Designated driver

The terms "designated driver" and "designated driving" (commonly known as DD), refer to the selection of a person who remains sober as the responsible driver of a vehicle whilst others have been allowed to drink alcoholic beverages.

Thus as a practical and ethical matter a designated driver is a person who abstains from alcohol on a social occasion in order to drive his or her companions home safely as an alternative to driving under the influence. In order to encourage these arrangements, some bar, restaurant and nightclub proprietors will offer free or reduced-price soft drinks to designated drivers.[1]

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A designated driver on New Year's Eve 2011

History

The designated driver concept was developed in Scandinavia over several decades beginning in the 1920s, leading to a formalized designated driver program in the 1980s.[2] The program was introduced in Canada in 1986 by Hiram Walker and Sons as "The Canadian Club Designated Driver Program". The program was accepted readily and supported by the police, Mothers Against Drunk Driving, the hospitality industry and the public. There were few if any detractors. The program was heavily promoted by Hiram Walker's President Doug Young and the company's PR agency Marshall Fenn Limited led by David Butler. The concept swept Canada, the United States and many other countries during 1986.

The concept was imported to the United States on a large scale in 1988 through the Harvard Alcohol Project,[2] an initiative by the Harvard School of Public Health's Center for Health Communication, led by Jay Winsten. With heavy involvement by television networks and Hollywood studios, the campaign popularized the concept through public service announcements, as well as the encouragement of drunk driving prevention messages and designated driver references in popular television programs,[2] such as Cheers, L.A. Law, and The Cosby Show. The U.S. Department of Transportation used public affairs commercials with the phrase "friends don't let friends drive drunk".[2]

President Bill Clinton participated in the designated driver campaign throughout his presidency, taping public service announcements each year at the request of the Harvard Alcohol Project.[3][4] With the endorsement of a broad range of individuals and organizations, designated driving became a national movement, with "designated driver" becoming a common phrase. Based on several polls indicating an increase in designated driving practices since the start of the initiative, the campaign is credited as a contributing factor to the decline in alcohol-related traffic fatalities between 1988 and 1994.[5]

Since 2005, the spirits company Diageo has used a similar concept in Brazil to discourage drunk driving. Called Piloto da Vez, the campaign was born with the sponsorship of McLaren. Juan Pablo Montoya, Mika Häkkinen and Lewis Hamilton have participated in the campaign.

In 2018 the concept of designated driver expanded to autonomous cars. A company, Designated.io, offers to accept the legal risk of self-driving cars and to be the legal driver.[6]

Impediments

Though designated drivers are popular, groups often fail to use them properly.[7] Often, there is a failure of those groups to designate the driver prior to making travel arrangements and arrive in separate vehicles. Even when a group does share a vehicle, it is not always the case that the designated driver remains sober. Failures to require driver abstinence or limitation of consumption is another problem. One study conducted at the Tijuana/San Diego border found that by asking groups intent on drinking to identify the designated driver prior to entering the bar district, the driver later returned with substantially lower BACs compared with the control groups.[8]

Advocacy groups

Various college and high school organizations, such as RamRide at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, CARPOOL at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas, or Drive Safe Kalamazoo, at Western Michigan University and BUSY at Gulfport High School in Gulfport, Mississippi offer to give free rides home on weekend nights to fellow students.

Businesses

United States

Numerous businesses have sprouted up across the United States to help address the problem of drinking and driving. Some transport their drivers home, as passengers, using one of three methods: car, collapsible scooter, or foldable bike. These are not necessarily true designated driver programs, but instead Safe Ride programs, as the sober driver is not designated from within the natural drinking group.[9] Designated Drivers, Inc, was founded in 1998 and later based out of Las Vegas, NV. This company has used two person teams: one person to drive the impaired individual in their own vehicle, and the other person as the follow driver. Pittsburgh's Pear Transportation Company, aka The Pear Cares, has also become well known for using the two-person team approach.[10] Dryver, formerly known as BeMyDD, established itself by offering designated driver services for events, car pickups for drivers who are too impaired to make it home, and personal drivers for evenings out.[11] NightRiders, Incorporated was the first company to use collapsible, motorized scooters in the US. The drivers drove customers home using their own vehicles, stowing a scooter in the customer's trunk (or truck). Upon arrival to the customer's destination, the driver parked the vehicle, collected the fare, assembled the scooter from the vehicle, and rode off to the next customer. This company is now out of business, according to their website. Zingo Transportation has operated this kind of service in southern US cities since 2005.

