Deutsches Jungvolk

The Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend (DJ, also DJV; German for "German Youngsters in the Hitler Youth") was the separate section for boys aged 8 to 14 of the Hitler Youth organisation in Nazi Germany. Through a programme of outdoor activities, parades and sports, it aimed to indoctrinate its young members in the tenets of Nazi ideology. Membership became fully compulsory for eligible boys in 1939. By the end of World War II, some had become child soldiers. After the end of the war in 1945, the Deutsches Jungvolk and its parent organization, the Hitler Youth, ceased to exist.

German Youngsters
in the Hitler Youth
Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend
Flagge Deutsches Jungvolk
Formation1928
Extinction1945
TypePolitical youth organisation
Region
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
Weimar Republic Weimar Republic
Parent organization
Flag of the NSDAP (1920–1945).svg Nazi Party
AffiliationsHitlerjugend Allgemeine Flagge.svg Hitler Youth
Formerly called
Jungmannschaften

Development

Bundesarchiv Bild 133-151, Worms, Fanfarenkorps des Jungvolkes
Deutsches Jungvolk fanfare trumpeters at a Nazi rally in the town of Worms in 1933. Their banners illustrate the Deutsches Jungvolk rune insignia.

The Deutsches Jungvolk was founded in 1928 by Kurt Gruber under the title Jungmannschaften ("Youth Teams"), but it was renamed Knabenschaft and finally Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend in March 1931.[1] Both the Deutsches Jungvolk (DJ or DJV) and Hitler Youth (HJ) modelled parts of their uniform and programme from the German Scouting associations and other youth groups,[2] which were then banned by the Nazi government during 1933 and 1934.[3]

Following the enactment of the Law on the Hitler Youth on 1 December 1936,[4] boys had to be registered with the Reich Youth Office in the March of the year in which they would reach the age of ten; those who were found to be racially acceptable were expected to join the DJ. Although not compulsory, the failure of eligible boys to join the DJ was seen as a failure of civic responsibility on the part of their parents.[1]

The regulations were tightened further by the Second Execution Order to the Law on the Hitler Youth ("Youth Service Regulation") on 25 March 1939, which made membership of the DJ or Hitler Youth mandatory for all Germans between 10 and 18 years of age. Parents could be fined or imprisoned for failing to register their children. Boys were excluded if they had previously been found guilty of "dishonourable acts", if they were found to be "unfit for service" for medical reasons, or if they were Jewish. Ethnic Poles or Danes living in the Reich (this was before the outbreak of war) could apply for exemption, but were not excluded.[5]

Training and activities

Bundesarchiv Bild 133-393, Worms, Luftschutzübung der Hitlerjugend
Deutsches Jungvolk recruits of 1933 learn fire fighting techniques

The DJ and HJ copied many of the activities of the various German youth organizations that they replaced. For many boys, the DJ was the only way to participate in sports, camping, and hiking.[6] However, the main purpose of the DJ was the inculcation of boys in the political principles of National Socialism. Members were obliged to attend Nazi party rallies and parades. On a weekly basis, there was the Heimabende, a Wednesday evening meeting for political, racial, and ideological indoctrination. Boys were encouraged to inform the authorities if their parents' beliefs were contrary to Nazi dogma.[7]

Once Germany was at war, basic pre-military preparation increased; by the end of 1940, DJ members were required to be trained in target shooting with small-bore rifles and to take part in "terrain manoeuvres".[8]

Organization

Bundesarchiv Bild 102-03591A, Berlin, Appell der "Pimpfe"
Deutsches Jungvolk recruits line up for roll call at a rally in Berlin, in 1934

Recruits were called Pimpfen, a colloquial word from Upper German for "boy", "little rascal", "scamp", or "rapscallion" (originally "little fart").[9][10] Groups of 10 boys were called a Jungenschaft, with leaders chosen from the older boys; four of these formed a unit called a Jungzug. These units were further grouped into companies and battalions, each with their own leaders, who were usually young adults.[1] Der Pimpf, the Nazi magazine for boys, was particularly aimed at those in the Deutsches Jungvolk, with adventure and propaganda.[11]

