Derbent

Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Persian: دربند‎; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Lezgian: Кьвевар; Avar: Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend,[8] is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. Population: 119,200 (2010 Census);[3] 101,031 (2002 Census);[9] 78,371 (1989 Census).[10]

Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south.

Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE.[11] Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms. In the 19th century, the city passed from Iranian into Russian hands by the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan.[12]

Derbent

Дербент
Other transcription(s)
 • AzerbaijaniDərbənd
 • LezgianКьвевар
 • AvarДербенд
Dagestan naryn-kala
Coat of arms of Derbent

Coat of arms
Location of Derbent
Derbent is located in Russia
Derbent
Derbent
Location of Derbent
Derbent is located in Republic of Dagestan
Derbent
Derbent
Derbent (Republic of Dagestan)
Coordinates: 42°03′N 48°18′E / 42.050°N 48.300°ECoordinates: 42°03′N 48°18′E / 42.050°N 48.300°E
CountryRussia
Federal subjectDagestan[1]
Founded438
City status since1840
Area
 • Total69.63 km2 (26.88 sq mi)
Elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 • Total119,200
 • Estimate 
(2018)[4]
123,720 (+3.8%)
 • Rank137th in 2010
 • Density1,700/km2 (4,400/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toCity of Derbent[1]
 • Capital ofRepublic of Dagestan[1]
 • Capital ofCity of Derbent[1], Derbentsky District[1]
 • Urban okrugDerbent Urban Okrug[5]
 • Capital ofDerbent Urban Okrug[5], Derbentsky Municipal District
Postal code(s)[7]
368600
Dialing code(s)+7 87240
OKTMO ID82710000001
Websitewww.derbent.org

Etymology

Derbent is derived from modern Persian: دربند‎, translit. Darband, lit. 'Barred gate' (dar “gate” + band “bar,” lit., “barred gate”[13]), referring to the adjacent pass. It is often identified with the legendary Gates of Alexander. The Persian name for the city came into use at the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, but Derbent was probably already in the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians.[14] The geographical treatise Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr written in Middle Persian mentions the old name of the fortress – Wērōy-pahr (The Gruzinian Guard):

"šahrestan [ī] kūmīs [ī] panj-burg až-i dahāg pad šabestān kard. māniš [ī] *pārsīgān ānōh būd. padxwadayīh [ī] yazdgird ī šabuhrān kard andar tāzišn ī čōl wērōy-pahr [ī] an ālag. (The city of Kūmīs of five towers Aži Dahag made it his own harem. The abode of the Parthians was there. In the reign of Yazdgird, the son of Šabuhr made it during the invasion of the Čōl, at the boundary of the Gruzinian Guard.)".[15]

"-Wėrōy-pahr: "The Gruzinian Guard" The old name of the fortress at Darband;..."[16]

In Arabic texts the city was known as Arabic: باب الأبواب‎, translit. Bāb al-Abwāb, lit. 'Gate of Gates',[17] or simply al-Bāb.

History

Derband
View of the city from the citadel of Naryn-Kala, 1910s

Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge.

Persian rule

Главный вход в цитадель Нарын-Кала
Derbent is renowned for its Medieval fortress, Naryn-Kala, a UNESCO world heritage site.
Derbent winter
Picture of Derbent's fortress during winter.

A traditionally and historically Iranian city,[18] the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC; the site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, and is traditionally identified with Albana, the capital.[14] The modern name is a Persian word (دربند Darband) meaning "gateway", which came into use in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia,[19] however, Derbent was probably already into the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians.[14] In the 5th century Derbent also functioned as a border fortress and the seat of a Sassanid marzban.[14]

The 20-meter-high (66 ft) walls with thirty north-looking towers are believed to belong to the time of Kavadh's son, Khosrau I, who also directed the construction of Derbent's fortress.[20]

The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward.[21] Some say that the level of the Caspian was formerly higher and that the lowering of the water level opened an invasion route that had to be fortified.[22] The chronicler Movses Kagankatvatsi wrote about "the wondrous walls, for whose construction the Persian kings exhausted our country, recruiting architects and collecting building materials with a view of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea." Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.