South Korea

Designated driver services in South Korea are widely prevalent and in high demand, especially in major cities such as Seoul and Busan. Designated driver call centers operate as a central dispatch with some vendors providing mobile apps to request a driver. The driver arrives at the location of the customer's vehicle and will drive it to the requested location for a fee. The Korean language word for these designated drivers for hire is 'dae-ri un-jeon' (대리운전) meaning replacement driver. According to the Korea Service Driver Society, an estimated 100,000 replacement drivers handle 700,000 customers a day across the country (2007) [12]

Australia

Designated driver services in Australia exist in many capital cities and regional towns. The service is in high demand due to highly regulated, unreliable taxi services.[13]

New Zealand

In 2017, Coca-Cola announced a promotion to encourage people to have sober drivers by offering free Coca-Cola.[14]

Canada

Ontario

Canada has a long history with designated driver services provided by private enterprise going back to 1996 in Ontario. One of central Ontario's largest designated driver services CABn aHALF has transported thousands of clients home over the years. In the last 5 to 6 years, a number of designated driving services have cropped up all over the province with companies such as The DD Service bringing technology and professionalism to industry.[15]

British Columbia

B.C. has a huge market of designated driver services and new are created monthly. Companies throughout the province work 7 days a week to drive intoxicated individuals home in their own vehicles for a fee. If you expect customer service it is not the goal. The DD industry is not regular means for travel but a lifeline service [16]

Hong Kong

The designated driver service in Hong Kong still under the initial stage. Some company conduct the profession service for public such as Hong Kong Designated Driver Limited (HKDD) and easydrive in Hong Kong work whole week to help individuals safely go home in their own cars. The HKDD also provide Android and iOS mobile APP for their users.[17][18]

Partnerships

British Columbia, Canada

Some designated driver services have formed a special bond between breathalyzer manufacturers/distributors. They operate by combining their services at the point of sale during a special licensed event. Such events have been the Rockin' River Music Festival (2013), and Gone Country: Here for the Cure (2013). By allowing guests to know whether they are legal to drive and educate them on the current local laws concerning DUI, this method has been shown to reduce the potential for incidence related to drinking and driving. All intoxicated persons can be referred to waiting drivers on standby to take them home in their own vehicle safely. Currently only one company in Canada, Canadian Breath Analyzer or CBAC" conducts operations with local licensed designated driver services.