Recruits were required to swear a version of the Hitler oath: "In the presence of this blood banner which represents our Führer, I swear to devote all my energies and my strength to the savior of our country, Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him, so help me God."[12]

Uniform and emblems

The DJ uniform was very similar to the Hitler Youth equivalent. The summer uniform consisted of a black shorts and tan shirt with pockets, worn with a rolled black neckerchief secured with a woggle, usually tucked under the collar.[13] Headgear originally consisted of a beret, but when this was discarded by the HJ in 1934, the DJ adopted a side cap with coloured piping which denoted their unit.[14]

The emblem of the DJ was a white Sieg rune on a black background, which symbolised "victory".[15] This was worn on the uniform in the form of a cloth badge, sewn onto the upper-left sleeve of the shirt.[16]

Wartime

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-J28836A, Jungvolk-Zugführer mit Eisernen Kreuz II. Klasse
12-year-old Jungvolk platoon commander Alfred Zech (from Goldenau in Upper Silesia) earned the Iron Cross Second Class in 1945 for rescuing wounded soldiers whilst under enemy fire.

In addition to their pre-military training, the DJ contributed to the German war effort by collecting recyclable materials such as paper and scrap metal, and by acting as messengers for the civil defence organisations. By 1944, the Hitler Youth formed part of the Volkssturm, an unpaid, part-time militia, and often formed special HJ companies within Volkssturm battalions. In theory, service in the Volkssturm was limited to boys over 16 years of age, however much younger boys, including Jungvolk members, often volunteered or were coerced into serving in these units; even joining the "Tank Close-Combat Squads" which were expected to attack enemy tanks with hand-held weapons.[17] Eye witness reports of the Battle of Berlin in April 1945 record instances of young boys fighting in their DJ uniforms, complete with short trousers.[18] Adolf Hitler's last public appearance was on 20 April 1945, when he presented Iron Crosses to defenders of Berlin, including several boys, some as young as twelve years-old.[19]

Disbandment

With the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945, the organization de facto ceased to exist. On 10 October 1945, it was outlawed by the Allied Control Council along with other Nazi Party organizations. Under Section 86 of the German Criminal Code, the Hitler Youth is an "unconstitutional organisation" and the distribution or public use of its symbols, except for educational or research purposes, are not permitted.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Lepage, Jean-Denis (2009), Hitler Youth, 1922-1945: An Illustrated History, McFarland & Company, ISBN 978-0-7864-3935-5 (p. 34)
  2. ^ Kitchen, Martin (2008). The Third Reich: Charisma and Community. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-4058-0169-0.
  3. ^ Laqueur, Walter (1984). Young Germany: A History of the German Youth Movement. Transaction Books. p. 201. ISBN 0-88738-002-6.
  4. ^ German History in Documents and Images (GHDI) - Law on the Hitler Youth (December 1, 1936)
  5. ^ German History in Documents and Images (GHDI) - Second Execution Order to the Law on the Hitler Youth ("Youth Service Regulation") (March 25, 1939)
  6. ^ Lepage, pp. 70-72
  7. ^ Lepage, pp. 83-84
  8. ^ Lepage, p. 125
  9. ^ [1] Dudens Rechtschreibung.
  10. ^ Heberer, Patricia (2011) Children During the Holocaust, AltaMira Press, ISBN 978-0-7591-1984-0 (p. 265)
  11. ^ Material from "Der Pimpf"
  12. ^ The History Place - Hitler Youth - Timeline and Organization
  13. ^ Stephens, Frederick John (1973) Hitler Youth: History, Organisation, Uniforms and Insignia, Almark Publishing, ISBN 0855241047 (p.43)
  14. ^ Stephens (p. 8)
  15. ^ Stephens (p. 73)
  16. ^ Lepage, p. 62
  17. ^ Thomas, Nigel (1992), Wehrmacht Auxiliary Forces, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-85532-257-9 (p. 46)
  18. ^ McNab, Chris (2011), Hitler's Armies: A History of the German War Machine 1939-45, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1849086479 (p. 399)
  19. ^ Selby, Scott Andrew (2013). The Axmann Conspiracy: A Nazi Plan for a Fourth Reich and How the U.S. Army Defeated It. Berkley. ISBN 978-0425253687. (Chapter 1)