During periods when the Sasanians were distracted by war with the Byzantines or protracted battles with the Hephthalites in the eastern provinces, the northern tribes succeeded in advancing into the Caucasus. The first Sasanian attempt to seal off the road along the Caspian seacoast at Darband by means of a mud-brick wall has been dated in the reign of Yazdegerd II (438–457 AD).[14]

Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description of the sack of Derbent by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the Western Turkic Khaganate in 627. His successor, Böri Shad, proved unable to consolidate Tong Yabghu's conquests, and the city was retaken by the Persians, who held it as an integral domain until the Muslim Arab conquest.

As mentioned by the Encyclopedia Iranica, ancient Iranian language elements were absorbed into the everyday speech of the population of Dagestan and Derbent especially during the Sassanian era, and many remain current.[23] In fact, a deliberate policy of “Persianizing” Derbent and the eastern Caucasus in general can be traced over many centuries, from Khosrow I to the Safavid shahs Ismail I, and ʿAbbās the Great.[23] According to the account in the later "Darband-nāma", after construction of the fortifications Khosrow I “moved much folk here from Persia”,[24] relocating about 3,000 families from the interior of Persia in the city of Derbent and neighboring villages.[23] This account seems to be corroborated by the Spanish Arab Ḥamīd Moḥammad Ḡarnāṭī, who reported in 1130 that Derbent was populated by many ethnic groups, including a large Persian-speaking population.[25]

Arab conquest

In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs, who called it the Gate of Gates (Bab al-Abwab),[26] following their invasion of Persia. They transformed it into an important administrative center and introduced Islam to the area. The impression of antiquity evoked by these fortifications led many Arab historians to connect them with Khosrow I and to include them among the seven wonders of the world.[14] The Darband fortress was certainly the most prominent Sasanian defensive construction in the Caucasus and could have been erected only by an extremely powerful central government.[14] Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. The Sassanids had also brought Armenians from Syunik to help protect the pass from invaders; as Arab rule weakened in the region at the end of the ninth century, the Armenians living there were able to establish a kingdom, which lasted until the early years of the thirteenth century.[27][28]

Excavations on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, opposite to Derbent, revealed the Great Wall of Gorgan, the eastern counterpart to the wall and fortifications of Derbent. Similar Sassanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long walls—also run from the sea to the mountains.

The Caliph Harun al-Rashid lived in Derbent and brought it into great repute as a seat of the arts and commerce. According to Arab historians, Derbent, with population exceeding 50,000, was the largest city of the 9th century Caucasus. In the 10th century, with the collapse of the Arab Caliphate, Derbent became the capital of an emirate. This emirate often fought losing wars with the neighboring Christian state of Sarir, allowing Sarir to manipulate Derbent's politics on occasion. Despite that, the emirate outlived its rival and continued to flourish at the time of the Mongol invasion in 1239. In the 14th century, Derbent was occupied by Timur's armies.

Shirvanshah era

The Shirvanshahs dynasty existed as independent or a vassal state, from 861 until 1538; longer than any other dynasty in the Islamic world. They were renowned for their cultural achievements and geopolitical pursuits. The rulers of Shirvan, called the Shirvanshahs, had attempted, and on numerous times, succeeded, to conquer Derbend since the 18th Shirvanshah king, Afridun I, was appointed as the governor of the city. Over the centuries the city changed hands often. The 21st Shirvanshah king, Akhsitan I, briefly reconquered the city. However, the city was lost once again to the northern Kipchaks.

After the Timurud invasion, Ibrahim I of Shirvan, the 33rd Shirvanshah, managed to keep the kingdom of Shirvan independent. Ibrahim I revived Shirvan's fortunes, and through his cunning politics managed to continue without paying tribute. Furthermore, Ibrahim also greatly increased the limits of his state. He conquered the city of Derbend in 1437. The Shirvanshahs integrated the city so closely with their political structure that a new branch of the Shirvan dynasty emerged from Derbend, the Derbenid dynasty. The Derbenid dynasty, being a cadet dynasty of Shirvan, inherited the throne of Shirvan in the 15th century.

In the early 16th century the kingdom of Shirvan was conquered by Shah Ismail of the Safavid dynasty. As Shah Ismail incorporated all the Shirvan possessions, he also inherited Derbend.

