Deutschland-class cruiser

The Deutschland class was a series of three Panzerschiffe (armored ships), a form of heavily armed cruiser, built by the Reichsmarine officially in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. The ships of the class, Deutschland, Admiral Scheer and Admiral Graf Spee, were all stated to displace 10,000 long tons (10,000 t) in accordance with the Treaty, though they actually displaced 10,600 to 12,340 long tons (10,770 to 12,540 t) at standard displacement. Despite violating the weight limit, the design for the ships incorporated several radical innovations to save weight. They were the first major warships to use welding and all-diesel propulsion. Due to their heavy armament of six 28 cm (11 in) guns and lighter weight, the British began referring to the vessels as "pocket battleships". The Deutschland-class ships were initially classified as Panzerschiffe but the Kriegsmarine reclassified them as heavy cruisers in February 1940.

The three ships were built between 1929 and 1936 by the Deutsche Werke in Kiel and the Reichsmarinewerft in Wilhelmshaven, seeing much service with the German Navy. All three vessels served on non-intervention patrols during the Spanish Civil War. While on patrol, Deutschland was attacked by Republican bombers, and in response, Admiral Scheer bombarded the port of Almería. In 1937, Admiral Graf Spee represented Germany at the Coronation Review for Britain's King George VI. For the rest of their peacetime careers, the ships conducted a series of fleet maneuvers in the Atlantic and visited numerous foreign ports in goodwill tours.

Before the outbreak of World War II, Deutschland and Admiral Graf Spee were deployed to the Atlantic to put them in position to attack Allied merchant traffic once war was declared. Admiral Scheer remained in port for periodic maintenance. Deutschland was not particularly successful on her raiding sortie, during which she sank or captured three ships. She then returned to Germany where she was renamed Lützow. Admiral Graf Spee sank nine vessels in the South Atlantic before she was confronted by three British cruisers at the Battle of the River Plate. Although she damaged the British ships severely, she was herself damaged and her engines were in poor condition. Coupled with false reports of British reinforcements, the state of the ship convinced Hans Langsdorff, her commander, to scuttle the ship outside Montevideo.

Lützow and Admiral Scheer were deployed to Norway in 1942 to join the attacks on Allied convoys to the Soviet Union. Admiral Scheer conducted Operation Wunderland in August 1942, a sortie into the Kara Sea to attack Soviet merchant shipping, though it ended without significant success. Lützow took part in the Battle of the Barents Sea in December 1942, a failed attempt to destroy a convoy. Both ships were damaged in the course of their deployment to Norway and eventually returned to Germany for repairs. They ended their careers bombarding advancing Soviet forces on the Eastern Front; both ships were destroyed by British bombers in the final weeks of the war. Lützow was raised and sunk as a target by the Soviet Navy and Admiral Scheer was partially broken up in situ, with the remainder of the hulk buried beneath rubble.

Deutschland-class cruiser
Admiral Scheer in Gibraltar
Admiral Scheer at Gibraltar in 1936
Class overview
Name: Deutschland
Operators:
Succeeded by: Admiral Hipper class
Built: 1929–1936
In service: 1933–1945
Completed: 3
Lost: 2 scuttled, 1 sunk
General characteristics
Displacement:
  • Standard: 10,600 long tons (10,800 t)
  • Full load: 14,290 long tons (14,520 t)
Length: 186 m (610 ft 3 in)
Beam: 21.69 m (71 ft 2 in)
Draft: 7.25 m (23 ft 9 in)
Installed power: 54,000 PS (53,260 shp; 39,720 kW)
Propulsion:
  • Eight MAN diesel engines
  • Two propellers
Speed: 26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph)
Range: 10,000 nmi (19,000 km; 12,000 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph)
Complement:
  • 33 officers
  • 586 enlisted
Armament:
Armor:
  • main turrets: 140 mm (5.5 in)
  • belt: 80 mm (3.1 in)
  • deck: 45 mm (1.8 in)
Aircraft carried: Two Arado Ar 196 seaplanes
Aviation facilities: One catapult
Notes: [a]

Development

Following Germany's defeat in World War I, the size of the German Navy, renamed the Reichsmarine, was limited by the Treaty of Versailles. The Navy was permitted a force of six pre-dreadnought battleships and six light cruisers; the ships could not be replaced until they were twenty years old.[1] To replace the battleships, new vessels were to displace at most 10,000 long tons (10,000 t); Germany's potential rivals were at this time limited to building vessels of 35,000 long tons (36,000 t) by the Washington Naval Treaty and subsequent agreements.[2] The gun caliber of any new ship was not regulated by the Treaty itself,[3] though the Naval Inter-Allied Commission of Control (NIACC) created by the Treaty did have authority to regulate the armament of all new warships.[4][b] The Allies assumed that with these limitations, only coastal defense ships similar to those operated by the Scandinavian navies could be built.[5]

The Reichsmarine's oldest battleship, Preussen, was laid down in 1902 and could therefore be replaced legally in 1922. Design studies were considered starting in 1920, with two basic options: the Navy could build a heavily armored, slow, and small warship similar to a monitor, or a large, fast, and lightly armored vessel similar to a cruiser.[6] Actual design work on the new type of armored ship began in 1923, but the German economy collapsed in 1924, forcing a temporary halt to the work. Admiral Hans Zenker, the commander in chief of the Reichsmarine, pushed hard for the navy to resume design work, and in 1925 three new proposals were drafted. In addition to two sketches prepared in 1923, this totaled five different designs. Of the first two designs, "I/10" was a 32-knot (59 km/h; 37 mph) cruiser armed with eight 20.5 cm (8.1 in) guns while "II/10" was a 22-knot (41 km/h; 25 mph), heavily armored ship armed with four 38 cm (15 in) guns. The three designs prepared in 1925—"II/30", "IV/30", and "V/30"—were armed with six 30 cm (12 in) guns with varying levels of armor protection. The Reichsmarine eventually opted for 28 cm (11 in) guns to avoid provoking the Allies and to ease pressures on the design staff.[3]

The Reichsmarine held a conference to evaluate the designs in May 1925, though the results were inconclusive. Of particular importance was the continued French occupation of the Ruhr industrial area, which prevented Germany from quickly building large-caliber artillery. Nevertheless, the design staff prepared another set of designs, "I/35", a heavily armored ship with a single triple turret forward, and "VIII/30", a more lightly-armored ship with a pair of twin turrets. The Reichsmarine initially intended to lay down the first armored ship in 1926, but the design had not yet been finalized. The 1926 maneuvers informed the design staff that greater speed was desirable, and that year, a further two designs were submitted to Zenker.[7] The initial design for Deutschland, ordered as "Panzerschiff A", was prepared in 1926 and finalized by 1928.[8] Zenker announced on 11 June 1927 that the Navy had settled on one of several proposals for the new warships. The Reichsmarine had decided that the new ships would be armed with two triple turrets mounting 28 cm guns.[9]

Political opposition to the new ships was significant. The Reichsmarine therefore decided to delay ordering the ship until after the Reichstag elections in 1928.[7] The question over whether to build the new ships was a major issue in elections, particularly with the Social Democrats, who strongly opposed the new ships and campaigned with the slogan "Food not Panzerkreuzer."[10] In May 1928, the elections were concluded and enough of a majority in favor of the new ships was elected; this included twelve seats won by Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party. An October 1928 attempt by the Communist Party of Germany to initiate a referendum against the construction failed. The first of the new ships was authorized in November 1928.[7]

When the particulars of the design became known by the Allies, they attempted to prevent Germany from building them. The Reichsmarine offered to halt construction on the first ship in exchange for admittance to the Washington Treaty with a ratio of 125,000 long tons (127,000 t) to Britain's allotment of 525,000 long tons (533,000 t) of capital ship tonnage. In doing so, this would effectively abrogate the clauses in the Treaty of Versailles that limited Germany's naval power. Britain and the United States favored making concessions to Germany, but France refused to allow any revisions to the Treaty of Versailles. Since the ships did not violate the terms of the Treaty, the Allies could not prevent Germany from building them after a negotiated settlement proved unattainable.[2]

Design

General characteristics

Lützow ONI
Recognition drawing of Lützow as she appeared in 1942. It indicates that the armoured belt is 4 inches thick, instead of its actual 3.1 inches.

