Deutsche Telekom

Deutsche Telekom AG (German pronunciation: [ˌdɔʏtʃə ˈteːləkɔm ʔaːˌɡeː] (listen); short form in writing only: DT; stylised as ·T···) is a German telecommunications company headquartered in Bonn and by revenue the largest telecommunications provider in Europe. Deutsche Telekom was formed in 1996, as the former state-owned monopoly Deutsche Bundespost was privatised. The company operates several subsidiaries worldwide, including the mobile communications brand T-Mobile.

As of May 2019, the German government holds a 14.5% stake in company stock directly, and another 17.4% through the government bank KfW.[4] The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.[5]

Deutsche Telekom AG
Aktiengesellschaft
Traded asFWBDTE
IndustryTelecommunications
Founded1995
(Privatisation)
1996
(Flotation)
HeadquartersBonn, Germany
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Timotheus Höttges
(CEO and Chairman)
Ulrich Lehner
(Chairman of the Supervisory board)
ProductsFixed-line
Mobile phone
Broadband
Digital television
Digital Media
IT Services
Networking Solutions
RevenueIncrease 75.66 billion (2018)[1]
Increase €9.16 billion (2018)[1]
Decrease €2.2 billion (2018)[1]
Total assetsDecrease €145.4 billion (2018)[1]
Total equityDecrease €22.7 billion (2018)[1]
OwnerFree float (68.1%)[2]
Federal Republic of Germany (31.9%)
Number of employees
216,000 (2018)[1]
Subsidiaries
Websitewww.telekom.com www.telekom.de
Footnotes / references
[3]

History

The Deutsche Bundespost was the federal German government postal administration created in 1947 as a successor to the Reichspost. It was also the major telephone company in West Germany.

On 1 July 1989, as part of a post office reform, Deutsche Bundespost was split into three entities, one being Deutsche Telekom. On 1 January 1995, as part of another reform, Deutsche Bundespost Telekom became Deutsche Telekom AG, and was privatized in 1996. As such, it shares a common heritage with the other privatized Deutsche Bundespost companies, Deutsche Post (DHL) and Deutsche Postbank.[6][7]

Deutsche Telekom was the monopoly Internet service provider (ISP) for the German Internet until its privatization in 1995, and the dominant ISP thereafter.[8] Until the early 21st century, Deutsche Telekom controlled almost all Internet access by individuals and small businesses in Germany, as they were one of the first German telecom units.[8]

On 6 December 2001, Deutsche Telekom became the first official partner of the 2006 FIFA World Cup.[9]

On 1 January 2005, Deutsche Telekom implemented a new company structure. The two organizational business units of T-Com and T-Online were merged into the Broadband/Fixed Network (BBFN) strategic business unit (T-Online merged with parent Deutsche Telekom in 2006). It provides around 40 million narrowband lines, over 9 million broadband lines and has 14 million registered Internet customers.

In 2008, the structure was changed again. T-Online was separated from Deutsche Telekom, and merged with T-Com to form the new unit T-Home. In September 2010, Orange parent France Télécom and T-Mobile parent Deutsche Telekom merged their operations in the United Kingdom to create the largest mobile network in Britain, EE.[10]

In April 2010, T-Mobile was merged with T-Home to form Telekom Deutschland GmbH. This unit now handles all products and services aimed at private customers. In October 2012, Deutsche Telekom and Orange created a 50-50% joint venture named BuyIn for regrouping their procurement operations and benefiting from economies of scale.[11]

In April 2013, T-Mobile US and MetroPCS merged their operations in the United States.[12] In February 2014, Deutsche Telekom acquired the remaining parts of its T-Mobile Czech Republic division for around €800 million. The size of the remaining stake was numbered at 40 percent.[13]

In December 2014, it was announced that Deutsche Telekom were in talks with BT Group on the acquisition of EE, and part of the deal was to provide Deutsche Telekom a 12% stake and a seat on the board in the BT Group upon completion.[14][15] BT Group announced agreement in February 2015 to acquire EE for £12.5 billion[16] and received regulatory approval from the Competition and Markets Authority on 15 January 2016.[17] The transaction was completed on 29 January 2016.[18]

In February 2016, at the Mobile World Congress, in Barcelona, Deutsche Telekom jointly launched the Telecom Infra Project (TIP) with Intel, Nokia, Facebook, Equinix, SK Telecom, and others, which builds on the Open Compute Project model to accelerate innovation in the telecom industry.[19]