Russian annexation

Derbent stayed under Iranian rule, while occasionally briefly taken by the Ottoman Turks such as in 1583 after the Battle of Torches and the Treaty of Istanbul, till the course of the 19th century, when the Russians occupied the city and wider Iranian-ruled swaths of Dagestan.[29][30][31][32][33][34][35]

Being briefly taken by the Russians as a result of the Persian expedition of 1722–23 by Peter the Great, the 1735 Treaty of Ganja, formed by Imperial Russia and Safavid Iran (de facto ruled by Nader Shah), forced Russia to return Derbent and its bastion to Iran. In 1747, Derbent became the capital of the Derbent Khanate of the same name.

During the Persian Expedition of 1796, Derbent was stormed by Russian forces under General Valerian Zubov, but the Russians were forced to retreat due to internal political issues,[36] making it fall under Persian rule again. As a consequence of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) and the resulting Treaty of Gulistan of 1813, Derbent and wider Dagestan were forcedly and irrevocably ceded by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire.[37] For background see Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast.)

In the 1886 population counting of the Dagestan Oblast, of the 15,265 inhabitants Derbent had, 8,994 (58,9%) were of Iranian descent (Russian: персы) thus comprising an absolute majority in the town.[38]

Geography

The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). Derbent is well served by public transport, with its own harbor, a railway going south to Baku, and the Baku to Rostov-on-Don road.

To the north of the town is the monument of the Kirk-lar, or forty heroes, who fell defending Dagestan against the Arabs in 728. To the south lies the seaward extremity of the Caucasian wall (fifty metres long), otherwise known as Alexander's Wall, blocking the narrow pass of the Iron Gate or Caspian Gates (Portae Athanae or Portae Caspiae). When intact, the wall had a height of 9 m (29 ft) and a thickness of about 3 m (10 ft) and, with its iron gates and numerous watch-towers, defended Persia's frontier.[19]

Climate

Derbent has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk).

Climate data for Derbent
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.7
(80.1)
26.6
(79.9)
28.3
(82.9)
30.1
(86.2)
34.2
(93.6)
35.3
(95.5)
35.8
(96.4)
38.8
(101.8)
33.0
(91.4)
28.0
(82.4)
28.0
(82.4)
27.6
(81.7)
38.8
(101.8)
Average high °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
4.7
(40.5)
7.4
(45.3)
13.6
(56.5)
20.0
(68.0)
25.4
(77.7)
28.4
(83.1)
28.2
(82.8)
23.7
(74.7)
17.5
(63.5)
11.7
(53.1)
7.2
(45.0)
16.1
(61.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
2.0
(35.6)
4.5
(40.1)
10.1
(50.2)
16.3
(61.3)
21.7
(71.1)
24.9
(76.8)
24.6
(76.3)
20.2
(68.4)
14.3
(57.7)
8.9
(48.0)
4.5
(40.1)
12.9
(55.2)
Average low °C (°F) −0.2
(31.6)
−0.2
(31.6)
2.2
(36.0)
7.1
(44.8)
12.8
(55.0)
17.9
(64.2)
21.2
(70.2)
21.0
(69.8)
16.9
(62.4)
11.4
(52.5)
6.4
(43.5)
2.3
(36.1)
10.0
(50.0)
Record low °C (°F) −18.9
(−2.0)
−19.0
(−2.2)
−9.1
(15.6)
−3.1
(26.4)
4.1
(39.4)
8.5
(47.3)
12.9
(55.2)
10.7
(51.3)
5.1
(41.2)
−3.4
(25.9)
−9.7
(14.5)
−14.2
(6.4)
−19.0
(−2.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 30.7
(1.21)
31.6
(1.24)
23.4
(0.92)
20.9
(0.82)
22.9
(0.90)
18.7
(0.74)
18.9
(0.74)
24.8
(0.98)
47.0
(1.85)
52.2
(2.06)
48.5
(1.91)
39.9
(1.57)
379.5
(14.94)
Average precipitation days 11.0 10.9 8.7 6.1 5.9 5.8 4.9 5.2 7.3 9.3 10.6 11.2 96.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 72 73 102 158 227 260 275 248 193 133 86 67 1,894
Source: climatebase.ru[39]

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Derbent serves as the administrative center of Derbentsky District, even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Derbent—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Derbent is incorporated as Derbent Urban Okrug.[5]

Demographics

The main ethnic groups are (2002 Census):[40][41]

Jewish community

Jews began to settle in Derbent in ancient times. During the Khazars' reign, they played an important part in the life of the city.[42] The Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela mentions Jews living in Derbent in the 12th century, and Christian traveler Wilhelm of Rubruquis writes about a Jewish community in the 13th century. The first mention of Jews in Derbent in modern times is by a German traveler, Adam Olearius, in the 17th century.