The three Deutschland-class ships varied slightly in dimensions. All three ships were 181.70 meters (596.1 ft) long at the waterline, and as built, 186 m (610 ft 3 in) long overall. Deutschland and Admiral Scheer had clipper bows installed in 1940–1941; their overall length was increased to 187.90 m (616 ft 6 in). Deutschland had a beam of 20.69 m (67 ft 11 in), Admiral Scheer's beam was 21.34 m (70 ft 0 in), while Admiral Graf Spee's was 21.65 m (71 ft 0 in). Deutschland and Admiral Scheer had a standard draft of 5.78 m (19 ft 0 in) and a full-load draft of 7.25 m (23 ft 9 in). Admiral Graf Spee's draft was 5.80 m (19 ft 0 in) and 7.34 m (24 ft 1 in), respectively. The displacement of the three ships increased over the class. Standard displacement grew from 10,600 long tons (10,800 t) for Deutschland to 11,550 long tons (11,740 t) for Admiral Scheer and 12,340 long tons (12,540 t) for Admiral Graf Spee. The ships' full load displacements were significantly higher, at 14,290 long tons (14,520 t) for Deutschland, 13,660 long tons (13,880 t) for Admiral Scheer, and 16,020 long tons (16,280 t) for Admiral Graf Spee.[8] The ships were officially stated to be within the 10,000 long tons (10,000 t) limit of the Treaty of Versailles, however.[11]

The ships' hulls were constructed with transverse steel frames; over 90 percent of the hulls used welding instead of the then standard riveting, which saved 15 percent of their total hull weight.[12][8] This savings allowed the armament and armor to be increased.[13] The hulls contained twelve watertight compartments and were fitted with a double bottom that extended for 92 percent of the length of the keel. As designed, the ship's complement comprised 33 officers and 586 enlisted men. After 1935, the crew was dramatically increased, to 30 officers and 921–1,040 sailors. While serving as a squadron flagship, an additional 17 officers and 85 enlisted men augmented the crew. The second flagship had an additional 13 officers and 59 sailors. The ships carried a number of smaller boats, including two picket boats, two barges, one launch, one pinnace, and two dinghies.[8]

The Kriegsmarine considered the ships to be good sea boats, with a slight roll. As built, they were wet in a head sea, though this was significantly improved by the installation of a clipper bow in 1940–1941. The ships were highly maneuverable, particularly when the maneuvering setting for the diesel engines was used, in which half of the engines for each shaft were run in reverse. The ships heeled over up to 13 degrees with the rudder hard over. The low stern was wet in a stern sea, and equipment stored there was frequently lost overboard.[8]

Machinery

The Deutschland-class ships were equipped with four sets of 9-cylinder, double-acting, two-stroke diesel engines built by MAN.[8] The adoption of an all-diesel propulsion system was a radical innovation at the time and contributed to significant savings in weight.[13] Each set was controlled by transmissions built by AG Vulcan. The engines were paired on two propeller shafts, which were attached to three-bladed screws that were 4.40 m (14 ft 5 in) in diameter. Deutschland was initially fitted with 3.70 m (12 ft 2 in) diameter screws, though they were replaced with the larger screws. The engines were rated at 54,000 metric horsepower (53,261.3 shp; 39,716.9 kW) and a top speed of 26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph). They did not meet the expected shaft-horsepower on trials, though they did exceed their design speeds. Deutschland's engines reached 48,390 PS (47,730 shp; 35,590 kW) and 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph), and Admiral Scheer's engines reached 52,050 PS (51,340 shp; 38,280 kW) and 28.3 knots (52.4 km/h; 32.6 mph). Horsepower figures for Admiral Graf Spee are not recorded, though her top speed on trials was 29.5 knots (54.6 km/h; 33.9 mph).[8]

Deutschland could carry up to 2,750 t (2,710 long tons) of fuel oil, which provided a maximum range of 17,400 nautical miles (32,200 km; 20,000 mi) at a speed of 13 knots (24 km/h; 15 mph). An increase in speed by one knot reduced the range slightly to 16,600 nmi (30,700 km; 19,100 mi). At a higher speed of 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph), the range fell to 10,000 nmi (19,000 km; 12,000 mi). Admiral Scheer carried 2,410 t (2,370 long tons) and had a correspondingly shorter range of 9,100 nmi (16,900 km; 10,500 mi) at 20 kn. Admiral Graf Spee stored 2,500 t (2,500 long tons) of fuel, which enabled a range of 8,900 nmi (16,500 km; 10,200 mi). Electricity was supplied by four electric generators powered by two diesel engines. Their total output was 2,160 kW for Deutschland, 2,800 kW for Admiral Scheer, and 3,360 kW for Admiral Graf Spee, all at 220 volts. Steering was controlled by a single rudder.[8]

Armament

Lutzow rear turret
Lützow's rear gun turret

The three Deutschland-class ships were armed with a main battery of six 28 cm SK C/28 guns mounted in two triple turrets, one on either end of the superstructure.[8] The turrets were the Drh LC/28 type and allowed elevation to 40 degrees,[14] and depression to −8 degrees.[8] This provided the guns with a maximum range of 36,475 m (39,890 yd). They fired a 300 kg (660 lb) projectile at a muzzle velocity of 910 meters per second (3,000 ft/s).[14] The guns were initially supplied with a total 630 rounds of ammunition, and this was later increased to 720 shells.[8]

The secondary battery comprised eight 15 cm SK C/28 guns,[8] each in single MPLC/28 mountings arranged amidships.[15] These mountings allowed elevation to 35 degrees and depression to −10 degrees, for a range of 25,700 m (28,100 yd). They were supplied with a total of 800 rounds of ammunition, though later in their careers this was increased to 1,200 rounds.[8] These shells weighed 45.3 kg (100 lb) and had a muzzle velocity of 875 m/s (2,870 ft/s).[15] The ships were also equipped with eight 53.3 cm (21.0 in) torpedo tubes placed in two quadruple launchers mounted on their stern.[8]

As built, the ships' anti-aircraft battery consisted of three 8.8 cm SK L/45 anti-aircraft guns in single mounts. These were replaced in 1935 with six 8.8 cm SK C/31 guns in twin mounts. Admiral Graf Spee and Deutschland were rearmed in 1938 and 1940, respectively, with six 10.5 cm L/65 guns, four 3.7 cm SK C/30 guns and initially ten 2 cm Flak guns—the number of 2 cm guns on Deutschland was eventually increased to 28. Admiral Scheer had been rearmed by 1945 with six 4 cm (1.6 in) guns, eight 3.7 cm guns, and thirty-three 2 cm guns.[8]

