done in colour. The film is set in the early 1900s and follows Shah Rukh Khan as Devdas, a wealthy law graduate who returns from London to marry his childhood sweetheart, Paro, played by Aishwarya Rai. However, the rejection of this marriage by his own family sparks his descent into alcohol, ultimately leading to his emotional deterioration and him seeking refuge with a courtesan played by Madhuri Dixit.

At the time of its release, Devdas was the most expensive Bollywood film ever produced, with a reported budget of ₹50 crore ($10.3 million). The film was a commercial success in India and abroad, becoming the highest grossing Indian film of the year. Shah Rukh Khan has bought the rights to this film under his banner, Red Chillies Entertainment.Devdas was critically acclaimed among western and Indian film critics, and is considered as one of the greatest films ever made. It was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Language Film and was also India's submission for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. It was ranked #74 in Empire magazine's "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema" in 2010. TIME magazine named Devdas as the best movie of 2002 among all the movies released around the world that year. The film was recently included in TIME's top 10 movies of the millennium worldwide. The film was screened at 2002 Cannes Film Festival, and the 2002, and 2014 International Film Festival of India in the "Devdas Section" and "Celebrating Dance in Indian cinema" section respectively. Devdas won the Filmfare Award for Best Film. The film also won five National Awards and a further ten Filmfare Awards, tied with Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge with the most Filmfare Awards any film had won at the time (later beaten in 2005 by Bhansali's Black).

Devdas (2013 film)

Devdas is a Bangladeshi Bengali romantic film based on the Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay novel Devdas. It is the second Bangladeshi and fifth Bengali version of the story. It was directed by Chashi Nazrul Islam, who also directed the 1982 version, and stars Shakib Khan as Devdas, alongside Moushumi and Apu Biswas in the leading roles.

It was released on 15 February 2013 to positive response from critics, and a good opening at the box office.

Devdas (disambiguation)

Devdas is a Bengali novella by Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, first published in 1917 and adapted as a film many times.

Devdas may also refer to:

Devdas (1928 film), silent film version of the novel. directed by Naresh Mitra

Devdas (1935 film), Bengali version of the novel, directed by Pramathesh Barua

Devdas (1936 film), Hindi version of the novel, directed by Pramathesh Barua

Devdas (1937 film), Assamese version of the novel, directed by Pramathesh Barua

Devdas (1953 film), Telugu version of the novel (also dubbed into Tamil the same year), directed by Vedantam Raghavaiah

Devdas (1955 film), Hindi version of the novel, directed by Bimal Roy

Devdas (1965 film), Urdu film

Devdas (1979 film), Bengali version of the novel, directed by Dilip Roy

Devdas (1982 film), Bengali version of the novel, directed by Chashi Nazrul Islam

Devdas (2002 Hindi film), Hindi version of the novel, directed by Sanjay Leela Bhansali

Devdas (2002 Bengali film), Bengali version of the novel, directed by Shakti Samanta

Devdas (2010 film), Urdu film

Devdas (2013 film), Bengali version of the novel, directed by Chashi Nazrul Islam

Devdas (2018 film), a Telugu language film directed by Sreeram Aditya

Devdas Gandhi

Devdas Mohandas Gandhi (22 May 1900 – 3 August 1957) was the fourth and youngest son of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was born in South Africa and returned to India with his parents as a young man. He became active in his father's movement, spending many terms in jail. He also became a prominent journalist, serving as editor of Hindustan Times.

Devdas fell in love with Lakshmi, the daughter of C. Rajagopalachari, Devdas's father's associate in the Indian independence struggle. Due to Lakshmi's age at that time, she was only 15 and Devdas was 28 years, both Devdas's father and Rajaji asked the couple to wait for five years without seeing each other. After five years had passed, they were married with their fathers' permissions in 1933. Devdas and Lakshmi had four children, Rajmohan Gandhi, Gopalkrishna Gandhi, Ramchandra Gandhi and Tara Gandhi Bhattacharjee (born 24 April 1934, New Delhi).

Pramathesh Barua

Pramathesh Chandra Barua (Assamese: প্রমথেশ চন্দ্র বৰুৱা, Bengali: প্রমথেশ চন্দ্র বড়ুয়া) (24 October 1903 – 29 November 1951) was an Indian actor, director, and screenwriter of Indian films in the pre-independence era, born in Gauripur.

Sanjay Leela Bhansali

Sanjay Leela Bhansali (Gujarati: [ˈsəndʒeː ˈlilɑː ˈbʱəɳsɑliː]; born 24 February 1963) is a Bollywood director, producer, screenwriter, and music director. One of the most successful filmmakers in Indian cinema, Bhansali is the recipient of several awards, including four National Film Awards and ten Filmfare Awards. In 2015, the Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award.

Bhansali made his directorial debut with Khamoshi: The Musical (1996), for which he received the Filmfare Critics Award for Best Film. He rose to prominence in Indian cinema with the commercially successful and widely acclaimed romantic drama Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam (1999), the romantic drama Devdas (2002) — which received nomination for the Best Foreign Film at British Academy of Film & Television Awards (BAFTA) — and the drama Black (2005), for all of which he received multiple Best Director Awards and Best Film Awards along with additional Critics Award for Best Film for the latter at Filmfare Awards, and multiple National Film Awards for the latter two. However, he followed it by directing consecutive commercially flop films such as Saawariya (2007) and Guzaarish (2010), however, Guzaarish received positive reviews from critics and audiences.

This changed with his adaptation of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet — the tragic romance Goliyon Ki Raasleela Ram-Leela (2013) — opened to positive reviews and strong box office collections, for which he received several awards and nominations. His home production biographical sports film Mary Kom (2014), had him receive his third National Film Award. His period dramas Bajirao Mastani (2015) and Padmaavat (2018) rank among the highest-grossing Indian films of all time. For the former, he won the National Film Award for Best Direction, as well as Best Director and Best Film Awards at Filmfare.

He is an alumnus of the Film and Television Institute of India. He is the founder of the production house Bhansali Productions. Bhansali has adopted the middle name "Leela" as a tribute to his mother,

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