Derbent's Jewry suffered during the wars in the 18th century. Nadir Shah of Persia forced many Jews to adopt Islam. After the Russian conquest, many Jews of rural Dagestan fled to Derbent, which became the spiritual center of the Mountain Jews. The Jewish population numbered 2,200 in 1897 (15% of total population) and 3,500 in 1903. In 1989, there were 13,000 Jews in the city, but most emigrated after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In 2002, there were 2,000 Jews with an active synagogue and community center.[43] The chief rabbi of Derbent, Obadiah Isakov, was badly injured in an assassination attempt on July 25, 2013, sparking concerns of further acts of anti-Semitism targeting the Jewish community.[44] In 2016, the Jewish population was down to 1,345.[45]

Economy and culture

The city is home to machine building, food, textile, fishing and fishery supplies, construction materials and wood industries. It is the center of Russian brandy production. The educational infrastructure includes a university as well as several technical schools. On the cultural front, there is a Lezgin drama theater (named after S. Stalsky). About two kilometers (1.2 miles) from the city is the vacation colony of Chayka (Seagull).

The Soviet novelist Yury Krymov named a fictional motor tanker after the city in his book The Tanker "Derbent".

Citadel of Derbend

Крепость Нарын-Кала. Дербент
Sassanid Fortress Naryn-Kala (Derbent).

Derbent resembles a huge museum and has magnificent mountains and shore nearby, and therefore possesses much touristic potential, further increased by UNESCO's classification of the citadel, ancient city and fortress as a World Heritage Site in 2003; however, instability in the region has halted development.

The current fortification and walls were built by the Persian Sassanian Empire as a defensive structure against hostile nomadic people in the north, and continuously repaired or improved by later Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms until the early course of the 19th century, as long as its military function lasted. The fortress was built under direction of the Sassanid emperor Khosrow (Chosroes) I.[20]

A large portion of the walls and several watchtowers still remain in reasonable shape. The walls, reaching to the sea, date from the 6th century, Sassanid dynasty period. The city has a well-preserved citadel (Narin-kala), enclosing an area of 4.5 hectares (11 acres), enclosed by strong walls. Historical attractions include the baths, the cisterns, the old cemeteries, the caravanserai, the 18th-century Khan's mausoleum, as well as several mosques. The oldest mosque is the Juma Mosque, built over a 6th-century Christian basilica; it has a 15th-century madrassa. Other shrines include the 17th-century Kyrhlyar mosque, the Bala mosque and the 18th-century Chertebe mosque.

Notable people

Twin towns and sister cities

Derbent is twinned with:

Gallery

Церковь Святого Всеспасителя (Дербент)

The old Armenian Church, now used as a venue and Museum

Церковь в Дербенте

Russian Orthodox Church of the Intercession

Мемориал скорбящей матери. Дербент

Memorial of the grieving mother

Стена цитадели Нарын-Кала. Дербент

Walls of the Citadel

Школа № 15 в Дербенте

School number 15

Vladimir Putin and Ramazan Abdulatipov (2015-11-03) 02

Putin visiting an exhibition dedicated to the 2000th anniversary of Derbent in the State Historical Museum