Armor

The ships' main armored belt was 80 mm (3.1 in) thick amidships and reduced to 60 mm (2.4 in) on either end of the central citadel. The bow and stern were unarmored at the waterline. This belt was inclined to increase its protective qualities and supplemented by a 20 mm (0.79 in) longitudinal splinter bulkhead. The upper edge of the belt on Deutschland and Admiral Scheer was at the level of the armored deck. On Admiral Graf Spee, it was extended one deck higher.[16] Deutschland's underwater protection consisted of a 45 mm (1.8 in) thick torpedo bulkhead; Admiral Scheer's and Admiral Graf Spee's bulkheads were reduced to 40 mm (1.6 in). Deutschland had a 18 mm (0.71 in) thick upper deck and a main armored deck that ranged in thickness from 18–40 mm. Admiral Scheer and Admiral Graf Spee had 17 mm (0.67 in) main decks and armored decks that ranged in thickness from 17–45 mm. The armored deck in Deutschland and Admiral Scheer did not extend over the entire width of the ship due to weight; this matter was rectified in Admiral Graf Spee. Likewise, the torpedo bulkheads for Deutschland and Admiral Scheer stopped at the inside of the double-bottom but in Admiral Graf Spee extended to the outer hull.[17] The ships' forward conning tower had 150 mm (5.9 in) thick sides with a 50 mm (2.0 in) thick roof, while the aft conning tower was less well protected, with 50 mm thick sides and a 20 mm (0.79 in) thick roof. The main battery turrets had 140 mm (5.5 in) thick faces and 85 mm (3.3 in) thick sides. Their roofs ranged in thickness from 85 to 105 mm (3.3 to 4.1 in). The 15 cm guns were armored with 10 mm (0.39 in) gun shields for splinter protection.[8]

Admiral Scheer and Admiral Graf Spee had some improvements in armor thickness. The barbettes, 100 mm thick in Deutschland, became 125 mm for the two sisters. Admiral Scheer had the belt somewhat improved, and Admiral Graf Spee had a much more improved 100 mm belt, instead of 50–80 mm. The armored deck was improved as well, and some places had up to 70 mm thickness.[18]

Classification

The Kriegsmarine initially classified the ships as "Panzerschiffe" (armored ships), but in February 1940 it reclassified the two survivors of the class as heavy cruisers.[19] Due to their heavy armament of six 28 cm (11 in) guns, high speed and long cruising range, the class was more capable of high seas operation than the old pre-dreadnought battleships they replaced;[20] for this reason, they were referred to as "pocket battleships", particularly in the British press. In 1938 Jane's Fighting Ships stated the Deutschland-class "[a]re officially rated as 'Armoured Ships' (Panzerschiffe) and popularly referred to as 'Pocket Battleships'. Actually, they are equivalent to armoured cruisers of an exceptionally powerful type."[21]

Construction

Bundesarchiv Bild 102-11704, Stapellauf des Panzerkreuzers "Deutschland"
Deutschland at her launching

Deutschland was laid down at the Deutsche Werke shipyard in Kiel on 5 February 1929,[5] under the contract name Panzerschiff A, as a replacement for the old battleship Preussen. Work began under construction number 219.[8] The ship was launched on 19 May 1931; at her launching, she was christened by German Chancellor Heinrich Brüning. The ship accidentally started sliding down the slipway while Brüning was giving his christening speech.[22] After the completion of fitting out work, initial sea trials began in November 1932.[23] The ship was commissioned into the Reichsmarine on 1 April 1933.[24]

Serious political opposition to the ships continued after the authorization for Deutschland, and a political crisis over the second ship, Admiral Scheer, was averted only after the Social Democrats abstained from voting. As a result of the opposition, Panzerschiff B was not authorized until 1931.[25] A replacement for the old battleship Lothringen, her keel was laid on 25 June 1931 at the Reichsmarinewerft shipyard in Wilhelmshaven,[5] under construction number 123.[8] The ship was launched on 1 April 1933; at her launching, she was christened by Marianne Besserer, the daughter of Admiral Reinhard Scheer, after whom the ship was named.[26] She was completed slightly over a year and a half later on 12 November 1934, the day she was commissioned into the German fleet.[27]

Admiral Graf Spee, the third and final member of the class, was also ordered by the Reichsmarine from the Kriegsmarinewerft shipyard in Wilhelmshaven. She was ordered under the contract name Panzerschiff C to replace the battleship Braunschweig.[8] Her keel was laid on 1 October 1932,[5] under construction number 125.[8] The ship was launched on 30 June 1934; at her launching, she was christened by the daughter of Admiral Maximilian von Spee, after whom the ship was named.[28] She was completed slightly over a year and a half later on 6 January 1936, the day she was commissioned into the German fleet.[27]

Possible conversion

After Hitler had given the order in late January 1943 for the two remaining ships to be scrapped, the possibility of instead converting them into aircraft carriers was discussed. The hulls would have been lengthened by approximately 20 meters (66 ft), which would have used 2,000 tons of steel and employed 400 workmen. Conversion time was estimated at two years. Their flight deck would have been only 10 meters (33 ft) shorter than that of the Hipper-class heavy cruiser Seydlitz, which had been prepared for conversion in 1942, and they would still have attained 28 knots. This plan was not pursued.[29]

Ships in class

Ship Namesake Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
Deutschland[30] Germany Deutsche Werke, Kiel 5 February 1929 19 May 1931 1 April 1933 Sunk in weapons tests, July 1947
Admiral Scheer Admiral Reinhard Scheer Reichsmarinewerft, Wilhelmshaven 25 June 1931 1 April 1933 12 November 1934 Sunk following air attack, 9 April 1945
Admiral Graf Spee Vizeadmiral Maximilian, Graf von Spee 1 October 1932 30 June 1934 6 January 1936 Scuttled following surface action, 17 December 1939

Deutschland

Panzerschiff Deutschland in 1936
Deutschland in 1936

Deutschland saw significant action with the Kriegsmarine, including several non-intervention patrols, during which she was attacked by Republican bombers.[31] At the outbreak of World War II, she was cruising the North Atlantic, prepared to attack Allied merchant traffic. Bad weather hampered her efforts, and she sank or captured only three vessels before returning to Germany, after which she was renamed Lützow.[32][33] She then participated in Operation Weserübung, the invasion of Norway. Damaged at the Battle of Drøbak Sound, she was recalled to Germany for repairs. While en route, she was torpedoed by a British submarine and seriously damaged.[34]

Repairs were completed by March 1941, and in June Lützow steamed to Norway. While en route, she was torpedoed by a British bomber, necessitating significant repairs that lasted until May 1942. She returned to Norway to join the forces arrayed against Allied shipping to the Soviet Union. She ran aground during a planned attack on convoy PQ 17, which necessitated another return to Germany for repairs. She next saw action at the Battle of the Barents Sea with the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper, which ended with a failure to destroy the convoy JW 51B. Engine problems forced a series of repairs culminating in a complete overhaul at the end of 1943, after which the ship remained in the Baltic.[35] Sunk in the Kaiserfahrt in April 1945 by Royal Air Force (RAF) bombers,[36] Lützow was used as a gun battery to support German troops fighting the Soviet Army until 4 May 1945, when she was disabled by her crew.[24][37] Raised by the Soviet Navy in 1947, she was reportedly broken up for scrap over the next two years, according to Western works that did not have access to Soviet documents at the time.[38] The historian Hans Georg Prager examined the former Soviet archives in the early 2000s, and discovered that Lützow actually had been sunk in weapons tests in July 1947.[39]

Admiral Scheer

Bundesarchiv DVM 10 Bild-23-63-64, Panzerschiff "Admiral Scheer"
Admiral Scheer in 1934

Admiral Scheer saw heavy service with the German Navy, including several deployments to Spain during the Spanish Civil War, to participate in non-intervention patrols. While off Spain, she bombarded the port of Almería following the Republican attack on her sister Deutschland.[26] At the outbreak of World War II, she remained in port for a periodic refit.[40] Her first operation during World War II was a commerce raiding operation into the southern Atlantic Ocean that started in late October 1940. While on the operation, she also made a brief foray into the Indian Ocean.[41] During the raiding mission, she sank 113,223 gross register tons (GRT) of shipping,[42] making her the most successful capital ship surface raider of the war.[43]

Following her return to Germany, she was deployed to northern Norway to interdict shipping to the Soviet Union. She was part of the abortive attack on Convoy PQ 17 with the battleship Tirpitz; the operation was broken off after surprise was lost. She also conducted Operation Wunderland, a sortie into the Kara Sea.[44] After returning to Germany at the end of 1942, the ship served as a training ship until the end of 1944, when she was used to support ground operations against the Soviet Army. She was sunk by British bombers on 9 April 1945 and partially scrapped; the remainder of the wreck lies buried beneath a quay.[45][46]

