Deutscher Wetterdienst

The Deutscher Wetterdienst (German pronunciation: [ˌdɔʏ̯ʧɐ ˈvɛtɐdiːnst]) or DWD for short, is the German Meteorological Office, based in Offenbach am Main, Germany, which monitors weather and meteorological conditions over Germany and provides weather services for the general public and for nautical, aviational or agricultural purposes. It is attached to the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. The DWDs principal tasks include warning against weather-related dangers and monitoring and rating climate changes affecting Germany. The organization runs atmospheric models on their supercomputer for precise weather forecasting. The DWD also manages the national climate archive[1] and one of the largest specialized libraries on weather and climate worldwide.

Deutscher Wetterdienst Offenbach 01
Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany
Wetterpark-Offenbach-01
Wetterpark Offenbach, Germany

History

The DWD was formed in 1952 when the weather services of the western occupation zones were merged. In 1954, the Federal Republic of Germany joined the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). In 1975 the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) was formed for numerical weather prediction up to ten days in advance. In 1990, following the reunification, the weather services of the German Democratic Republic were incorporated in the DWD.

Since the 1990s, the DWD has continuously reduced the number of manned weather stations, which entailed substantial staff cutbacks. The DWD does not expect a reduction in forecast quality, given techniques like weather radar or satellites, which have significantly improved weather data collection.

Numerical weather prediction

The German Meteorological Office runs a global hydrostatic model of its own, the GME, using a hexagonal icosahedral grid since 2002.[2] They developed the High Resolution Regional Model (HRM) in 1999, which is widely run within the operational and research meteorological communities and run with hydrostatic assumptions.[3] The German non-hydrostatic Lokal-Modell for Europe (LME) has been run since 2002, and an increase in areal domain became operational on September 28, 2005.[4] Since March 2009, the DWD operates a NEC SX-9 with a peak performance of 109 teraFLOPS to help in the weather forecasting process.[5]

Public Services

Since 2005, the DWD has been publishing regional warnings against heat with the aim to reduce heat related fatalities. This decision was made because of the hot summer in 2003, when estimated 7000 people died from direct or indirect effects of the heat. Additionally it sends out sea weather reports as radioteletype and faxes. Since 2006, the pollen warnings can be subscribed to for free on the DWD web site. Within its duty of primary meteorological information, the DWD offers a free daily weather report for Germany which can be subscribed to by email on their official website. DWD offers free access to its climate data.[6]

Structure

The Deutsche Wetterdienst is attached to the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure and thus closely linked to the German federal, regional and local governments, to the business community, and to the industrial world in terms of cooperation and consulting. Its work is based on the German Meteorological Office Act (Gesetz über den Deutschen Wetterdienst). Currently, the DWD consists of roughly 2600 occupants. Besides the DWD central in Offenbach, there are regional centers in Hamburg, Potsdam, Leipzig, Essen, Stuttgart and Munich. Additionally, it runs Germany's densest network of meteorological measurement points with 183 full-time meteorological stations (60 of them manned), as well as about 1784 extraordinal weather stations run by volunteering amateurs (2014).

References

  1. ^ Kaspar, F.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Penda, E.; Mächel, H.; Zimmermann, K.; Kaiser-Weiss, A.; Deutschländer, T. (2013). "Monitoring of climate change in Germany – data, products and services of Germany's National Climate Data Centre" (PDF). Adv. Sci. Res. 10: 99–106. Bibcode:2013AdSR...10...99K. doi:10.5194/asr-10-99-2013. Retrieved 2017-03-23.
  2. ^ Eikenberg, S.; K. Frohlich; A. Seifert; S. Crewell & M. Mech (2011-02-25). "Evaluation of ice and snow content in the global numerical weather prediction model GME with CloudSat" (PDF). Geoscientific Model Development. 4: 422. Bibcode:2011GMDD....4..419E. doi:10.5194/gmdd-4-419-2011. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  3. ^ "HRM - Atmospheric Model". Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center. 2009-09-29. Archived from the original on 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  4. ^ Schultz, J.-P. (2006). "The New Lokal-Modell LME of the German Weather Service" (PDF). Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (6). Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  5. ^ "Neuer Computer sagt Wetter genauer voraus". Berliner Morgenpost (in German). March 18, 2009.
  6. ^ Deutscher Wetterdienst: Climate Data Center FTP

External links

Coordinates: 50°06′11″N 8°44′52″E / 50.103155°N 8.747735°E

Altar, Sonora

Altar (O'odham: Wawuk) is small city and municipal seat of Altar Municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora. It is located in the northwest region of the state at 30°42′49″N 111°50′07″W.

The town of Altar is situated on the important Mexicali to Hermosillo Highway (Federal Highway 2). Most of the roads leading into the desert are not paved.