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Law #16
  2. ^ "База данных показателей муниципальных образований". Retrieved June 9, 2015.
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar; archive date: 26 July 2018; archive URL: http://web.archive.org/web/20180726010024/http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar.
  5. ^ a b c Law #6
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ Wikisource Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878). "Derbend" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 105.
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. ^ Derbent - Russia’s oldest city: 5,000 and counting Archived May 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond p 728 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014 ISBN 1598849484
  13. ^ Zonn, Igor S; Kosarev, Aleksey N; Glantz, Michael; Kostianoy, Andrey G. (2010). The Caspian Sea Encyclopedia. Springer. p. 160.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "DARBAND (1)". Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  15. ^ Daryaee, Touraj (2002). Šahrestānīhā Ī Ērānšahr: A Middle Persian Text on Late Antique Geography, Epic, and History. Costa Mesa, California 92628 U.S.A.: Mazda Publishers, Inc. pp. 14, 18. ISBN 1-56859-143-8.
  16. ^ Daryaee., Touraj (2002). Šahrestānīhā Ī Ērānšahr: A Middle Persian Text on Late Antique Geography, Epic, and History. Costa Mesa, California 92628 U.S.A.: Mazda Publishers, Inc. p. 40. ISBN 1-56859-143-8.
  17. ^ McFarquhar, Neil (February 17, 2016). "Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? Think Again, Moscow Says". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  18. ^ Michael Khodarkovsky. "Bitter Choices: Loyalty and Betrayal in the Russian Conquest of the North Caucasus" Cornell University Press, 12 mrt. 2015. ISBN 0801462908 pp 47–52
  19. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Derbent" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 64.
  20. ^ a b Kevin Alan Brook. "The Jews of Khazatia" Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 27 sep. 2006. ISBN 978-1442203020 p 126
  21. ^ Nicolle, David (2009-09-22). Saracen Strongholds 1100-1500: The Central and Eastern Islamic Lands. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781846033759.
  22. ^ Robert H. Hewsen, Armenia: A historical Atlas, 2001, page 89
  23. ^ a b c "DAGESTAN". Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  24. ^ Saidov and Shikhsaidov, pp. 26-27
  25. ^ Bol’shakov and Mongaĭt, p. 26
  26. ^ Hoyland, Robert G. (2014). In Gods Path: The Arab Conquests and the Creation of an Islamic Empire. Oxford University Press. p. 113.
  27. ^ See (in Armenian) Sedrak Barkhudaryan, “Դերբենդի հայ-աղվանական թագավորությունը” (“The Armenian-Caucasian Albanian Kingdom of Derbend”). Patma-Banasirakan Handes . № 3, 1969, pp. 125-147.
  28. ^ (in Armenian) Matthew of Edessa. Ժամանակնագրություն (Chronicle). Translated by Hrach Bartikyan. Yerevan: Hayastan Publishing, 1973, pp. 151-152, 332, note 132a.
  29. ^ Swietochowski, Tadeusz (1995). Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. Columbia University Press. pp. 69, 133. ISBN 978-0-231-07068-3.
  30. ^ L. Batalden, Sandra (1997). The newly independent states of Eurasia: handbook of former Soviet republics. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-89774-940-4.
  31. ^ E. Ebel, Robert, Menon, Rajan (2000). Energy and conflict in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-7425-0063-1.
  32. ^ Andreeva, Elena (2010). Russia and Iran in the great game: travelogues and orientalism (reprint ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-415-78153-4.
  33. ^ Çiçek, Kemal, Kuran, Ercüment (2000). The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. University of Michigan. ISBN 978-975-6782-18-7.
  34. ^ Ernest Meyer, Karl, Blair Brysac, Shareen (2006). Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia. Basic Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-465-04576-1.
  35. ^ "Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent". Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  36. ^ "Alexey Yermolov's Memoirs". Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  37. ^ "Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond ..." Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  38. ^ НАСЕЛЕНИЕ ДАГЕСТАНА ДАГЕСТАНСКАЯ ОБЛАСТЬ (1886 г.) Retrieved 29 October 2015
  39. ^ "Climatebase". Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  40. ^ Правительство РД — Дербент — Муниципальные районы и городские округа Archived January 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ "население дагестана". Retrieved June 9, 2015.
  42. ^ "DERBENT - JewishEncyclopedia.com". Retrieved June 9, 2015.
  43. ^ "Derbent - Jewish Virtual Library". Retrieved June 9, 2015.
  44. ^ "После покушения на раввина евреи Дагестана живут в страхе". Retrieved June 9, 2015.
  45. ^ Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? Think Again, Moscow Says
  46. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.