External links

Comparative ranks of Nazi Germany

The comparative ranks of Nazi Germany contrasts the ranks of the German Wehrmacht to a number of national-socialist organisations in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in a synoptic table. Nazi organisations used a hierarchal structure, according to the so-called Führerprinzip (leader principle), and were oriented in line with the rank order system of the Wehrmacht.

DJV

DJV may refer to

Don't Just Vote, Get Active

Deutsches Jungvolk

Deshapremi Janatha Viyaparaya, offshoot of the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna

Der Pimpf

Der Pimpf (German: [dɛɐ̯ ˈpɪmpf]) was the Nazi magazine for boys, particularly those in the Deutsches Jungvolk, with adventure and propaganda. It first appeared in 1935 as Morgen, changing its name to Der Pimpf in 1937; its publication frequency went down with the end of World War II.It included adventures of troops of Hitler Youth. Its last issue urged the boys to model themselves on the SS, and spoke of the SS Division "Hitler Jugend".The female counterpart, Das deutsche Mädel, lacked this emphasis on adventure.

Fritz Theilen

Fritz Theilen (27 September 1927 – 18 April 2012) was a German member of the anti-Nazi resistance group the Edelweißpiraten during World War II. Born to working-class parents, he joined the Deutsches Jungvolk division of the Hitler Youth in 1937, and was excluded for resisting orders in 1940. He started an apprenticeship at the local Ford Motor Company auto plant in 1941. In 1942 he joined the Edelweißpiraten. He was imprisoned at the Gestapo's Cologne headquarters—the El-De Haus—in 1943. After managing to escape from prison, he survived in the underground until 1945. Ford only re-employed him after the British occupation force exerted pressure on the company's management.

Fähnlein

The Fähnlein (in Swedish: fänika) was a military unit approximately equivalent to the company or battalion which was used in parts of Europe during the Middle Ages. The size of the unit varied, originally a Fähnlein could consist of as many as 1,000 soldiers, but numbers were generally less, around 500. It was sub-divided into sections or Rotten (singular: Rotte) of between 6 and 12 men.

German Air Sports Association

The German Air Sports Association (Deutscher Luftsportverband, or DLV e. V.) was an organisation set up by the Nazi Party in March 1933 to establish a uniform basis for the training of military pilots. Its chairman was Hermann Göring and its vice-chairman Ernst Röhm.

