Desert sparrow

The desert sparrow (Passer simplex) is a species of bird in the sparrow family Passeridae, found in the Sahara Desert of northern Africa. A similar bird, Zarudny's sparrow, is found in Central Asia and was historically recognised as a subspecies of the desert sparrow, but varies in a number of ways and is now recognised as a separate species by BirdLife International,[2][1] the IOC World Bird List,[3] and the Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive.[4]

The desert sparrow has two subspecies which occur in some of driest parts of the Sahara Desert in northern Africa. This species is becoming scarcer as a result of habitat destruction, but it is assessed on the IUCN Red List as being of least concern for conservation.[1] Zarudny's sparrow is also considered to be a least concern species,[2] as was the combined species recognised before 2012.[5]

The desert sparrow is not afraid to come near humans and sometimes builds nests in muddy walls. The Mozabite Berbers build their homes with holes in the walls to welcome these birds, which they call "bar-rode", and if one sings all day in the house, they say this is a sign of good news. The Tuareg, who call the bird "moula-moula", also say that this bird brings good news when it comes to stay near the camp.[6]

Desert sparrow pair

A pair of the subspecies P. s. saharae near Benichab, Mauritania

Passer simplex sahara MHNT 225 Oued-Mya Algérie

Eggs of Passer simplex saharae from the collections of the MHNT

Desert sparrow
Desert Sparrow - Merzouga - Morocco 07 7156 (22203842844)
Male in Morocco
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Passeridae
Genus: Passer
Species:
P. simplex
Binomial name
Passer simplex
(Lichtenstein, 1823)
PasserSimplex
The ranges of the desert sparrow and Zarudny's sparrow

References

  1. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Passer simplex". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  2. ^ a b BirdLife International (2016). "Passer zarudnyi". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T22736027A95123540. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22736027A95123540.en. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  3. ^ Gill, F.; Donsker, D. (eds.). "Updates: Species 3.1-3.5". IOC World Bird List. International Ornithological Congress. Retrieved 22 September 2017.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  4. ^ del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. (2017). "Zarudny's Sparrow (Passer zarudnyi)". In del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 23 September 2017.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  5. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Passer simplex". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
  6. ^ "The Desert Sparrow". The Emberiza Fund. Retrieved 8 August 2013.

External links

Black-throated sparrow

The black-throated sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata) is a small American sparrow primarily found in the southwestern United States and Mexico. It is sometimes referred to as the desert sparrow, due to its preferred habitat of arid desert hillsides and scrub. This name usually refers to the desert sparrow of Africa and Asia.

The black-throated sparrow reaches a length of about 4.5–5.5 inches (11–14 cm), and is pale gray above, with a distinctive black and white head pattern. Immature birds are similar but lack a black throat. Its call is high and bell-like, and its song is a fairly simple, mechanical tinkling. It feeds primarily on insects and seeds, and travels in small groups, though larger groups may accumulate around sources of water in the desert.

It has a loose nest of grass twigs and plant fibers carefully hidden in brush 6–18 inches (15–46 cm) above the ground. Three or four white or pale blue eggs are laid.

List of birds of Algeria

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Algeria. The avifauna of Algeria includes a total of 416 species, of which one is endemic, four have been introduced by humans and thirteen are rare or accidental. Seven species listed are extirpated in Algeria and are not included in the species count. Of these species, twelve are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Algeria.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Algeria

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Algeria

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Algeria as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Algeria although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Egypt

This is a list of the species of birds found in Egypt, a country in north-east Africa. The avifauna of Egypt include a total of 498 species of birds, of which thirteen are classified as globally threatened and five have been identified as having been introduced to Egypt. None of the species are endemic to Egypt.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. All of the birds below are included in the total bird count for Egypt.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Egypt

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Egypt as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Egypt although populations exist elsewhere

(X) Extinct - a species or subspecies that no longer exists.

(NB) Non-breeding - a species or subspecies that does not breed in Egypt

List of birds of Iran

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Iran. The avifauna of Iran include a total of 551 species, of which two are endemic, three have been introduced by humans and fourteen are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Iran and is not included in the species count. Nineteen species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Iran.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Iran

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Iran

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Iran as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Iran although populations exist elsewhere

(X) Extinct - a species or subspecies that no longer exists

List of birds of Kazakhstan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Kazakhstan. The avifauna of Kazakhstan include a total of 513 species, of which five are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Kazakhstan.