References

  1. ^ "CHEERS General FAQ's". University of Missouri-Columbia. Retrieved 2011-11-08.
  2. ^ a b c d Greenberg, Martin Alan (2005-09-28). "7. Potential Roles for Volunteer Police Service". Citizens Defending America: From Colonial Times to the Age of Terrorism (1 ed.). University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-8229-4264-1. OCLC 57754151. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
  3. ^ Solomon-Schwartz, Benjamin P. (1999-11-30). "Clinton Appears in Announcement Encouraging Y2K Designated Driving". The Harvard Crimson. Archived from the original on 2004-11-07. Retrieved 2008-08-23. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  4. ^ Elliott, Stuart (1992-12-23). "THE MEDIA BUSINESS - ADVERTISING; A (Nearly) Presidential Call for Care in Holiday Imbibing". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-23.
  5. ^ Winsten, Jay A. (2000). "The Harvard Alcohol Project: Promoting the "Designated Driver"". In Suman, Michael; Rossman, Gabriel (eds.). Advocacy Groups and the Entertainment Industry. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. pp. 3–8. doi:10.1336/0275968855. ISBN 978-0-275-96885-4.
  6. ^ "Designated.io – a legal vehicle that drives autonomous vehicles". Retrieved 2018-10-30.
  7. ^ Fell, J., Voas, R., & Lange, J. (1997). Designated Driver Concept: Extent of Use in the USA. J Traffic Med, 25(3-4).
  8. ^ Lange, J. E., Reed, M. B., Johnson, M. B., & Voas, R. B. (2006). The efficacy of experimental interventions designed to reduce drinking among designated drivers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67(2), 261-268.
  9. ^ Lange, J. E., Johnson, M. B., & Reed, M. B. (2006). Drivers within natural drinking groups: An exploration of role selection, motivation, and group influence on driver sobriety. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 32, 261-274.
  10. ^ Goga, Jennifer (2009-12-09). "Service caters to those too drunk to drive". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2009-12-09.
  11. ^ Group, IPD (2016-11-16). "BeMyDD and Dryver.com Merge to Expand Nation's #1 Largest Personal Driver Service". EIN Newsdesk. Retrieved 2016-12-13.
  12. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/10/world/asia/10korea.html?_r=0
  13. ^ http://au.news.yahoo.com/thewest/a/-/latest/8469240/pre-booking-taxi-wont-beat-crowd/
  14. ^ https://www.stuff.co.nz/business/better-business/98398614/free-coke-for-sober-drivers-in-waikato
  15. ^ http://www.autos.ca/health-and-safety/feature-drinking-and-driving-alternatives/
  16. ^ http://www.am730.ca/syn/112/217213/customer-service-called-into-question-at-surrey-based-sober-girls-ride-for-hire
  17. ^ http://paper.hket.com/article/1423000/%E6%B8%AF%E9%A6%96%E5%80%8B%E4%BB%A3%E9%A7%95App%20%E6%94%BB%E5%B0%88%E6%A5%AD%E4%BA%BA%E5%A3%AB
  18. ^ http://www.parentingheadline.com/index.php/zh/%E8%A6%AA%E5%AD%90%E9%A0%AD%E6%A2%9D/3111-%E3%80%90%E8%A6%AA%E5%AD%90%E9%A0%AD%E6%A2%9D%E3%80%91%E5%85%A8%E6%B8%AF%E9%A6%96%E5%80%8B%E4%BB%A3%E9%A7%95app%E7%99%BB%E9%99%B8
Alcohol industry

The alcohol industry, also known by neo-prohibitionists as Big Alcohol, is the commercial industry involved in the manufacturing, distribution, and sale of alcoholic beverages. The industry has been criticised in the 1990s for deflecting attention away from the problems associated with alcohol use. The alcohol industry has also been criticised for being unhelpful in reducing the harm of alcohol.The World Bank works with and invests in alcohol industry projects when positive effects with regard to public health concerns and social policy are demonstrated. Alcohol industry sponsored education to reduce the harm of alcohol actually results in an increase in the harm of alcohol. As a result, it has been recommended that the alcohol industry does not become involved in alcohol policy or educational programs.In the UK the New Labour government took the view that working with the alcohol industry to reduce harm was the most effective strategy. However, alcohol-related harm and alcohol abuse increased. The alcohol industry has been accused of exaggerating the health benefits of alcohol which is regarded as a potentially dangerous recreational drug with potentially serious adverse effects on health.Since ethanol was classified as Class I carcinogen and there is no safe dose of alcohol; the alcohol industry is considered one of main contributor to formation of

civilization or lifestyle diseases. The alcohol industry has tried to actively mislead the public about the risk of cancer due to alcohol consumption, in addition to campaigning to remove laws that require alcoholic beverages to have cancer warning labels.

Angelina Armani

Angelina Armani (born November 18, 1987) is an American pornographic actress and adult model.

Barney Gumble

Barnard Arnold "Barney" Gumble is a recurring character in the American animated TV series The Simpsons. He is voiced by Dan Castellaneta and first appeared in the series premiere episode "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire".

Barney is the town drunk of Springfield and Homer Simpson's best friend. His desperation for alcohol is a frequent butt of jokes on the show, though Barney sobered up in the Season 11 episode "Days of Wine and D'oh'ses". Barney was inspired by the cartoon character Barney Rubble from The Flintstones and by several barflies from other television programs. In 2004, Castellaneta won an Emmy Award for voicing various characters, including Barney.