Finances

For the fiscal year 2017, Deutsche Telekom reported earnings of EUR€3.5 billion, with an annual revenue of EUR€74.9 billion, an increase of 2.5% over the previous fiscal cycle.[20] Deutsche Telekom's shares traded at over €14 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at US€68.4 billion in November 2018.[21]

Year Revenue
in bn. EUR€
Net income
in bn. EUR€
Total Assets
in bn. EUR€
Employees
2013 60.132 930 118.148 230,000
2014 62.658 2.924 129.360 228,248
2015 69.228 3.254 143.920 266,232
2016 73.095 2.675 148.485 221,000
2017 74.947 3.461 141.334 216,000

Operations

Deutsche Telekom world locations
Deutsche Telekom world locations

Deutsche Telekom also holds substantial shares in other telecom companies, including Central European subsidiaries Slovak Telekom (Slovakia), Magyar Telekom (Hungary). Furthermore, Magyar Telekom holds majority shares in Makedonski Telekom (Macedonia), and Hrvatski Telekom (Croatia) holds majority shares in Crnogorski Telekom (Montenegro).

DT also holds shares in the Hellenic telecommunication operator OTE, which also have shares in several other companies like the mobile operators Telekom Albania, Telekom Romania and the IT&C retailer Germanos. Deutsche Telekom also operates a wholesale division named International Carrier Sales & Solutions (ICSS) that provides white label voice and data solutions to large carriers including T-Mobile.[22][23]

Operation of telephone companies involves billing-software or "BSS". Deutsche Telekom`s T-Mobile billing was performed on Israeli-backend systems until 2014, when Ericsson was selected to replace the Israeli-backend.

Deutsche Telekom Global Carrier
Formerly
Deutsche Telekom International Carrier Sales & Solutions
Division
IndustryTelecommunications Network Service Provider
Headquarters
Germany
Websitehttps://globalcarrier.telekom.com
Primary ASN3320
Traffic Levels10+ Terabit/s

Deutsche Telekom Global Carrier[24]

formerly known as Deutsche Telekom International Sales and Solutions. It is an international wholesale arm of Deutsche Telekom. The products include Voice Termination, Ethernet, IP-Transit, Mobile and Roaming as well as In-flight Internet Access for aviation industry. It operates a Tier-1 Network

European Aviation Network

together with Inmarsat and Nokia, Deutsche Telekom develops a hybrid-network for faster internet access on board the planes in Europe. It is a combination of data transmission via Inmarsat Satellite and Deutsche Telekom's LTE ground station throughout European continent.

International subsidiaries[25]

Places of operations, subsidiaries and affiliates
Country Subsidiaries & Affialiates Stake held by Deutsche Telekom
Argentina T-Systems Argentina S.A. 100.00 %
Austria Magenta Telekom Austria GmbH 100.00 %
Software Daten Service Gesellschaft m.b.H. 100.00 %
T-Systems Austria GesmbH 100.00 %
Belgium T-Systems Belgium NV 100.00 %
Brazil T-Systems do Brasil Ltda. 100.00 %
Bulgaria Novatel EOOD 100.00 %
Canada T-Systems Canada, Inc. 100.00 %
China T-Systems P.R. China Ltd. 100.00 %
Croatia Hrvatski Telekom d.d. 51.00 %
Czech Republic T-Mobile Czech Republic, a.s. 100.00 %
Denmark T-Systems Nordic TC A/S 100.00 %
Finland TSI Finnland 100.00 %
France T-Systems France SAS 100.00 %
Germany Deutsche Telekom AG / Group Headquarters 100.00 %
Telekom Deutschland GmbH 100.00 %
T-Systems International GmbH 100.00 %
Greece OTE (Hellenic Telecommunications Organization S.A.) 45.00 %
Cosmote (Cosmote Mobile Telecommunications S.A.) 100.00 % of shares held by OTE
T-Systems Information and Communication Technology E.P.E. 100.00 %
Hungary Magyar Telekom Nyrt. 59.30 %
IT Services Hungary Szolgáltató Kft. 100.00 %
India T-Systems Information and Communication Technology India Private Limited 100.00 %
Luxembourg T-Systems Luxembourg S.A. 100.00 %
Malaysia T-Systems Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. 100.00 %
Mexico T-Systems Mexico S.A. de C.V. 100.00 %
Montenegro Crnogorski Telekom A.D. 76,53 % of shares held by Hrvatski Telekom d.d.
Netherlands T-Mobile Netherlands B.V. 75.00 %
T-Systems Nederland B.V. 100.00 %
Tele2 Netherlands 100.00 % of shares held by T-Mobile Netherlands B.V.
Ben Netherlands 100.00 % of shares held by T-Mobile Netherlands B.V.
North Macedonia Makedonski Telekom AD 51,00 % of shares held by Magyar Telekom
Poland T-Mobile Polska S.A. 100.00 %
T-Systems Polska Sp.z o.o. 100.00 %
Romania Combridge S.R.L. 100.00 % of shares held by Magyar Telekom
Telekom Romania Communications S.A. 54.01 % of shares held by OTE
Telekom Romania Mobile Communications S.A. 100.00 % of shares held by Cosmote & OTE
T-Systems ICT Romania S.R.L. 100.00 %
GTS Telecom S.R.L. 100.00 %
Russia T-Systems CIS 100.00 %
Singapore T-Systems Singapore Pte. Ltd. 100.00 %
Slovakia Slovak Telekom, a.s. 100.00 %
T-Systems Slovakia s.r.o. 100.00 %
South Africa T-Systems South Africa (Pty) Limited 70.00 %
Spain T-Systems ITC Iberia, S.A. 100.00 %
Sweden T-Systems Nordic TC A/S 100.00 %
Switzerland T-Systems Schweiz AG 100.00 %
Turkey T-Systems Telekomünikasyon Limited Sirketi 100.00 %
Ukraine Novatel Ukraine LLC. 100.00 % of shares held by Magyar Telekom
United Kingdom Deutsche Telekom (UK) Ltd 100.00 %
BT Group plc [26] 12.00 %
T-Systems Limited 100.00 %
United States T-Mobile US, Inc. 64.78 %
T-Systems North America, Inc. 100.00 %