Admiral Graf Spee

Bundesarchiv DVM 10 Bild-23-63-06, Panzerschiff "Admiral Graf Spee"
Admiral Graf Spee in 1936

Admiral Graf Spee conducted extensive training in the Baltic and Atlantic before participating in five non-intervention patrols during the Spanish Civil War in 1936–1938. She also represented Germany during the Coronation Review for King George VI in May 1937.[47] Admiral Graf Spee was deployed to the South Atlantic in the weeks before the outbreak of World War II, to be positioned in merchant sea lanes once war was declared.[2] Between September and December 1939, the ship sank nine ships totaling 50,089 GRT;[48] in response, the British and French navies formed several hunter-killer groups to track her down. These forces included four aircraft carriers, two battleships, and one battlecruiser.[49]

Admiral Graf Spee operated in concert with the supply ship Altmark.[50] Admiral Graf Spee was eventually confronted by three British cruisers off Uruguay at the Battle of the River Plate on 13 December 1939. She inflicted heavy damage on the British ships, but suffered damage as well, and was forced to put into port at Montevideo.[51] Convinced by false reports of superior British naval forces approaching his ship and the poor state of his own engines, Hans Langsdorff, the commander of the ship, ordered the vessel to be scuttled. Langsdorff committed suicide three days after the scuttling. The ship was partially broken up in situ, though part of the ship remains visible above the surface of the water.[27][52]

Footnotes

Notes

  1. ^ Figures are for Deutschland as built; characteristics varied between the ships and over the course of their careers.
  2. ^ For example, the Reichsmarine wanted to equip the Königsberg-class cruisers with 19 cm (7.5 in) guns, instead of the 15 cm (5.9 in) guns mounted on Emden; the NIACC prohibited the larger caliber. See O'Brien, pp. 112–113.

Citations

  1. ^ Williamson, p. 3.
  2. ^ a b c Bidlingmaier, p. 73.
  3. ^ a b Preston 2002, p. 117.
  4. ^ O'Brien, p. 112.
  5. ^ a b c d Gardiner & Chesneau, p. 227.
  6. ^ Whitley, p. 63.
  7. ^ a b c Preston 2002, p. 118.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Gröner, p. 60.
  9. ^ Williamson, p. 4.
  10. ^ Gardiner & Chesneau, p. 219.
  11. ^ Pope, p. 3.
  12. ^ Breyer, p. 288.
  13. ^ a b Bidlingmaier, p. 75.
  14. ^ a b Campbell, p. 232.
  15. ^ a b Campbell, p. 241.
  16. ^ Breyer, pp. 289, 291.
  17. ^ Breyer, pp. 288, 291.
  18. ^ Whitley, M.J. German Capital Ships of World War Two, Arm and armour press, London 1989
  19. ^ Gröner, pp. 60–62.
  20. ^ Preston 1977.
  21. ^ Jane's, p. 228.
  22. ^ Hildebrand Röhr & Steinmetz (Vol 5), p. 255.
  23. ^ Williamson, p. 10.
  24. ^ a b Gröner, p. 61.
  25. ^ Meier-Welcker et al., p. 435.
  26. ^ a b Williamson, p. 24.
  27. ^ a b c Gröner, p. 62.
  28. ^ Williamson, p. 39.
  29. ^ Breyer, p. 291.
  30. ^ Renamed as Lützow, 15 February 1940
  31. ^ Williamson, p. 14.
  32. ^ Williamson, pp. 15–16.
  33. ^ Whitley, p. 68.
  34. ^ Williamson, pp. 17–18.
  35. ^ Williamson, pp. 18–20.
  36. ^ Rohwer, p. 409.
  37. ^ Williamson, p. 21.
  38. ^ Whitley, p. 69.
  39. ^ Prager, pp. 317–320.
  40. ^ Williamson, p. 33.
  41. ^ Williamson, pp. 33–34.
  42. ^ Rohwer, p. 65.
  43. ^ Hümmelchen, p. 101.
  44. ^ Williamson, pp. 34–35.
  45. ^ Gardiner & Chesneau, p. 228.
  46. ^ Williamson, pp. 36–37.
  47. ^ Williamson, p. 40.
  48. ^ Bidlingmaier, p. 94.
  49. ^ Rohwer, p. 6.
  50. ^ Williamson, p. 41.
  51. ^ Williamson, pp. 41–42.
  52. ^ Williamson, pp. 42–43.

References

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  • Breyer, Siegfried (1973). Battleships and Battlecruisers of the World. Translated by Alfred Kurti. London: McDonald & Jane's. ISBN 978-0-356-04191-9.
  • Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War II. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-459-2.
  • Gardiner, Robert; Chesneau, Roger, eds. (1980). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1922–1946. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-913-9.
  • Gröner, Erich (1990). German Warships: 1815–1945. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-790-6.
  • Hildebrand, Hans H.; Röhr, Albert; Steinmetz, Hans-Otto (1993). Die Deutschen Kriegsschiffe. 5. Ratingen: Mundus Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8364-9743-5.
  • Hümmelchen, Gerhard (1976). Die Deutschen Seeflieger 1935–1945 (in German). Munich: Lehmann. ISBN 978-3-469-00306-5.
  • Jane's Fighting Ships. London. 1939. OCLC 46977142.
  • Meier-Welcker, Hans; Forstmeier, Friedrich; Papke, Gerhard; Petter, Wolfgang (1983). Deutsche Militärgeschichte 1648–1939. Herrsching: Pawlak. ISBN 978-3-88199-112-4.
  • O'Brien, Phillips Payson (2001). Technology and Naval Combat in the Twentieth Century and Beyond. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 978-0-7146-5125-5.
  • Pope, Dudley (2005). The Battle of the River Plate: The Hunt for the German Pocket Battleship Graf Spee. Ithaca, NY: McBooks Press. ISBN 978-1-59013-096-4.
  • Prager, Hans Georg (2002). Panzerschiff Deutschland, Schwerer Kreuzer Lützow : ein Schiffs-Schicksal vor den Hintergründen seiner Zeit (in German). Hamburg: Koehler. ISBN 978-3-7822-0798-0.
  • Preston, Antony (1977). Battleships 1856-1977. Phoebus Publishing Co. ISBN 0-89009-126-9.
  • Preston, Antony (2002). The World's Worst Warships. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-85177-754-2.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea, 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two. Annapolis: US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-119-8.
  • Whitley, M. J. (1998). Battleships of World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-55750-184-4.
  • Williamson, Gordon (2003). German Pocket Battleships 1939–1945. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-501-3.
CP Ships

CP Ships was a large Canadian shipping company established in the 19th century. From the late 1880s until after World War II, the company was Canada's largest operator of Atlantic and Pacific steamships. Many immigrants travelled on CP ships from Europe to Canada. The sinking of the steamship RMS Empress of Ireland just before World War I was the largest maritime disaster in Canadian history. The company provided Canadian Merchant Navy vessels in World Wars I and II. Twelve vessels were lost due to enemy action in World War II including the largest ship sunk by a German U-boat, RMS Empress of Britain.

The company moved to a model of container shipping from passenger, freight and mail service in the 1960s due to competitive pressure from the airline industry. The company was a part of the Canadian Pacific Ltd. conglomerate. It was spun out as a separate company in 2001. In 2005, it was purchased by TUI AG and is now part of the company's Hapag-Lloyd division.

The Atlantic and Pacific passenger liners of Canadian Pacific were always British-flagged and largely British-manned and were not part of the Canadian Merchant Marine, ownership being with the British-registered Canadian Pacific Steamships Ltd. subsidiary.