Barney can be seen in The Simpsons opening credits since 2009, passed out under a pile of leaves (but still holding his beloved bottle of Duff Beer) and being awoken by Bart Simpson skateboarding over his stomach, causing him to let out his trademark burp.

Bill's Bus

Bill's Bus is a privately owned commercial bus service that runs from Isla Vista, California to Goleta and Santa Barbara bars, picking up and dropping off college students. As an effort to prevent drunk driving, rides have sometimes been sponsored by local bars and UC Santa Barbara's Associated Students. It is popular among students, with multiple buses running on Thursdays and other busy nights.

Bob campaign

The Bob campaign aims to raise awareness of the dangers of drink-driving; drivers with high blood alcohol content are at increased risk of car accidents, highway injuries and vehicular deaths. Alongside the general information that is offered during the campaign, there is an increased police surveillance, especially during the weeks running up to Christmas and New Year's Eve. Most of all, the campaign focuses on a designated driver approach.

The Bob campaign originated in Belgium, in 1995, and the concept has been picked up in the Netherlands, France (but with Sam, In France) in 2006, Germany in 2007 and also Luxembourg, with every country adapting the formula to their audience.

Some media have spread the rumor that the acronym is derived from the Dutch phrase "Bewust Onbeschonken Bestuurder" which translates to "Consciously Non-Drunk Driver" or 'deliberately sober driver'. Many people have since believed that this is true, but Bob is just a name chosen by the Belgian government.

California Highway Patrol

The California Highway Patrol (CHP) is a law enforcement agency of California. The CHP has patrol jurisdiction over all California highways and are also known as the state police. They also have jurisdiction over city roads, and have the right to conduct law enforcement procedures there.

The California State Legislature originally established the California Highway Patrol as a branch of the Division of Motor Vehicles in the Department of Public Works, with legislation signed by Governor C. C. Young on August 14, 1929. It was subsequently established as a separate department with legislation signed by Governor Earl Warren in 1947. The CHP gradually assumed increased responsibility beyond the enforcement of the State Vehicle Act and eventually merged with the smaller California State Police in 1995. It is currently organized as part of the California State Transportation Agency (CALSTA).

In addition to its highway patrol duties, the CHP also provides other services including protecting state buildings and facilities (most notably the California State Capitol) and bodyguarding state officials. The CHP also works with municipal and federal law enforcement agencies, providing assistance in investigations, patrol and other aspects of law enforcement.

The California Highway Patrol is the largest state police agency in the United States, with more than 10,700 employees, 7,500 of whom are sworn officers, according to FBI data.

Chauffeur

A chauffeur is a person employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle, especially a luxury vehicle such as a large sedan or limousine. A woman employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle is a chauffeuse.

Originally, such drivers were often personal employees of the vehicle owner, but now in many cases specialist chauffeur service companies or individual drivers provide both driver and vehicle for hire, although there are service companies that just provide the driver.

Drunk drivers

People driving under the influence of alcohol are commonly referred to as drunk drivers, or drink-drivers.

"[a]lcohol-related motor vehicle accidents claim 17,000 American lives each year- the equivalent of one death every 30 minutes. An increase of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.02 percent doubles the relative risk of a motor vehicle crash among 16- to 20-year-old males, and that risk increases to nearly 52 times when the BAC is between 0.08 percent and 0.10 percent, the legal limits in many states."

About 25% of all road fatalities in Europe are alcohol-related whereas about only 1,6% of all kilometres driven in Europe are driven by drivers with 0,5 g/l alcohol or more in their blood.

Laws are also in place to protect citizens from the consequences incurred by drunk drivers.

In fact "To help control the number of drunk driving episodes, states have lowered the blood alcohol content limit to .08%." In terms of American law driving under the influence or while intoxicated "is never a defense to a crime or motor-vehicle infraction involving reckless behavior."When charged with this as a crime, it may either be referred to as a DUI (Driving Under the Influence) or a DWI (Driving While Intoxicated), where a DUI is generally considered to be a lesser crime.