Sources

  • Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. Закон №16 от 10 апреля 2002 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Дагестан», в ред. Закона №106 от 30 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №81, 12 апреля 2002 г. (People's Assembly of the Republic of Dagestan. Law #16 of April 10, 2002 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Dagestan, as amended by the Law #106 of December 30, 2013 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Republic of Dagestan. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. Закон №6 от 13 января 2005 г. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан», в ред. Закона №43 от 30 апреля 2015 г. «О статусе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала", статусе и границах внутригородских районов в составе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала" и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №8, 15 февраля 2005 г. (People's Assembly of the Republic of Dagestan. Law #6 of January 13, 2005 On the Status and Borders of the Municipal Formations of the Republic of Dagestan, as amended by the Law #43 of April 30, 2015 On the Status of the "City of Makhachkala" Urban Okrug with Intra-Urban Divisions, the Status and the Borders of the Intra-City Districts Comprising the "City of Makhachkala" Urban Okrug with Intra-Urban Divisions, and on Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Republic of Dagestan. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Some text used with permission from www.travel-images.com. The original text can be found here [1].
  • M. S. Saidov, ed., Katalog arabskikh rukopiseĭ Instituta IYaL Dagestanskogo filiala AN SSSR (Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the H.L.L. Institute of the Dāḡestān branch of the A.N. of the U.S.S.R.) I, Moscow, 1977.
  • Idem and A. R. Shikhsaidov, “Derbend-name (k istorii izucheniya)” (Darband-nāma. On the history of research),” in Vostochnye istochniki po istorii Dagestana (Eastern sources on the history of Dāḡestān), Makhachkala, 1980, pp. 564.

External links

Afridun I

Afridun the Martyr was the eighteenth Shah of Shirvan. He was appointed governor of Derbent several times during his father's reign.

Altınkaya Dam

The Altınkaya Dam is a rock-fill dam for irrigation and hydro power purposes, located on the River Kızılırmak, 23 km south of Bafra and 35 km west of Samsun in northern Turkey. It feeds Lake of Derbent.

Having a dam volume of 15,920,000 m³, Altınkaya Dam was completed in 1988. It has a storage volume of 5,763 billion m³ in a reservoir area at normal water surface elevation of 118.31 km².

Total power from the facility is 4 x 175 MW, for an installed capacity of 700 MW MW giving an annual electricity production of 1,632 GWh.

Arab–Khazar wars

The Arab–Khazar wars were a series of conflicts fought between the armies of the Khazar Khaganate and the Rashidun, Umayyad, and Abbasid caliphates and their respective vassals. Historians usually distinguish two major periods of conflict, the First Arab–Khazar War (c. 642–652) and Second Arab–Khazar War (c. 722–737), but the Arab–Khazar military confrontation also involved sporadic raids and isolated clashes from the middle of the 7th century to the end of the 8th century.

The Arab–Khazar wars were a result of the attempts of the Umayyad Caliphate to secure control of Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus, where the Khazars were already established. The first Arab invasion, in the 640s and early 650s, ended with the defeat of an Arab force led by Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah outside the Khazar town of Balanjar. Hostilities broke out again with the Caliphate in the 710s, with raids back and forth across the Caucasus Mountains. Led by the distinguished generals al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah and Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik, the Arabs were able to capture Derbent and even the southern Khazar capital of Balanjar, but these successes had little impact on the nomadic Khazars, who continued to launch devastating raids deep into Transcaucasia. In one such raid in 730, the Khazars inflicted a major defeat on the Umayyad forces at the Battle of Ardabil, killing al-Jarrah, but were in turn defeated the next year and pushed back north. Maslama then recovered Derbent, which became a major Arab military outpost and colony, before being replaced by Marwan ibn Muhammad (the future caliph Marwan II) in 732. A period of relatively localized warfare followed until 737, when Marwan led north a massive expedition that reached the Khazar capital Atil on the Volga. After securing some form of submission by the khagan, the Arabs withdrew.

The 737 campaign marked the end of large-scale warfare between the two powers, establishing Derbent as the northernmost Muslim outpost and securing Muslim dominance over Transcaucasia. At the same time, the continuing warfare weakened the Umayyad army and contributed to the eventual fall of the dynasty to the Abbasid Revolution a few years later. Relations between the Muslims of the Caucasus and the Khazars remained largely peaceful thereafter, apart from two Khazar raids in the 760s and in 799, resulting from failed efforts to secure an alliance through marriage between the Arab governors or local princes of the Caucasus and the Khazar khagan. Occasional warfare continued in the region between the Khazars and the Muslim principalities of the Caucasus until the collapse of the Khazar state in the late 10th century, but the great wars of the 8th century were never repeated.

Azerbaijanis in Russia

Azerbaijanis in Russia or Russian Azerbaijanis (Azerbaijani: Rusiya azərbaycanlıları (Latin), Русија азәрбајҹанлылары (Cyrillic); Russian: Азербайджанцы в России, Azerbajdzhanchy v Rossii) are Azerbaijani people in the Russian Federation, and are Russian citizens or permanent residents of ethnic Azerbaijani background.