Capital ship

The capital ships of a navy are its most important warships; they are generally the larger ships when compared to other warships in their respective fleet. A capital ship is generally a leading or a primary ship in a naval fleet.William S. Lind, in the book America Can Win (p. 90), defines a capital ship as follows: "These characteristics define a capital ship: if the capital ships are beaten, the navy is beaten. But if the rest of the navy is beaten, the capital ships can still operate. Another characteristic that defines capital ships is that their main opponent is each other."

There is usually no formal criterion for the classification, but it is a useful concept in naval strategy; for example, it permits comparisons between relative naval strengths in a theatre of operations without the need for considering specific details of tonnage or gun diameters.

A notable example of this is the Mahanian doctrine, which was applied in the planning of the defence of Singapore in World War II, where the Royal Navy had to decide the allocation of its battleships and battlecruisers between the Atlantic and Pacific theatres. The Mahanian doctrine was also applied by the Imperial Japanese Navy, leading to its preventive move to attack Pearl Harbor and the battleships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet. The naval nature of the Pacific Theater of Operations, more commonly referred to as the Pacific War, necessitated the United States Navy mostly deploying its battleships and aircraft carriers in the Pacific. The war in Europe was primarily a land war; consequently, Germany's surface fleet was small, and the escort ships used in the Battle of the Atlantic were mostly destroyers and destroyer escorts to counter the U-boat threat.

December 13

December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 18 days remain until the end of the year.

German cruiser Admiral Graf Spee

Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland-class "Panzerschiff" (armored ship), nicknamed a "pocket battleship" by the British, which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. The two sister-ships of her class, Deutschland and Admiral Scheer, were reclassified as heavy cruisers in 1940. The vessel was named after Admiral Maximilian von Spee, commander of the East Asia Squadron who fought the battles of Coronel and the Falkland Islands, where he was killed in action, in World War I. She was laid down at the Reichsmarinewerft shipyard in Wilhelmshaven in October 1932 and completed by January 1936. The ship was nominally under the 10,000 long tons (10,000 t) limitation on warship size imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, though with a full load displacement of 16,020 long tons (16,280 t), she significantly exceeded it. Armed with six 28 cm (11 in) guns in two triple gun turrets, Admiral Graf Spee and her sisters were designed to outgun any cruiser fast enough to catch them. Their top speed of 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph) left only the few battlecruisers in the Anglo-French navies fast enough and powerful enough to sink them.The ship conducted five non-intervention patrols during the Spanish Civil War in 1936–1938, and participated in the Coronation Review of King George VI in May 1937. Admiral Graf Spee was deployed to the South Atlantic in the weeks before the outbreak of World War II, to be positioned in merchant sea lanes once war was declared. Between September and December 1939, the warship sank nine vessels totaling 50,089 gross register tons (GRT), before being confronted by three British cruisers at the Battle of the River Plate on 13 December. Admiral Graf Spee inflicted heavy damage on the British ships, but she too was damaged, and was forced to put into port at Montevideo. Convinced by false reports of superior British naval forces approaching his ship, Hans Langsdorff, the commander of the ship, ordered the vessel to be scuttled. The ship was partially broken up in situ, though part of the ship remains visible above the surface of the water.

German cruiser Admiral Scheer

Admiral Scheer was a Deutschland-class heavy cruiser (often termed a pocket battleship) which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. The vessel was named after Admiral Reinhard Scheer, German commander in the Battle of Jutland. She was laid down at the Reichsmarinewerft shipyard in Wilhelmshaven in June 1931 and completed by November 1934. Originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff) by the Reichsmarine, in February 1940 the Germans reclassified the remaining two ships of this class as heavy cruisers.The ship was nominally under the 10,000 long tons (10,000 t) limitation on warship size imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, though with a full load displacement of 15,180 long tons (15,420 t), she significantly exceeded it. Armed with six 28 cm (11 in) guns in two triple gun turrets, Admiral Scheer and her sisters were designed to outgun any cruiser fast enough to catch them. Their top speed of 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph) left only a handful of ships in the Anglo-French navies able to catch them and powerful enough to sink them.Admiral Scheer saw heavy service with the German Navy, including a deployment to Spain during the Spanish Civil War, where she bombarded the port of Almería. Her first operation during World War II was a commerce raiding operation into the southern Atlantic Ocean; she also made a brief foray into the Indian Ocean. During the operation, she sank 113,223 gross register tons (GRT) of shipping, making her the most successful capital ship surface raider of the war. Following her return to Germany, she was deployed to northern Norway to interdict shipping to the Soviet Union. She was part of the abortive attack on Convoy PQ 17 and conducted Operation Wunderland, a sortie into the Kara Sea. After returning to Germany at the end of 1942, the ship served as a training ship until the end of 1944, when she was used to support ground operations against the Soviet Army. She moved to Kiel for repairs in March 1945, where she was capsized by British bombers in a raid on 9 April 1945 and partially scrapped; the remainder of the wreck lies buried beneath a quay.

Hans Langsdorff

Hans Wilhelm Langsdorff (20 March 1894 – 20 December 1939) was a German naval officer, most famous for his command of the German cruiser Admiral Graf Spee during the Battle of the River Plate off the coast of Uruguay in 1939. After the Panzerschiff (Deutschland-class cruiser) was unable to escape a pursuing squadron of Royal Navy ships, Langsdorff scuttled his ship. Three days later he committed suicide in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Index of World War II articles (D)

D-10 tank gun

D-8 Armored Car

D-Day -1

D-Day (game)

D-Day Dodgers

D-Day Museum

D-Day the Sixth of June

D-Day: The Great Crusade

D-Day

D. C. Stephenson

D. C. Wimberly

D. Robinson

D. V. Peyton-Ward

Döme Sztójay

Džafer-beg Kulenović

Dachau Blues

Dachau concentration camp

Dachau massacre

Dachau Trials

Dad's Army

Dadao

Daffy - The Commando

Dagmar Lahlum

Dagmar Nordstrom

Dagui Bakari

Daigo Tadashige

Daihatsu 14M

Daihatsu-class landing craft

Daimler Armoured Car

Daimler D.I

Daimler Dingo

Daisenryaku

Daisey Douglas Barr

Daitai Transport Unit

Dajiang

Dal Stivens

Dale Alford

Dale Bumpers

Dale C. Thomson

Dale E. Wolf

Dale Eldon Christensen

Dale Ishimoto

Dale M. Hansen

Dale Mabry Field

Dale Minami

Dale R. Corson

Dalforce

Dalit Voice

Dallas H. Cook

Dallas Love Field

Damiaen Joan van Doorninck

Damian Kratzenberg

Dan Burros

Dan Davin

Dan Edward Garvey

Dan K. Moore

Dan Kuykendall

Dan Philibert

Dan Pienaar

Dan Riddiford

Dan Rowan

Dancing Man

Danger UXB

Daniel-Charles Trudaine

Daniel Aiken Lang

Daniel Akaka

Daniel Auber

Daniel Awdry

Daniel B. Strickler

Daniel Bravo

Daniel Brewster

Daniel Carver

Daniel Daney

Daniel Dixon, 2nd Baron Glentoran

Daniel E. Barbey

Daniel Eon

Daniel Filipacchi

Daniel Forbes

Daniel Goldhagen

Daniel Guérin

Daniel Half Human

Daniel Hoffman

Daniel Horlaville

Daniel Horton (athlete)

Daniel Inouye

Daniel Isom Sultan

Daniel J. Callaghan

Daniel J. Miller

Daniel James, Jr.