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Annual Report 2018" (PDF).
  2. ^ "The 2015 Financial Year". Deutsche Telekom. Archived from the original on 17 October 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-09-04. Retrieved 2011-04-30.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Deutsche Telekom Organisational Structure
  4. ^ AG, Deutsche Telekom. "Deutsche Telekom: Aktionärsstruktur". www.telekom.com (in German). Retrieved 2017-11-04.
  5. ^ Frankfurt Stock Exchange Archived November 19, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Rüdiger, Ariane. "Die Geschichte der Deutschen Telekom (german)". PC Welt, Germany. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  7. ^ Matthews, Christopher (2 February 2012). "The 11 Largest IPOs in U.S. History". Time Inc. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  8. ^ a b Waesche, Niko Marcel (2003). Internet Entrepreneurship in Europe: Venture Failure and the Timing of Telecommunications Reform. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 162–164. ISBN 978-1-84376-135-8.
  9. ^ "Deutsche Telekom becomes Official Partner of 2006 FIFA World Cup Germany™". fifa.com. 6 December 2001. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  10. ^ "BBC News - T-Mobile and Orange in UK merger". Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  11. ^ "Home - BuyIn". Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  12. ^ "Deutsche Telekom to merge U.S. ops with MetroPCS". The Verge. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  13. ^ Reuters (9 February 2014). "Deutsche Telekom buys remainder of T-Mobile Czech unit". Reuters.
  14. ^ "BT in talks to buy mobile phone operator EE for £12.5bn". The Guardian. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  15. ^ Neville, Simon (5 February 2015). "BT returns to mobile phones with £12.5bn takeover of EE". The Independent. London.
  16. ^ "BT to buy mobile firm EE for £12.5bn". bbc.co.uk. BBC. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  17. ^ "BT takeover of EE gets final Competition and Markets Authority clearance". BBC News. 15 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  18. ^ "BT Group PLC Completion of the acquisition of EE Limited". 4-traders. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  19. ^ "Facebook starts Telecom Infra Project with Intel, Nokia, Deutsche Telekom, EE, Equinix, Globe, HCL, others", by Jordan Novet, Venture Beat, February 21, 2016.
  20. ^ "Deutsche Telekom Bilanz, Gewinn und Umsatz | Deutsche Telekom Geschäftsbericht | 555750". wallstreet-online.de. Retrieved 2018-11-05.
  21. ^ "DTE.DE Key Statistics | DT.TELEKOM AG NA Stock - Yahoo Finance". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2018-11-05.
  22. ^ http://www.telekom-icss.com/factsandfigures
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-02. Retrieved 2017-01-15.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "Deutsche Telekom Global Carrier".
  25. ^ "Deutsche Telekom Global Presence".
  26. ^ Farrell, Sean; Davies, Rob (2016-01-15). "BT's £12.5bn EE takeover gets green light". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-08-03.