The following tag has been used to highlight accidentals. The commonly occurring native species are untagged.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Kazakhstan

List of birds of Libya

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Libya. The avifauna of Libya include a total of 352 species, of which thirty-two are rare or accidental. Two species listed are extirpated in Libya and are not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Libya.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Libya

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Libya although populations exist elsewhere

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Libya as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Morocco

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Morocco. The avifauna of Morocco include a total of 454 species (Bergier & Thévenot 2006), of which five have been introduced by humans and 156 are rare or accidental. Five species listed are extirpated in Morocco and are not included in the species count. Fifteen species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of the West Palearctic List Committee. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Morocco.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. Not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that only rarely occurs in Morocco; records of these species require formal acceptance by the Commission d’Homologation Marocaine (Moroccan Rare Birds Committee)

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Morocco as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Morocco although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Tunisia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Tunisia. The avifauna of Tunisia include a total of 375 species, of which eight are rare or accidental. Ten species listed are extirpated in Tunisia and are not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Tunisia.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Tunisia

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Tunisia although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Turkmenistan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Turkmenistan. The avifauna of Turkmenistan include a total of 409 species, of which one is rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Turkmenistan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Turkmenistan

List of birds of Uzbekistan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Uzbekistan. The avifauna of Uzbekistan include a total of 368 species, of which four are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Uzbekistan.

The following tag has been used to highlight a category. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into this category.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Uzbekistan

Nikolai Zarudny

Nikolai Alekseyvich Zarudny (Russian: Николай Алексеевич Зарудный; 13 September 1859 – 17 March 1919) was a Ukrainian-Russian explorer and zoologist of Ukrainian origin, who studied the fauna, especially the birds of Central Asia. He was born in Gryakovo, Ukraine (then part of the Russian Empire). He wrote his first ornithology book in 1896 and made five expeditions in the Caspian region in 1884–1892. He led other expeditions to Persia supported by the Russian Geographic Society and the St. Petersburg Zoological Institute. He collected nearly 3,140 specimens of birds and 50,000 insects. After the Russian Revolution, his collection was nationalized by the Bolsheviks and moved to the museum at the University of Tashkent. For his work the Russian Geographical Society awarded him the Przhevalsky Medal. While at Tashkent, his last work on the ornithology of Turkestan region was not completed as he died of accidental poisoning. He published 218 monographs in the course of his life and named many species. Among the species and other taxa named after Zarudny are Zarudny's jird, Zarudny's rock shrew, Zarudny's worm lizard, Schizothorax zarudnyi, and the distinctive Asian subspecies of the desert sparrow (Passer simplex zarudnyi).

Passer

Passer is a genus of sparrows, also known as the true sparrows. The genus includes the house sparrow and the Eurasian tree sparrow, some of the most common birds in the world. They are small birds with thick bills for eating seeds, and are mostly coloured grey or brown. Native to the Old World, some species have been introduced throughout the world.

Sand cat

The sand cat (Felis margarita), also known as the sand dune cat, is the only cat living chiefly in true deserts. This small cat is widely distributed in the deserts of North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. Starting in 2002, it was listed as near threatened on the IUCN Red List because the population was considered fragmented and small with a declining trend. It was downlisted to least concern in 2016.Owing to long hairs covering the soles of its feet, the sand cat is well adapted to the extremes of a desert environment and tolerant of extremely hot and cold temperatures. It inhabits both sandy and stony deserts, in areas far from water sources.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 17

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Sparrow

Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds. They are also known as true sparrows, or Old World sparrows, names also used for a particular genus of the family, Passer. They are distinct from both the American sparrows, in the family Passerellidae, and from a few other birds sharing their name, such as the Java sparrow of the family Estrildidae. Many species nest on buildings and the house and Eurasian tree sparrows, in particular, inhabit cities in large numbers, so sparrows are among the most familiar of all wild birds. They are primarily seed-eaters, though they also consume small insects. Some species scavenge for food around cities and, like gulls or rock doves will happily eat virtually anything in small quantities.