Daniel Kenedy

Daniel Kleppner

Daniel Knox, 6th Earl of Ranfurly

Daniel M. McGurl

Daniel Marcus William Beak

Daniel Mayer

Daniel Mumford

Daniel Patrick Moynihan

Daniel Sanchez (French footballer)

Daniel Sandford

Daniel T. Griffin

Daniel T. McCarty

Daniel Tinayre

Daniel Turp

Daniel V. Gallery

Daniel Vorländer

Daniel W. Lee

Dan Walker (politician)

Daniel Xuereb

Danielle Mitterrand

Danielle Moore

Danijel Ljuboja

Danish Freedom Council

Danish People's Defence

Danish People's Party (1941-1943)

Danish resistance movement

Danny Doyle (baseball)

Danton (1983 film)

Danube (Paris Métro)

Danuvia 43M submachine gun

Danzig-Holm

Danzig Cross

Daphne Pearson

DAR-10

DAR-9 "Siniger"

Darby's Rangers

Dardanelles Army

Daria Pratt

Darien II

Dario Lodigiani

Dariusz Ratajczak

Dark Blue World

Darne machine gun

Darrell Lester

Darrell R. Lindsey

Darrell S. Cole

Darryl F. Zanuck

Daryl Gates

Daryl Seaman

Das Boot

Das güldene Bäumchen

Das Schwarze Korps

Dashiell Hammett

Dateland Army Airfield

Datong-Jining Campaign

Datong-Puzhou Campaign

Daumesnil (Paris Métro)

Dauphiné

Dave Brubeck

Dave Holland (Klansman)

Dave Philley

Dave Sharpe

Dave Tatsuno

David A. Burchinal

David A. Morse

David Armine Howarth

David Auldjo Jamieson

David Auradou

David Baltimore

David Bellion

David Bohm

David Bret

David C. Alexander

David C. Schilling

David C. Waybur

David Cecil, 6th Marquess of Exeter

David Cesarani

David Coke

David Coulibaly

David D. Barrett

David Dinkins

David Douglas Duncan

David Duke

David E. Grange, Jr.

David Emmanuel (mathematician)

David Ernest Hornell

David Faber (author, Holocaust survivor)

David Fall

David Feuerwerker

David Ginola

David Greenglass

David Guetta

David H. Frisch

David Hall (athlete)

David Hellebuyck

David Hoggan

David Irving

David John Roche

David Kenyon Webster

David Kranzler

David Lane (white nationalist)

David Lee "Tex" Hill

David Leray

David Lloyd (tenor)

David Lloyd Owen

David Lord

David Lowman

David M. Gonzales

David M. Shoup

David McCalden

David McCampbell

David McGillivray (figure skater)

David Mervyn Blow

David Moore Crook

David Murray-Lyon

David Myatt

David N'Gog

David Nalle

David Napley

David Nicolson, 4th Baron Carnock

David Niven

David Norvell Walker Grant

David O. Cooke

David Ogilvy, 12th Earl of Airlie

David Ogle

David Olère

David Oreck

David Ormsby-Gore, 5th Baron Harlech

David P. Buckson

David Patros

David R. Kingsley

David Raziel

David Richardson (American)

David Rousset

David Rozehnal

David Ruelle

David Russell (George Cross)

David Seymour

David Skrela

David Smith (sport shooter)

David Thomson

David Stirling

David Stoliar

David Talbot Rice

David Tennent Cowan

David Thwaites (flying ace)

David Ting

David Todd (architect)

David Tomlinson

David Valentine Jardine Blake

David Vivian Currie

David Vogel (Hebrew poet)

David W. Bagley

David Westheimer

David White (actor)

David Wyman

David Zenoff

Davy Crockett's Explorer Canoes

Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum

Dawid Przepiórka

Dawid Wdowiński

Dawn (novel)

Dawn Patrol (video game)

Day (Wiesel novel)

Day G. Turner

Day of Deceit

Day of Defeat: Source

Day of Defeat

Day of Independence

Day of the Barricades

Day of the Tiles

Days of Glory (1944 film)

Days of Glory (2006 film)

Days of Waiting: The Life & Art of Estelle Ishigo

Dayton Project

DD tank

De Havilland Australia

De Havilland Dragon Rapide

De Havilland Express

De Havilland Flamingo

De Havilland Hornet

De Havilland Tiger Moth

De Havilland Vampire

De Havilland Venom

De Lesseps Story Morrison

De Lisle carbine

De Waarheid

Deacon (artillery)

Deadly Dozen

Dean Eyre

Dean Hess

Dean Rockwell

Dean Rusk

Death in Love

Death marches (Holocaust)

Death Mills

Death of a Soldier

Death of a Train

Death of Sardanapalus

Death of the Virgin (Caravaggio)

Death to Spies

Debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Deborah Lipstadt

Decca Radar

December 7th (film)

Decima Flottiglia MAS

Decision Before Dawn

Decisive Battles of WWII: Korsun Pocket

Declaration by United Nations

Declaration of Facts

Decoder Ring Theatre

Decolonization

Defence (Citizen Military Forces) Act 1943

Defence Regulation 18B

Defence Regulations

Defense Homes Corporation

Defense of Brest Fortress

Defense of Harbin

Defense of Schwedt Bridgehead

Defense of Sihang Warehouse

Defense of the Adzhimushkay quarry

Defense of the Great Wall

Defense of the Polish Post Office in Danzig

Defense of the Reich

Defiance (2008 film)

Definitions of Japanese war crimes

Defoe Shipbuilding Company

DeForest Kelley

Degenerate art

Degenerate music

Deggendorf

Degtyaryov machine gun

De Havilland Mosquito

DeHart Hubbard

Dehousing

Deir Yassin massacre

Dekabrist-class submarine

Deke Slayton

Del Monte Field

Delano Municipal Airport

Delaware World War II Army Airfields

Delbert Black

Delbert E. Wong

Delia Murphy

Delivered from Evil

Delos Carleton Emmons

Delphin

Dem'ianiv Laz

Demas T. Craw

Demchugdongrub

Demilitarized Zone Peace Preservation Corps

Demographic estimates of the German exodus from Eastern Europe

Demographics of Paris

Demyansk Pocket

Demyansk Shield

Den Brotheridge

Denazification

Dendera zodiac

Denet

Denfert-Rochereau (Paris Métro)

Deng Longguang

Deng Xiaoping

Deng Xihou

Denholm Elliott

Denis-Luc Frayssinous

Denis Auguste Marie Raffet

Denis Blundell

Denis Capel-Dunn

Denis Dallan

Denis Glover

Denis Richards

Denis Smallwood

Denis St. George Daly

Denis Thatcher

Denis Whitaker

Denise Bloch

Denise Darcel

Deniz Kandiyoti

Dennis Arthur Copperwheat

Dennis Donnini

Dennis Flynn

Dennis McGiffen

Dennis Oliech

Dennis Vosper, Baron Runcorn

Dennis Weaver

Denver Randleman

Denys Cochin

Denys Rayner

Denys Whitehorn Reid

Department of Film (Nazi Germany)

Department of Film

Department of Munitions and Supply (Canada)

Deportation of the Danish police

Deportations from the German-occupied Channel Islands

Deputy Führer

Der Fuehrer's Face

Der Giftpilz

Der Marsch zum Führer

Der Nürnberger Parteitag der NSDAP

Der Stürmer

Der Westwall

Derek Allhusen

Derek Anthony Seagrim

Derek Cooper

Derek Vinyard

Dermot Boyle

Dermot Chichester, 7th Marquess of Donegall

Dermot McMorrough Kavanagh

Derrick MacThomas

Dervish Convoy

Descendants of Henrietta Maria of France

Descendants of Nazi Officials

Deschênes Commission

Desert Air Force

Desert Center Airport (California)

Desert Commander

Desert Mounted Corps

Desert Rats vs Afrika Korps

Desert Victory

Desi Arnaz

Designated Targets

Desmond Anderson

Desmond Brayley, Baron Brayley

Desmond Doss

Desmond Flower, 10th Viscount Ashbrook

Desmond J. Scott

Desmond Llewelyn

Desmond Piers

Desperate Journey

DEST

Destin Destine

Destination Gobi

Destination Tokyo

Destined to Witness

Destroyer Command

Destroyer escort

Destroyer War Badge

Detachment Kuhlmey

Detlev Peukert

Deutsche Bergwerks- und Hüttenbau

Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt)