External links

Media related to Deutsche Telekom at Wikimedia Commons

HTC–Highroad

HTC–Highroad (UCI team code: THR) is a former professional cycling team competing in international road bicycle races. Their last title sponsor was HTC Corporation, a Taiwanese manufacturer of smartphones but dissolved at the end of the 2011 season from a failure to find a new sponsor. High Road Sports was the management company of team manager Bob Stapleton. Past title sponsors include Columbia Sportswear and Deutsche Telekom.

The team was founded in 1991 as Team Telekom, sponsored by Deutsche Telekom. In 2004 their name changed to the T-Mobile Team. The team was under the management of Bob Stapleton and Rolf Aldag. Former leaders included Olaf Ludwig, Walter Godefroot and Eddy Vandenhecke (managers), Luuc Eisenga (spokesperson) and Brian Holm, Valerio Piva (sports directors).

Hrvatski Telekom

Hrvatski Telekom d.d. is a Croatian telecommunications company. Since its initial public offering in October 2007, Hrvatski Telekom shares have traded on the Zagreb Stock Exchange, with global depositary receipts trading on the London Stock Exchange. As of 2016, Deutsche Telekom AG owned 51% of HT's shares, with the Raiffeisen Mandatory Pension Funds, Croatian War Veterans’ Fund and the Croatian government's Restructuring and Sale Center holding 8.9%, 6.7% and 2.9% respectively. The remaining free float was in the hands of private investors.The company offers fixed telephony, broadband internet, IPTV, and mobile telephony as its main services.

Internet in Germany

The prevalent means of connecting to the Internet in Germany is DSL, introduced by Deutsche Telekom in 1999. Other technologies such as Cable, FTTH and FTTB (fiber), Satellite, UMTS/HSDPA (mobile) and LTE are available as alternatives.

MAGENTA

In cryptography, MAGENTA is a symmetric key block cipher developed by Michael Jacobson Jr. and Klaus Huber for Deutsche Telekom. The name MAGENTA is an acronym for Multifunctional Algorithm for General-purpose Encryption and Network Telecommunication Applications. (The color magenta is also part of the corporate identity of Deutsche Telekom.) The cipher was submitted to the Advanced Encryption Standard process, but did not advance beyond the first round; cryptographic weaknesses were discovered and it was found to be one of the slower ciphers submitted.MAGENTA has a block size of 128 bits and key sizes of 128, 192 and 256 bits. It is a Feistel cipher with six or eight rounds.

After the presentation of the cipher at the first AES conference, several cryptographers immediately found vulnerabilities. These were written up and presented at the second AES conference (Biham et al., 1999).

Magenta Telekom

Magenta Telekom is the second largest mobile and fixed company in Austria. It is wholly owned by Deutsche Telekom. As of 2017, it has 5.7 million customers.The company was branded as T-Mobile Austria until 6 May 2019.

Magyar Telekom

Magyar Telekom Nyrt. ("Hungarian Telekom Plc."; full legal name: Magyar Telekom Távközlési Nyilvánosan Működő Részvénytársaság, "Magyar Telekom Telecommunications Public Limited Company") is the largest Hungarian telecommunications company. The former monopolist is now a subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom (in 59.21% of shares). Until 6 May 2005, it was (and informally still is) known as MATÁV (Magyar Távközlési Rt. - Hungarian Telecommunications PLC.). The company was formed under the name of Magyar Távközlési Vállalat (Hungarian Telecommunications Enterprise) in December 1989, when Magyar Posta (Hungarian Post) was split to three separate enterprises. On 31 December 1991, the company was re-structured as a Public Limited Company, as Magyar Távközlési Rt., and the company remained in 100% state ownership until the end of 1993. On 1 July 1993, the Telecommunications Act came into effect, and now it was possible to privatise the company. A consortium was formed by Deutsche Telekom and Ameritech International, which was named MagyarCom, and bought into the company a share of 30.1% for a price of 875 million USD.

OTE

Hellenic Telecommunications Organisation S.A., usually known by its Greek initials OTE, is the dominant telecommunications provider in Greece. Along with its subsidiaries, is one of the largest telecommunication corporations in the southeast of Europe. OTE Group offers broadband services, fixed and mobile telephony, high-speed data communications and leased line services. In addition, the company is involved in a range of activities, notably satellite communications, real-estate and professional training. At present, OTE companies employ about 30,000 people in 4 countries. Formerly a state-owned monopoly, OTE's privatisation started in 1996 and is now listed on the Athens and London Stock Exchanges.Since July 2009 Deutsche Telekom is the largest shareholder of the company.