Tibesti Mountains

The Tibesti Mountains are a mountain range in the central Sahara, primarily located in the extreme north of Chad, with a small extension into southern Libya. The highest peak in the range, Emi Koussi, lies to the south at a height of 3,445 metres (11,302 ft) and is the highest point in both Chad and the Sahara. Bikku Bitti, the highest peak in Libya, is located in the north of the range. The central third of the Tibesti is of volcanic origin and consists of five shield volcanoes topped by large craters: Emi Koussi, Tarso Toon, Tarso Voon, Tarso Yega and Toussidé. Major lava flows have formed vast plateaus that overlie Paleozoic sandstone. The volcanic activity was the result of a continental hotspot that arose during the Oligocene and continued in some places until the Holocene, creating fumaroles, hot springs, mud pools and deposits of natron and sulfur. Erosion has shaped volcanic spires and carved an extensive network of canyons through which run rivers subject to highly irregular flows that are rapidly lost to the desert sands.

Tibesti, which means "place where the mountain people live," is the domain of the Toubou people. The Toubou live mainly along the wadis, on rare oases where palm trees and limited grains grow. They harness the water that collects in gueltas, the supply of which is highly variable from year-to-year and decade-to-decade. The plateaus are used to graze livestock in the winter and harvest grain in the summer. Temperatures are high, although the altitude ensures that the range is cooler than the surrounding desert. The Toubou, who first appeared in the range in the 5th century BC, adapted to these conditions and turned the range into a large natural fortress. They arrived in several waves, taking refuge in times of conflict and dispersing in times of prosperity, although not without intense internal hostility at times.

The Toubou came into contact with the Carthaginians, Berbers, Tuaregs, Ottomans and the Arabs, as well as the French colonists who first entered the range in 1914 and took control of the area in 1929. The independent spirit of the Toubou and the geopolitical situation in the region has complicated the exploration of the range as well as the ascent of its peaks. Tensions continued after Chad and Libya gained independence in the mid-20th century, with hostage-taking and armed struggles occurring amid border disputes over the allocation of natural resources. The geopolitical situation and the lack of infrastructure has hampered the development of tourism.

The Saharomontane flora and fauna, which include the rhim gazelle and Barbary sheep, have adapted to the mountains, yet the climate has not always been as harsh. Greater biodiversity existed in the past, as evidenced by scenes portrayed in rock and parietal art found throughout the range, which date back several millennia, even before the arrival of Toubou. The isolation of the Tibesti has sparked the cultural imagination in both art and literature.

Waw an Namus

Waw an Namus (also spelled Wau-en-Namus, Arabic: واو الناموس‎) is a volcano in Libya. Of either Pleistocene or Holocene age, it is located within the eastern Fezzan region. The origin of the volcanism there and at Al Haruj farther north is not clear. Radiometric dating has yielded an age of about 200,000 years, but other circumstantial evidence points to a formation of the volcano during Holocene or even historical times.

Waw an Namus is characterized by a caldera surrounded by an apron of dark tephra, which has a notable colour contrast to the surrounding desert terrain of the Sahara. A smaller crater lies northwest of the Waw an Namus caldera. The caldera itself contains a scoria cone. Several small lakes and associated vegetation are located within the caldera.

Zarudny's sparrow

Zarudny's sparrow (Passer zarudnyi), also known as the Asian desert sparrow, is a species of bird in the sparrow family Passeridae, which occurs in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and formerly in Iran. This species has historically been classified as a subspecies of the desert sparrow, which is otherwise restricted to Africa. However, the species has a number of differences with the African species, including very similar plumage in adult males and females, which suggests this species is distinct enough to be considered separate, and possibly not most closely related to the African birds. Consequently, Zarudny's sparrow is treated as a separate species by BirdLife International, the IOC World Bird List, and the Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive.

Sparrows (family: Passeridae)
Genus
Hypocryptadius
Passer
Carpospiza
Petronia
Gymnoris
Montifringilla
Onychostruthus
Pyrgilauda

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