Studies have been performed to identify commonalities between severe drunk drivers.

Funny or Die Presents

Funny or Die Presents is a half-hour sketch comedy show that spawned from the comedy website Funny or Die, created by Will Ferrell & Adam McKay. It premiered on HBO on February 19, 2010. It is also currently being broadcast in the UK on Sky Atlantic.

Greg Arnold

Gregory Charles "Greg" Arnold is a singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, producer and academic. Arnold won the APRA Songwriter of the Year award in 1993 and performs regularly as a solo artist and with his folk rock band, Things of Stone and Wood.

Kakao T

Kakao T (formerly KakaoTaxi) is a Korean transportation service app launched by Kakao Mobility, a subsidiary of Kakao in 2017. The service provides taxi-hailing, designated driver booking, nearby parking space searching, and real-time traffic information service.The service was launched originally as Kakao Taxi, a taxi-calling service app launched on March 31, 2015 that connects users who needs a ride to taxi drivers. In 2017, Kakao rebranded the platform as Kakao T, where "T" stands for "transportation", merging their key transportation services into one mobile app. The service was made available in Japan in May 2017 thanks to a partnership with JapanTaxi.

List of Funny or Die Presents episodes

Funny or Die Presents is a half-hour sketch comedy show that spawned from the comedy video website created by Will Ferrell and Adam McKay, Funny or Die. It premiered on HBO on February 19, 2010.

NightRiders, Incorporated

NightRiders, Incorporated was the first U.S. designated-driver-for-hire service to use collapsible motor scooters, also known as monkey bikes.

Opération Nez rouge

Opération Nez rouge (literally, "Operation Red Nose"), founded in 1984, is an escorting service offered in Quebec and several francophone countries, as well as other places in Canada using both the French name and Operation Red Nose during the Christmas holiday season.

Oral sedation dentistry

Oral sedation dentistry is a medical procedure involving the administration of sedative drugs via an oral route, generally to facilitate a dental procedure and reduce patients anxiety related to the experience. Oral sedation is one of the available methods of conscious sedation dentistry, along with inhalation sedation (e.g., nitrous oxide) and conscious intravenous sedation. Benzodiazepines are commonly used, specifically triazolam. Triazolam is commonly selected for its rapid onset and limited duration of effect. An initial dose is usually taken approximately one hour before the dental appointment. Treatment may include additional dosing on the night proceeding the procedure, to mitigate anxiety-related insomnia. The procedure is generally recognized as safe, with the effective dosages being below levels sufficient to impair breathing.

Rebecca Romijn

Rebecca Alie Romijn ( roh-MAYN; Dutch: [roːˈmɛin]; born November 6, 1972) is an American actress and former model. She is known for her role as Mystique in the trilogy of the X-Men film series, and as Joan from The Punisher (2004), both of which are based on Marvel Comics. She also had a recurring role as Alexis Meade on the television series Ugly Betty. Recent major roles include as Eve Baird on the TNT series The Librarians, which ran for four seasons, and as the host of the game show Skin Wars.

The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson

"The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson" is the first episode of The Simpsons' ninth season. It was originally broadcast on the Fox network in the United States on September 21, 1997, as the 179th episode of the series. The episode features the Simpson family traveling to Manhattan to recover the family car, which was taken by Barney Gumble and abandoned outside the World Trade Center, where it has been repeatedly posted with parking tickets, and disabled with a parking boot.

Writer Ian Maxtone-Graham was interested in making an episode where the Simpson family travels to New York to retrieve their misplaced car. Executive producers Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein suggested that the car be found in Austin J. Tobin Plaza at the World Trade Center, as they wanted a location that would be widely known. Great lengths were taken to make a detailed replica of the borough of Manhattan. The episode received generally positive reviews, and has since been on accolade lists of The Simpsons episodes. The "You're Checkin' In" musical sequence won two awards. Because of the World Trade Center's main role, the episode was taken off syndication in many areas following the September 11 attacks, but had come back into syndication by 2006.

William DeJong

William DeJong (born 1950) is a Professor in the Department of Community Health Sciences at the Boston University School of Public Health.

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