In September 2015, the company announced that they are to discontinue the use of the OTE brand name and that they will adopt Cosmote as their uniform commercial brand for all services. The company chose not to adopt the Deutsche Telekom brand under which name they operate in their Central and Eastern European operations.

Powertel (United States)

Powertel Inc. was a mobile network operator headquartered in West Point, Georgia, United States that provided analog cellular and digital PCS mobile communications services in the Southeastern United States. Powertel traces its roots to the May, 1989 incorporation in Georgia of Interstate Cellular, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of ITC Holding Company, Inc. Interstate Cellular was formed to acquire cellular telephone licenses and construct and operate cellular telephone systems.

SAT-2

SAT-2 was a submarine communications cable linking Melkbosstrand, South Africa, to El Medano, Tenerife Island, Spain and Funchal, Madeira islands, Portugal. It was 9,500 kilometres long, contains 82 repeaters, operates at 560 Mbit/s and was in service from 1993 to January, 2013.

It is the property of Telkom SA Ltd, Telefónica, Marconi, British Telecom, France Cables et Radio, and Deutsche Telekom.

Slovak Telekom

Slovak Telekom is the convergent telco provider with the largest internet, fixed-line, digital TV, ICT and mobile services portfolio. The company is 100% owned by Deutsche Telekom AG.

The Slovak Telekom Group consists of the parent company Slovak Telekom a.s. and its subsidiaries Zoznam s.r.o., Zoznam Mobile s.r.o., Telekom Sec s.r.o., PosAm s.r.o., and DIGI SLOVAKIA s.r.o.

SunCom

SunCom Wireless Holdings, Inc. was a wireless carrier that operated in the Southeastern United States since 1999 and in parts of the Caribbean since 2004. From the "About Us" section of the company's website:

SunCom provides digital wireless communications services to more than 1 million subscribers in the markets with international, national and regional calling plans and access to the largest GSM network in the country.As of the third quarter of 2007, SunCom was providing digital wireless communications services to approximately 1.1 million customers and employed more than 1,900 people. In February 2008, SunCom was acquired by T-Mobile USA, Inc., a subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom AG. The company traded on the NYSE under the TPC ticker symbol.In September 2008, the SunCom brand was phased out and rebranded under the T-Mobile name.

T-Mobile

T-Mobile (stylised as ·T···Mobile·) is the brand name used by the mobile communications subsidiaries of the German telecommunications company Deutsche Telekom AG. The brand is active in the Czech Republic (T-Mobile Czech Republic), the Netherlands (T-Mobile Netherlands), Poland (T-Mobile Polska), and the United States (T-Mobile US).

The name was previously used by subsidiaries in other countries, including Albania (now Telekom Albania), Austria (now Magenta Telekom), Croatia (now Hrvatski Telekom), Germany (now Deutsche Telekom), Hungary (now Magyar Telekom), Montenegro (now Crnogorski Telekom), North Macedonia (now Makedonski Telekom), Romania (now Telekom Romania), Slovakia (now Slovak Telekom). and the United Kingdom (now EE Limited), Since 1999, Deutsche Telekom owned the holding company T-Mobile International AG for its mobile communications subsidiaries. From 2003 to 2007, T-Mobile International was one of Deutsche Telekom's segments beside the segments of 'Broadband/Fixnet', 'Business Customers' and 'Group HQ and Shared Services'. In 2009, Deutsche Telekom transformed its structure to adopt a regional setup (Germany, Europe, USA) by combining its previously separated fixed and mobile subsidiaries to form integrated local businesses, T-Mobile International itself was merged into Deutsche Telekom AG.When T-Mobile International AG existed, the holding company was based in Bonn, Germany and its subsidiaries operated GSM, UMTS and LTE-based cellular networks in Europe, the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The company had financial stakes in mobile operators in both Central and Eastern Europe. Globally, T-Mobile International's subsidiaries had a combined total of approximately 230 million subscribers. T-Mobile International was the world's thirteenth-largest mobile-phone service provider by subscribers and the fourth-largest multinational after the UK's Vodafone, India's Airtel, and Spain's Telefónica.