Chunggang County

Chunggang County is a kun, or county, in northern Chagang province, North Korea. It was originally part of Huchang county in Ryanggang, and for that reason older sources still identify it as being part of Huchang. The county seat was originally known as Chunggangjin (중강진), but is now known as Chunggang ŭp. Chunggang looks across the Yalu River at China, and borders Ryanggang province to the south.

The Chunggang Revolutionary Site is associated with Kim Hyong-jik.It has been reported that an Intermediate-range ballistic missile base was constructed in Chunggang in the early 1990s, and that its missiles are targeted at Okinawa.

Climate of Gibraltar

The climate of Gibraltar is Mediterranean/Subtropical with mild winters and warm summers. Gibraltar has two main prevailing winds, an easterly one known as the Levante coming from the Sahara in Africa which brings humid weather and warmer sea currents and the other as Poniente which is westerly and brings fresher air and colder sea. Its terrain consists of the 430-metre (1,411 ft) high Rock of Gibraltar and the narrow coastal lowland surrounding it. Rain occurs mainly in winter; the summers are generally dry.

Average morning relative humidity: 82%, evening relative humidity: 64%. Sunshine hours are up to 2,778 per year, from 150 in November (~5 hours of sunshine per day) to 341 in July (~11 hours of sunshine per day).

Climate of Romania

The climate is temperate continental climate in transition with oceanic climate, influenced by Scandinavian-Baltic weather, mediterranean climate and Black Sea weather. Thus, in the south mediterranean climate is felt, characterized by mild winters and stronger rainfalls (especially in autumn). In the south-east, the Black Sea climate occurs with rare heavy strong rains.

In eastern regions, its continental character is less pronounced. In the north of the country (Maramureș and Bukovina), the effect of the Scandinavian-Baltic is felt, effecting a wetter and colder climate with cold winters. In the west of the country is manifested a more pronounced influence of low pressure systems generated over the Atlantic, causing moderate temperatures and stronger precipitation.

Climate nuances are demonstrated on the steps of the altitude, the mountain ranges of the Carpathian arc being a cool mountain climate with high humidity throughout the year.The average annual temperature is 11 °C (51.8 °F) in the south and middle-south and 8 °C (46.4 °F) in northeast. In Bucharest, the temperature ranges from average low −5 °C (23 °F) in January to average high 29 °C (84.2 °F) in July and August, with average temperatures of −3 °C (26.6 °F) in January and 23 °C (73.4 °F) in July and August. Rainfall, although adequate throughout the country, decreases from west to east and from mountains to plains. Some mountainous areas receive more than 1,010 mm (39.8 in) of precipitation each year. Annual precipitation averages about 635 mm (25 in) in central Transylvania, 521 mm (20.5 in) at Iaşi in Moldavia, and only 381 mm (15 in) at Constanţa on the Black Sea.

Owing to its distance from the open sea, Romania has a continental climate. Summers are generally very warm to hot, with average maxima in Bucharest being around 29 °C (84.2 °F), with temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) not unknown in the lower-lying areas of the country. Minima in Bucharest and other lower-lying areas are around 18 °C (64.4 °F), but at higher altitudes both maxima and minima decline considerably.

Winters are quite cold, with average highs even in lower-lying areas being no more than 3 °C (37.4 °F) and below −15 °C (5 °F) in the highest mountains.

Precipitation is generally modest, averaging over 750 mm (29.5 in) only on the highest western mountains - much of it falling as snow which allows for an extensive skiing industry. In the delta of the Danube, rainfall is very low, averaging only around 370 mm (14.6 in) per year, whilst in the more westerly lowland like Bucharest it is around 530 mm (20.9 in).

Fada N'gourma

Fada N'Gourma, also written Fada-Ngourma, or Noungu is a city and an important market town in eastern Burkina Faso, lying 219 kilometres (136 mi) east of Ouagadougou, in the Gourmantché area. It is the capital of the East region and of Gourma province. It is known for its blanket and carpet manufacturing as well as its honey.

GME of Deutscher Wetterdienst

GME was an operational global numerical weather prediction model run by Deutscher Wetterdienst, the German national meteorological service. The model was run using an almost uniform icosahedral-hexagonal grid. The GME grid point approach avoide the disadvantages of spectral techniques as well as the pole problem in latitude–longitude grids and provides a data structure well suited to high efficiency on distributed memory parallel computers. The GME replaced two previous models (the GM and EM), and was first run on 1 December 1999.The GME was replaced by the ICON model on 20 January, 2015.The GME's approach to a global grid would later be utilized by the Flow-following, finite-volume Icosahedral Model (FIM), an experimental model currently in development in the United States.