Aside from the large Azeri community native to Russia's Dagestan Republic, the majority of Azeris in Russia are fairly recent immigrants. Azeris started settling in Russia (with the exception of Dagestan) around the late nineteenth century, but their migration intensified after World War II, and especially after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. According to the 2010 All-Russian Population Census, there are 603,070 Azeris residing in Russia, however the actual numbers may be much higher due to the arrival of guest workers in the post-Soviet era. The estimated total Azeri population of Russia as of 2002 might have reached as many as 3,000,000 people, with more than one and half million of them living in Moscow, though in the following decade there was a tendency for many Azeris to move back to Azerbaijan. The majority of post-1991 ethnic Azeri migrants have come to Russia from rural Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia. Today most provinces of Russia have more or less significant Azeri communities, the biggest ones, according to official numbers, residing in Dagestan, Moscow, Khanty–Mansi, Krasnoyarsk, Rostov-on-the-Don, Saratov, Sverdlovsk, Samara, Stavropol, etc.

Derbent, Konya

Derbent is a town and district of Konya Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. According to 2000 census, population of the district is 14,372 of which 7,440 live in the town of Derbent.

Derbent Dam

Derbent Dam is a gravity/embankment dam on the Kızılırmak River in Samsun Province, Turkey. The development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works.

Derbent Governorate

The Derbent Governorate (Russian: Дербентская губерния) was a short-lived governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire in 1846–1860.

It was established by the decree of 14 December 1846 of Nicholas I of Russia. In accordance with the "Regulations on the Administration of the Dagestan Oblast" (Положением об управлении Дагестанской областью, 5 April 1860), the Derbent Governorate was abolished, and most of the area became part of the Dagestan Oblast.

Derbent Khanate

The Derbent Khanate (Persian: خانات دربند‎ — Khānāt-e Darband, Azerbaijani: Dərbənd xanlığı) was a Caucasian khanate that was established in Afsharid Iran. It corresponded to southern Dagestan and its center was at Derbent. It included the northern clans of Lezgian people.

FC Derbent

FC Derbent (Russian: «Дербент») was a Russian football team from Derbent. It played professionally in 1966–1970, 1992 and 1995–1996. The best result they achieved was 4th place in Zone 2, Subgroup 2 of the Soviet Second League in 1969.

Fariburz I

Fariburz ibn Sallar (Persian: فریبرز بن سالار‎), better simply known as Fariburz I (فریبرز), was the sixteenth Shah of Shirvan, ruling from 1063 to 1096. His reign saw many major political balance changes in Caucasus, including expansion by the Seljuqs. He was considered a ruler with great diplomatic skills, and his kingdom extended from Mughan to Kumuk and Alania.

Gates of Alexander

The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog) from invading the land to the south. The gates were a popular subject in medieval travel literature, starting with the Alexander Romance in a version from perhaps the 6th century.

The wall, also known as the Caspian Gates, has been identified with two locations: the Pass of Derbent, Russia or with the Pass of Dariel, west of the Caspian Sea. Tradition also connects it to the Great Wall of Gorgan (Red Snake) on its south-eastern shore.

Historically, these fortifications were part of the defence lines built by Sasanians of Persia. The Great Wall of Gorgan may have been built by the Parthians.

House of Derbent

House of Derbent — was a younger branch of Shirvanshahs.

Iranians in Russia

Iranian Russians or Persian Russians (Persian: ایرانیان روسیه‎; Russian: Иранцы в России) are Iranians in the Russian Federation, and are Russian citizens or permanent residents of (partial) Iranian national background.

Iranians have a long history within what is modern-day Russia, stretching back millennia. With their historical core in southern Dagestan and the pivotal Iranian town of Derbent, the territory remained, intermittently, in Iranian hands encompassed for many centuries until 1813, resulting in a steady flow and settling of people from mainland Iran. There are two historically Iranian communities in Russia; the Tats, who are amongst the native inhabitants of the North Caucasus, and the Mountain Jews, who descend from Persian Jews from Iran.

Israel Tsvaygenbaum

Israel Tsvaygenbaum (Russian: Исраил Иосифович Цвайгенбаум; Hebrew: ישראל צווייגנבאום‎; born February 1, 1961), is a Russian-American artist of Jewish descent. A number of his works are in the Museum of Imitative Arts, Derbent.