T-Mobile US

T-Mobile US, Inc., commonly shortened to T-Mobile, is a United States-based wireless network operator whose majority shareholder is the German telecommunications company Deutsche Telekom (DT). Its headquarters are located in Bellevue, Washington, in the Seattle metropolitan area. T-Mobile is the third largest wireless carrier in the United States with 81.3 million customers as of Q1 2019.T-Mobile US provides wireless voice and data services in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands under the T-Mobile and Metro by T-Mobile brands (which it acquired in a reverse takeover in 2013, resulting in the company going public on the NASDAQ stock exchange), and also serves as the host network for many mobile virtual network operators. The company has annual revenues of over $40 billion. In 2015, Consumer Reports named T-Mobile the number one American wireless carrier. In 2017, T-Mobile was ranked #1 in Customer Service Satisfaction by Nielsen.

T-Systems

T-Systems is a German global IT services and consulting company headquartered in Frankfurt. Founded in 2000, it is a subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom.

As of 2012, T-Systems was the largest German and one of the largest European IT services companies, serving customers such as WestLB, Old Mutual, Daimler, Volkswagen, Royal Dutch Shell, Sanlam, Murray & Roberts, BP, TUI AG, De Agostini, Philips, MAN SE, Airbus, E.ON. and British American Tobacco.

The company operates in more than 20 countries and in 2015 employed 45,990 people, in 2003 were approximately 50,000 people worldwide, among them around 27,000 in Germany and 23,000 outside. Since December 2007 Reinhard Clemens has been the CEO. Before that, he had been president of EDS (now HP Enterprise Services) Germany since 2003.

Since January 2018 Adel Al-Saleh is the CEO of T-Systems.

In June 2018, T-Systems announced it will cut 10,000 jobs in 3 years, including 6,000 in Germany, with the hope of returning the company to profitability.

TAT-14

TAT-14 is the 14th consortium transatlantic telecommunications cable system. In operation from 2001, it uses wavelength division multiplexing. The cable system is built from multiple pairs of fibres—one fibre in each pair is used for data carried in one direction and the other in the opposite direction. Although optical fibre can be used in both directions simultaneously, for reliability it is better not to require splitting equipment at the end of the individual fibre to separate transmit and receive signals—hence a fibre pair is used. TAT-14 uses four pairs of fibres—two pairs as active and two as backup. Each fibre in each pair carries 16 wavelengths in one direction, and each wavelength carries up to an STM-256 (38,486,016 kbit/s as payload). The fibres are bundled into submarine cables connecting the United States and the European Union (United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark) in a ring topology.By the time this cable went into operation, the expected long boom (term coined by Wired magazine) was already ending in the dot-com death. The overinvestment in transcontinental optical fiber capacity led to a financial crisis in private cable operators like Global Crossing.

In the cables leak released by WikiLeaks, it is revealed that the landing point in Katwijk, the Netherlands is included in a US Government list of critical infrastructure susceptible to terrorist attack.

Telecommunications in Germany

Telecommunications in Germany is highly developed. Germany telecommunication market has been fully liberalized since January 1, 1998. Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to foreign countries. As a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly antiquated system of the eastern part of the country has been rapidly modernized to the most advanced technology. Deutsche Telekom began rolling out FTTH networks in ten cities in 2011, following the launch of pilot projects in Hennigsdorf, Braunschweig and Dresden in 2010.

Telekom Romania

Telekom Romania (formerly known as Romtelecom and Cosmote România) is a Romanian telecommunications company headquartered in Bucharest. It is the result of the brand merger between Romtelecom and Cosmote Romania. Although it shares the branding of Deutsche Telekom, the company is a subsidiary of OTE, a Greek telecommunications company (which is in turn minority-controlled by Deutsche Telekom).

Telekom Romania offers fixed telephony, mobile telephony, broadband internet, IPTV and IT services.

Tolino

Tolino is a brand name of e-readers and tablets marketed by leading booksellers in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland in cooperation with Deutsche Telekom. Since 2014, the e-reader has also been available in Belgium, Netherlands, and Italy.It was purchased in January 2017 by Rakuten Kobo Inc.

Vodafone Kabel Deutschland

Vodafone Kabel Deutschland is the largest cable television operator in Germany. Kabel Deutschland was subject to a hostile takeover bid by the British Vodafone Group in September 2013; the deal was approved in December 2013 and finalised on 29 January 2014. Until the takeover the company name was Kabel Deutschland.

Deutsche Telekom
Main companies
Main services
Mobile networks
Absorbed companies
Related
European Union Euro Stoxx 50 companies of the Euro Area
DAX companies of Germany
History
Pioneers
Transmission
media
Network topology
and switching
Multiplexing
Networks

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