German Youth in Slovakia

The German Youth in Slovakia (German: Deutsche Jugend in der Slowakei, abbreviated D.J.) was a youth organization in the Second World War Slovak Republic. The organization functioned as the youth wing of the German Party. DJ was modelled after the Hitler Youth in the German Reich. The leader (Landesleiter) of DJ was F. Klug.DJ functioned as a 'bridge' between the Hitler Youth and the Slovak Hlinka Youth. During the parade in Bratislava celebrating the January 18, 1939 inaugural session of the new Diet of the Slovak Land, DJ members in brown shirts joined march.DJ grew quickly and organized youngsters all across the country in places where ethnic German populations lived. The organization conducted active propaganda campaigns, and conducted training activities in National Socialist doctrine in areas where there were no German schools. In January 1939 DJ claimed to have around 12,000 members, by 1940 the number of claimed members had increased to 17,400. By 1941 DJ claimed to have around 18,000 members organized in some 150 local groups. The local DJ groups were organized into three Banne (Battalions). The membership of DJ consisted of youth aged 10 to 18 years old; boys aged 10 to 14 years were grouped into Deutsches Jungvolk (like the Deutsches Jungvolk in the Reich), boys aged 14 to 18 in Deutsche Jugend, girls aged 10 to 14 in Jungmädelbund (like the Jungmädelbund in the Reich) and girls aged 15 to 14 in Bund Deutscher Mädel (like the BDM in the Reich).DJ used a uniform almost identical to the ones used by the Hitler Youth in the Reich, except that the emblem of the organization included a swastika on a shield.DJ members were recruited for military service in the war against Poland in September 1939. Through decree no. 311 issued December 21, 1939, the Slovak government recognized FS and DJ as paramilitary organizations operating within the frame of the German Party. As the Second World War progressed, many of the DJ members went on to serve in the German Waffen-SS.In the midst of the 1944 Slovak National Uprising, the Slovak National Council declared DJ dissolved in one of its first acts of legislation.

Government of Nazi Germany

The Government of Nazi Germany was a dictatorship run according to the Führerprinzip. As the successor to the government of the Weimar Republic, it inherited the government structure and institutions of the previous state. Although the Weimar Constitution technically remained in effect until Germany's surrender in 1945, there were no actual restraints on the exercise of state power. In addition to the already extant government of the Weimar Republic, the Nazi leadership created a large number of different organizations for the purpose of helping them govern and remain in power. They rearmed and strengthened the military, set up an extensive state security apparatus and created their own personal party army, which in 1940 became known as the Waffen-SS.

Hitler Youth

The Hitler Youth (German: Hitlerjugend , often abbreviated as HJ in German) was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany. Its origins dated back to 1922 and it received the name Hitler-Jugend, Bund deutscher Arbeiterjugend ("Hitler Youth, League of German Worker Youth") in July 1926. From 1933 until 1945, it was the sole official youth organisation in Germany and was partially a paramilitary organisation; it was composed of the Hitler Youth proper for male youths aged 14 to 18, the German Youngsters in the Hitler Youth (Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend or "DJ", also "DJV") for younger boys aged 10 to 14, and the League of German Girls (Bund Deutsche Mädel or "BDM").

With the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945, the organisation de facto ceased to exist. On 10 October 1945, the Hitler Youth and its subordinate units were outlawed by the Allied Control Council along with other Nazi Party organisations. Under Section 86 of the Criminal Code of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hitler Youth is an "unconstitutional organisation" and the distribution or public use of its symbols, except for educational or research purposes, is illegal.

Jack Koehler

John O. "Jack" Koehler (June 11, 1930 – September 28, 2012) was a German-born American journalist and executive for the Associated Press, who also briefly served as the White House Communications Director in 1987 during the Reagan administration.Koehler was born Wolfgang Koehler in Dresden, Germany, but fled the city to escape the invasion of Soviet troops into Germany towards the end of World War II. He soon found a position as a German language interpreter for the United States Army when he was a teenager. He moved to Canada after World War II and then immigrated to the United States in 1954. Koehler enlisted in the U.S. Army, where he worked in intelligence. He legally changed his name to John Koehler after moving to the United States.Koehler took a position with the Associated Press as a foreign correspondent in Berlin and Bonn, West Germany. He then became the Associated Press' bureau chief in Newark, New Jersey. He rose to become the assistant general manager and managing director of AP's world services, a position he held until his retirement in 1985.The United States Information Agency recruited Koehler to lobby on behalf of Afghan rebels following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. He traveled to Pakistan and France to focus on helping rebels get their messages out to journalists and foreign governments.In 1987, Koehler, who was friends with Ronald Reagan, became the White House Communications Director. However, Koehler resigned after just one week in the White House after it became public that he had been a member of the Deutsches Jungvolk, a Nazi government youth division, when he was ten years old. Koehler insisted that his membership in the Jungvolk was not the reason for his resignation, dismissing the Jungvolk as "the Boy Scouts run by the Nazi party." Rather he wanted to give his successor time to choose a new communication team. He then started an international consulting firm.He authored two books during his later life, Stasi: The Untold Story of the East German Secret Police and Spies in the Vatican: The Soviet Union's Cold War Against the Catholic Church.Koehler died from pancreatic cancer at his home in Stamford, Connecticut, on September 28, 2012, at the age of 82. He was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery.