Persian Expedition of 1796

The Persian Expedition of Catherine the Great, alongside the Persian Expedition of Peter the Great, was one of the Russo-Persian Wars of the 18th century which did not entail any lasting consequences for either belligerent.

The last decades of the 18th century were marked by continual strife between rival claimants to the Peacock Throne. Catherine the Great of Russia took advantage of the disorder to consolidate her control over the weak polities of the Caucasus, which was, for swaths of it, an integral Persian domain. The kingdom of Georgia, a subject of the Persians for many centuries, became a Russian protectorate in 1783, when Erekle II signed the Treaty of Georgievsk, whereby the Empress promised to defend him in case of the Iranian attack. The shamkhals of Tarki followed the lead and accepted Russian protection three years later.

With the enthronement of Agha Mohammad Khan as Shah of Persia in 1794 the political climate changed. He put an end to the period of dynastic strife and proceeded to re-strengthen the hold of the Caucasus by re-garrisoning the Iranian territories and cities in what is modern-day Dagestan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, as well as ravaging and recapturing Georgia and reducing its capital Tbilisi to a pile of ashes in 1795. Belatedly, Catherine II was determined to mount a punitive expedition against the Shah. The ultimate goal for the Russian government was to topple the anti-Russian shah, and to replace him with a half-brother of Agha Muhammad Khan, namely Morteza Qoli Khan, who had defected to Russia, and was therefore pro-Russian.Although it was widely expected that a 50,000-strong Russian corps would be led by a seasoned general (Gudovich), the Empress followed the advice of her lover, Prince Zubov, and entrusted the command to his youthful brother, Count Valerian Zubov. The Russian troops set out from Kizlyar in April 1796 and stormed the key fortress of Derbent on 10 May. The event was glorified by the court poet Derzhavin in his famous ode; he was later to comment bitterly on Zubov's inglorious return from the expedition in another remarkable poem.

By mid-June, Zubov's troops overran without any resistance most of the territory of modern-day Azerbaijan, including three principal cities — Baku, Shemakha and Ganja. By November, they were stationed at the confluence of the Araks and Kura Rivers, poised to attack mainland Iran.

It was in that month that the Empress of Russia died and her successor Paul, who detested the Zubovs and had other plans for the army, ordered the troops to retreat back to Russia. This reversal aroused the frustration and enmity of the powerful Zubovs and other officers who took part in the campaign: many of them would be among the conspirators who arranged Paul's murder five years later.

Robert Tiviaev

Robert Tiviaev (Hebrew: רוברט טיבייב‬, born 22 June 1961) is an Israeli politician who currently serves as a member of the Knesset for the Zionist Union and before, between 2009 and 2013, Kadima and Hatnuah.

Russo-Persian War (1722–1723)

The Russo-Persian War of 1722–1723, known in Russian historiography as the Persian campaign of Peter the Great, was a war between the Russian Empire and Safavid Iran, triggered by the tsar's attempt to expand Russian influence in the Caspian and Caucasus regions and to prevent its rival, the Ottoman Empire, from territorial gains in the region at the expense of declining Safavid Iran.

The Russian victory ratified for Safavid Iran's cession of their territories in the North Caucasus, South Caucasus and contemporary northern Iran to Russia, comprising the cities of Derbent (southern Dagestan) and Baku and their nearby surrounding lands, as well as the provinces of Gilan, Shirvan, Mazandaran and Astarabad conform the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1723).The territories remained in Russian hands for 9 and 12 years, when respectively according to the Treaty of Resht of 1732 and the Treaty of Ganja of 1735, they were returned to Iran.

Sasanian defense lines

The defense lines (or "limes") of the Sasanians were part of their military strategy and tactic. They were networks of fortifications, walls, and/or ditches built opposite the territory of the enemies. These defense lines are known from tradition and archaeological evidence.

Third Perso-Turkic War

The Third Perso-Turkic War was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate. Unlike the previous two wars, it was not fought in Central Asia, but in Transcaucasia. Hostilities were initiated in 627 AD by Khagan Tong Yabghu of the Western Göktürks and Emperor Heraclius of the Eastern Roman Empire. Opposing them were the Sassanid Persians, allied with the Avars. The war was fought against the background of the last Byzantine-Sassanid War and served as a prelude to the dramatic events that changed the balance of powers in the Middle East for centuries to come (Battle of Nineveh, Islamic conquest of Persia).

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