Deutsche Heidnische Front

Deutsche Physik

Deutsche Soldaten Haus

Deutsche Uniformen

Deutsches Afrika Korps

Deutsches Jungvolk

Deutsches Stadion

Deutschland-class battleship

Deutschland-class cruiser

Development of Chinese armoured forces (1927-1945)

Development of Chinese Nationalist air force (1937-1945)

Development of Japanese tanks in World War II

Devil's Brigade

Devil's Guard

Devisenschutzkommando

Devon and Cornwall County Division

Devon Mansions

Dewa Shigetō

DeWitt Clinton Ramsey

DeWitt Hyde

Dexter J. Kerstetter

Dezső Szentgyörgyi

DF-4

DF-25

DF-31

DF-3A

DF Hydro

DFS 194

DFS 228

DFS 230

DFS 331

DFS 346

DFS 40

DFW B.I

DFW C.I

DFW C.V

DFW Mars

DFW R.I

DFW R.II

DFW R.III

Diana Barnato Walker

Diana Churchill

Diana Fowler LeBlanc

Diana Mitford

Diana of Versailles

Diana Rowden

Diane de France

Diane Johnson

Dianne Holum

Diary of a Girl in Changi

Diary of Anne Frank

Dick Adams (baseball)

Dick Eve

Dick Grace

Dick Grant

Dick Johnson (test pilot)

Dick Kryhoski

Dick O'Connell

Dick Rifenburg

Dick Rubenstein

Dick Van Dyke

Dick Walker (footballer, born 1913)

Dick Wildung

Dick Wilson

Dictionarius (Johannes de Garlandia)

Did Six Million Really Die?

Didier Angan

Didier Barbelivien

Didier Christophe

Didier Couécou

Didier Deschamps

Didier Digard

Didier Domi

Dido Kvaternik

Die Brücke (film)

Die Brücke (novel)

Die Deutsche Wochenschau

Die Frau und der Fremde

Die Frontschau

Die grosse Liebe

Die Stunde der Offiziere

Die Wehrmacht

Die Weiße Rose (film)

Die Zukunft

Dieppe Canadian War Cemetery

Dieppe Raid

Dieter Gruen

Dieter Wisliceny

Diethelm von Eichel-Streiber

Diether Lukesch

Dietrich Bonhoeffer

Dietrich Eckart

Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau

Dietrich Hrabak

Dietrich Klagges

Dietrich Kraiss

Dietrich Peltz

Dietrich von Choltitz

Dietrich von Müller

Dietrich von Saucken

Dieudonné Minoungou

Dieux du Stade

Dimitar Peshev

Dimitar Spisarevski

Dimitri Amilakhvari

Dimitri Payet

Dimitri Szarzewski

Dimitrie Pompeiu

Dimitrios Psarros

Dina Babbitt

Ding Delong

Dingo (scout car)

Dingo Bar

Dingtao Campaign

Dinko Šakić

Dinny Hannon

Dino Grandi

Dino Manelli

Dinu Brătianu

Diomansy Kamara

Diplomatic missions of the Independent State of Croatia

Direction Centrale de la Police Judiciaire

Direction Régionale de Police Judiciaire de Paris

Directorate of Civil Resistance

Directorate of Covert Resistance

Directorate of Miscellaneous Weapons Development

Directorate of Underground Resistance

Dirk Boest Gips

Dirk Boonstra (born 1893)

Dirk Boonstra (born 1920)

Dirk Hoogendam

Dirk J. Vlug

Dirk Jan de Geer

Disney bomb

Disney's Davy Crockett Ranch

Disney's Fantillusion

Disney's Hotel Cheyenne

Disney's Hotel New York

Disney's Hotel Santa Fe

Disney's Newport Bay Club

Disney's Once Upon a Dream Parade

Disney's Sequoia Lodge

Disney Village

Disneyland Hotel (Paris)

Disneyland Park (Paris)

Disneyland Resort Paris 15th Anniversary

Disneyland Resort Paris

Displaced Persons camp

Distant Journey (film)

Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)

Distinguished Flying Cross (USA)

Distomo massacre

District Galicia

District of Warsaw (of Armia Krajowa)

Districts of the Independent State of Croatia

Ditchley

Divide and Conquer (newsreel)

Divina Galica

Dixie-class destroyer tender

Dixie Howell (pitcher)

Dixie Kiefer

Dixie Mission

Dixon Boardman

Dixon Edward Hoste

Djamel Belmadi

Dmitriy Lavrinenko

Dmitry Karbyshev

Dmitry Nikolaevich Medvedev

Dmitry Pavlov (general)

Dmitry Ryabyshev

Do Your Ears Hang Low?

Dobri Bozhilov

Dobroslav Jevđević

Doc Lavan

Doctor (Hellsing)

Doctor Faustus (comics)

Doctor Poison

Doctors' Trial

Documentation Center Nazi Party Rallying Grounds

Dodd Army Airfield

Dodecanese Campaign

Dodge Chicago Plant

Dodge City Army Airfield

Dodge Line

Dollar-a-year men

Dollard Ménard

Dolomite declaration

Dolph Briscoe

Dolph Sweet

Dom Dallessandro

Domenico Tardini

Dominic Salvatore Gentile

Dominique Baratelli

Dominique Bathenay

Dominique Casagrande

Dominique Chaboche

Dominique Colonna

Dominique Fernandez

Dominique Gardères

Dominique Jean Larrey

Dominique Joseph Garat

Dominique Pire

Dominique Rocheteau

Dominique Sirop

Dominique Vivant

Dominique, comte de Cassini

Domokos Kosáry

Don't Go Near the Water (film)

Don't Go Near the Water (novel)

Don Adams

Don Bennett

Don Black (white nationalist)

Don Bollweg

Don C. Laubman

Don Coldsmith

Don Edwards

Don Herbert

Don Knotts

Don Lang (third baseman)

Don P. Moon

Don Pierson

Don Pratt

Don Rickles

Don T. Griswold

Don Taylor Udall

Don the Beachcomber

Don Wemple

Don Winslow of the Coast Guard

Don Zagier

Donald's Tire Trouble

Donald A. Gary

Donald B. Duncan

Donald Blakeslee

Donald Bruce, Baron Bruce of Donington

Donald Burgett

Donald Callander

Donald Cameron (VC)

Donald Caskie

Donald Cooksey

Donald D. Pucket

Donald Deacon

Donald Edward Garland

Donald Grant Nutter

Donald Hardman

Donald J. Gott

Donald J. Ruhl

Donald John Dean

Donald K. Ross

Donald Kaberry, Baron Kaberry of Adel

Donald Kenneth McLeod

Donald Kerr

Donald Knuth

Donald L. Harlow

Donald L. Hollowell

Donald Leroy Truesdale

Donald Malarkey

Donald Malinowski (politician)

Donald Pleasence

Donald Powell

Donald R. Lobaugh

Donald Regan

Donald Roy McAnn

Donald Rudolph

Donald S. Lopez, Sr.

Donald Schmuck

Donald Taylor (aviator)

Donald V. Bennett

Donald W. Wolf

Donald Williams (politician)

Dong Zhao (Kuomintang)

Dongshan Island Campaign

Doolittle Raid

DORA 1

Dora Gerson

Dora Line

Doris Matsui

Doris Miller

Dornier Do 10

Dornier Do 11

Dornier Do 13

Dornier Do 17

Dornier Do 18

Dornier Do 19

Dornier Do 214

Dornier Do 215

Dornier Do 217

Dornier Do 22

Dornier Do 23

Dornier Do 24

Dornier Do 26

Dornier Do 27

Dornier Do 28

Dornier Do 29

Dornier Do 317

Dornier Do 335

Dornier Do H

Dornier Do J

Dorohoi pogrom

Dorothea Binz

Dorothea Neff

Dorothy C. Stratton

Dorothy Shepherd-Barron

Dorset County Division

Dothan Regional Airport

Double Cross System

Double Leaf Society

Double Tenth Incident

Doudou Diène

Doug Barnard, Jr.