Garissa

Garissa (Somali: Gaarisa) is the capital of Garissa County, Kenya. It is situated in the former North Eastern Province.

Hohenpeißenberg Meteorological Observatory

The Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeißenberg is the oldest mountain weather station in the world.

It is located in the municipality of Hohenpeißenberg, about 60 kilometres southwest of Munich, Germany, and at 977 metres above sea level.

Meteorological data is collected on the site continuously since 1781.

The measurement series ranks among the longest ever, and was never impacted by urban heat island effects, a problem encountered by the comparably long records from the Basel and Prague observatories.

As of today, it is operated by Deutscher Wetterdienst, and takes part in the Global Atmosphere Watch programme.

Kimchaek

Kimch'aek (Korean pronunciation: [kim.tsʰɛk̚]), formerly Sŏngjin (Chosŏn'gŭl: 성진, Hancha: 城津), is a city in North Hamgyong Province, North Korea. It was an open port in 1899. It has a population of 196,000. The city received its current name in 1951 during the Korean War, in honor of the Korean People's Army (KPA) general, Kim Chaek. It was known as "Shirotsu" during Japanese rule between 1910 and 1945.

Kitale

Kitale is an agricultural town in northern Rift Valley Kenya situated between Mount Elgon and the Cherangany Hills at an elevation of around 1,900 metres (6,200 ft). Its population is 106,187 as of 2009.. Kitale is the headquarter town of Trans-Nzoia County.

The National Museum of Western Kenya is located at Kitale. It is a natural history museum and was originally created by Lt Col. Hugh Stoneham in 1926. Just next to the museum there is a demonstration farm with agroforestry practices run by a Swedish non-governmental organisation called Vi Agroforestry.

List of cities by average temperature

This is a list of cities by average temperature (monthly and yearly). The temperatures listed are averages of the daily highs and lows. Thus, the actual daytime temperature in a given month will be 2 to 10 °C (4 to 18 °F) higher than the temperature listed here, depending on how large the difference between daily highs and lows is.

Lodwar

Lodwar is the largest town in north-western Kenya, located west of Lake Turkana on the A1 road. Its main industries are basket weaving and tourism. The Loima Hills lie to its west. Lodwar is the capital of Turkana County. The town has a population of 48,316.

Luena, Moxico Province

Luena (pre-1975: Luso) is a town located in east central Angola. It is the administrative capital of Moxico Province. While no exact figures are available, estimates on the population of the city varies from 60,000 to 200,000 residents, including an unknown number of refugees from the Angolan Civil War that officially ended in 2002.

Madang

Madang (old German name: Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen) is the capital of Madang Province and is a town with a population of 27,420 (in 2005) on the north coast of Papua New Guinea. It was first settled by the Germans in the 19th century.

Matlapa

Matlapa is a town and municipality in San Luis Potosí in central Mexico.

Munda, Solomon Islands

Munda is the largest settlement on the island of New Georgia in the Western Province of Solomon Islands, and consists of a number of villages. It is located at the southwestern tip (called Munda Point) of the western end of New Georgia, and the large Roviana Lagoon is just offshore.

NinJo

NinJo is a meteorological software system. It is a community project of the German Weather Service, the Meteorological Service of Canada, the Danish Meteorological Institute, MeteoSwiss, and the German Bundeswehr. It consists of modules for monitoring weather events, editing point forecasts and viewing meteorological data. An additional batch component is able to render graphical products off-line, these may, for example, be visualized by a web service. Essentially it is a client—server system an implemented fully with the programming language Java.

NinJo was initiated by the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) and the German army (Bundeswehr Geo Information Service, BGIS) in 2000. Since 2006, NinJo has been used operationally. NinJo is licensed for weather services, organisations and universities not taking part in the development consortium.

Ouahigouya

Ouahigouya is a relatively notable town in northern Burkina Faso. It is the capital of the Yatenga Province and one of its subdivisions the Ouahigouya Department. It is also the biggest town in the Nord Region. It is the third largest city in the country with a population of 122,677. It is situated 182 kilometres (113 mi) north-west of Ouagadougou.

The city itself has a stadium, a private non-profit Paediatric Hospital with 36 beds for giving birth and 24 beds for children suffering of severe malnutrition, a post office with internet access and at least one Ecobank bank branch.

SYNOP

SYNOP (surface synoptic observations) is a numerical code (called FM-12 by WMO) used for reporting weather observations made by manned and automated weather stations. SYNOP reports are typically sent every six hours by Deutscher Wetterdienst on shortwave and low frequency using RTTY. A report consists of groups of numbers (and slashes where data is not available) describing general weather information, such as the temperature, barometric pressure and visibility at a weather station. It can be decoded by open-source software such as seaTTY, metaf2xml or Fldigi.

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