List of Nazis

A list of notable people who were at some point a member of the defunct Nazi Party (NSDAP). This is not meant to be a list of every person who was ever a member of the Nazi Party. This is a list of notable figures who were active within the party and did something significant within it that is of historical note or who were members of the Nazi Party according to multiple publications. For a list of the main leaders and most important party figures see: List of Nazi Party leaders and officials.

This list has been divided into four sections for reasons of length:

List of Nazis (A–E) : from Gustav Abb to Hanns Heinz Ewers (~ 247 names)

List of Nazis (F–K) : from Arnold Fanck to Kurt Küttner (~ 268 names)

List of Nazis (L–R) : from Bodo Lafferentz to Bernhard Rust (~ 232 names)

List of Nazis (S–Z) : from Ernst Sagebiel to Fritz Zweigelt (~ 259 names)

National Socialist Bloc

National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket) was a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local National Socialist units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in Umeå. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB.

The leader of the party was Colonel Martin Ekström. The party maintained several publications, Landet Fritt (Gothenburg), Vår Kamp (Gothenburg), Vår Front (Umeå), Nasisten (Malmö) and Riksposten.

NSB differentiated itself from other Swedish National Socialist groups due to its liaisons with the Swedish upper class. NSB was clearly smaller than the two main National Socialist parties in Sweden at the time, SNSP and NSAP. Gradually the party vanished.

National Socialist League

The National Socialist League was a short-lived Nazi political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War.

Nazi symbolism

The 20th-century German Nazi Party made extensive use of graphic symbols, especially the swastika, notably in the form of the swastika flag, which became the co-national flag of Nazi Germany in 1933, and the sole national flag in 1935. A very similar flag had represented the Party beginning in 1920.

Neckerchief

A neckerchief, (from neck (n.) + kerchief) sometimes called a necker, kerchief or scarf is a type of neckwear associated with those working or living outdoors, including farm labourers, cowboys and sailors. It is most commonly still seen today in the Scouts, Girl Guides and other similar youth movements. A neckerchief consists of a triangular piece of cloth or a rectangular piece folded into a triangle. The long edge is rolled towards the point, leaving a portion unrolled. The neckerchief is then fastened around the neck with the ends either tied or clasped with a slide or woggle.

Nur für Deutsche

The slogan Nur für Deutsche (English: "Only for Germans") was during World War II, in many German-occupied countries, a racialist slogan indicating that certain establishments and transportation were reserved for Germans. Signs bearing the slogan were posted at entrances to parks, cafes, cinemas, theaters and other facilities.

Pimpfe

Pimpf is a German nickname for a boy before the voice change. It is a colloquial word from Upper German meaning "boy", "little rascal", "scamp", or "rapscallion" (originally "little fart").During the period of German National Socialism, Pimpf was a term referring to a member of the Deutsches Jungvolk, the youngest section of the Hitler Youth in Nazi Germany. The boys would be taught to be loyal to Hitler and the regime. Membership in the Hitler Youth was compulsory after 1939.Nowadays, the term is not often used and is not at all associated with National Socialism.

Race-soul

In Nazi ideology, the race-soul, race soul or racial soul (German: Rassenseele) is a "[m]ystical racial psyche greater than any individual member of the German race". The race-soul was variously believed to be the source of such things as justice and poetry; non-Aryan and mixed races were believed to lack these qualities.

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