Doug Collins (journalist)

Douglas A-20 Survivors

Douglas A-26 survivors

Douglas A-33

Douglas Albert Munro

Douglas Alexander Graham

Douglas Allen, Baron Croham

Douglas Bader

Douglas Barton Osborne Savile

Douglas Berneville-Claye

Douglas DC-3

Douglas Dodds-Parker

Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 14th Duke of Hamilton

Douglas Everett

Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.

Douglas Ford (GC)

Douglas Gracey

Douglas Harkness

Douglas Harold Fox

Douglas Hemphill Elliott

Douglas Hyde

Douglas Jardine

Douglas Jung

Douglas Kendrew

Douglas Lewis (boxer)

Douglas MacArthur

Douglas Reeman

Douglas T. Jacobson

Douglas Webb

Douglas Wimberley

Douwe Aukes-class minelayer

Dover (film)

Downfall (2004 film)

Doyen-class attack transport

Doyle Clayton Barnes

Doyle Yardley

Dr. Ross Tilley

Dr. Seuss

Draža Mihailović

Drac River

Dragan Jakovljević

Dragoslav Šekularac

Dragutin Gavrilović

Drancy internment camp

Dranem

Draper L. Kauffman

Drastamat Kanayan

Draughon-Miller Central Texas Regional Airport

Drazki torpedo boat

Drill Purpose Rifle

Drobitsky Yar

Drocourt-Quéant

Drummond Allison

DS-39

DShK

Du Yuesheng

Du Yuming

Duane Beeson

Duane Hudson

Dubats

Dubingiai massacre

Dudley Burton Napier North

Dudley DeGroot

Dudley Garrett

Dudley Graham Johnson

Dudley Joel

Dudley Pound

Dudley Russell

Dudley Ryder, 7th Earl of Harrowby

Dudley W. Morton

Due mogli sono troppe

Duff Cooper

Dugommier (Paris Métro)

Duke Kahanamoku

DUKW

Dum Dum Dugan

Dumbarton Oaks Conference

Dumeng Giovanoli

Dumitru Dămăceanu

Duncan MacIntyre (New Zealand)

Duncan R. Derry

Duncan Sandys

Duncan Scott-Ford

Dundee (UK Parliament constituency)

Dunkerque-class battleship

Dunkirk: The Battle of France

Dunkirk (1958 film)

Dunkirk evacuation

Dunnellon/Marion County Airport

Dupleix (Paris Métro)

Duquesne Spy Ring

Durham and North Riding County Division

Duroc (Paris Métro)

Dusty Cooke

Dusty Miller (martyr)

Dutch Cross of Resistance

Dutch famine of 1944

Dutch government in exile

Dutch resistance

Dutch submarine O-20

Dutch underground press

Dutch Water Line

Duxford Aerodrome

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight E. Beach

Dwight E. Sargent

Dwight Shepler

Dwight Wilson (veteran)

Dying Gaul

Dying Slave

Dylan Verrechia

Dyle Plan

Dziemiany

Dzyatlava massacre

Défense de la France

Désiré Ferry

Désiré Nisard

Kevin Walton

Eric William Kevin Walton (15 May 1918 – 13 April 2009), known as Kevin Walton, was an officer in the Royal Navy during World War II and, in 1946, was a winner of the Albert Medal, which in 1971 was superseded by the George Cross.

List of broadsides of major World War II ships

The list of broadsides of major World War II ships is a comparative listing ranking the main armament broadside weight of major vessels in service during World War II. Listed are the broadside in pounds and kilograms (for a single main battery salvo), as well as the range to which it can be fired in yards and kilometres and the maximum rate of fire in salvos per minute. However, the list does not account for the variances in fire control, which by the end of the war was firmly in the Allies' favor with advances in radar technology.

Items are listed in order of broadside weight.

List of ship commissionings in 1933

The list of ship commissionings in 1933 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 1933.

List of ship commissionings in 1934

The list of ship commissionings in 1934 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 1934.

List of ship commissionings in 1936

The list of ship commissionings in 1936 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 1936.

List of ship launches in 1931

The list of ship launches in 1931 includes a chronological list of some ships launched in 1931.

List of ship launches in 1933

The list of ship launches in 1933 includes a chronological list of some ships launched in 1933.

List of ship launches in 1934

The list of ship launches in 1934 includes a chronological list of some ships launched in 1934.

Order of battle for Convoy PQ 17

Convoy PQ 17 was the penultimate of the PQ/QP series of arctic convoys, bound from British ports through the Arctic Ocean via Reykjavík to the White Sea ports of the Soviet Union, particularly Murmansk and Archangel. The convoy was heavily defended, but fearing an imminent attack by substantial German surface forces, the Admiralty made the decision to disperse the convoy.

The convoy comprised 35 merchant ships and 6 naval auxiliaries (41 in all) and was defended by a close escort and two distant escort forces, 43 warships in total. It was opposed by a U-boat group, Eisteufel, of first 6, then 8 U-boats, and a surface attack force of 16 warships, in two battle groups. This operation was code-named Rösselsprung. These were assisted by the 234 aircraft of Luftflotte 5.

Before the convoy dispersed, three ships had been lost. After it scattered each ship began its individual journey to the Russian ports. Some ships took refuge along the frozen coast of Novaya Zemlya, landing at Matochkin. The Soviet tanker Azerbaijan had lost her cargo of linseed oil, and much of SS Winston-Salem's cargo had also been jettisoned in Novaya Zemlya.Of the forty-one ships which left Iceland, three were forced to return, and twenty-four were sunk.

Ten merchant ships (one British, six American, one Panamanian and two Russian) and four auxiliaries reached Archangel, and delivered 70,000 tons out of the 200,000 which had started from Iceland. Fourteen American ships in all were sunk.

P-class cruiser

The P class was a planned group of twelve heavy cruisers of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine; they were the successor to the Deutschland-class cruisers. Design work began in 1937 and continued until 1939; at least twenty designs were submitted with nine of them being considered. There were three designs that were selected as the final contenders. One design was armed with six 283mm main guns in one triple turret forward and one more turret aft. It had two 150mm double secondary gun turrets as secondary armament with one being positioned above and just fore of the aft of the main 283mm main turret, and the other being in front and lower of the front main gun turret. This design had more beam than the other 2 designs. It also mounted 2 seaplanes on its fantail instead of the mid ship area. The final design was armed with six 28 cm (11 in) quick-firing guns in two triple turrets, as in the preceding Deutschland class. The ships were designated as Panzerschiff (armored ship), and given the preliminary names P1–P12. They were an improved design over the preceding planned D-class cruisers, which had been canceled in 1934. Although the ships were already assigned to shipyards, construction never began on the P-class ships after the O-class battlecruiser design superseded them.

Pocket cruiser

A pocket cruiser is a sailboat designed for recreational cruising and club racing, under 30 feet (9 m) in length.Like the similar and usually smaller trailer sailer they have design features to make it possible to tow them with passenger vehicles, such as light weight, and short ballasted retractable shoal draft keels.

Being cruisers, they also include amenities that provide the comfort of larger boats, such as a cabin, with berths, a galley, a head, and cockpit.

Properly equipped, these style boats are capable of long offshore passages, as proven by circumnavigators Eric and Susan Hiscock, Lin and Larry Pardey, and Tania Aebi, among others.

The term was coined in the 1970s as fiberglass sailing yacht building took off.

Deutschland-class cruisers
Aircraft carriers
Capital ships
Pre-dreadnought battleships
Heavy cruisers
Light cruisers
Destroyers
Torpedo boats
U-boats (submarines)
Other

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