Der Stürmer

Der Stürmer (pronounced [deːɐ̯ ˈʃtʏʁmɐ], lit., "The Stormer/Attacker/Striker") was a weekly German tabloid-format newspaper published by Julius Streicher, the Gauleiter of Franconia, from 1923 to the end of World War II, with brief suspensions in publication due to legal difficulties. It was a significant part of Nazi propaganda, and was vehemently anti-Semitic.[1] The paper was not an official publication of the Nazi party, but was published privately by Streicher. For this reason, the paper did not display the Nazi party swastika in its logo. The paper was a very lucrative business for Streicher, and made him a multi-millionaire.[2]

Unlike the Völkischer Beobachter (The Völkisch Observer), the official party paper which gave itself an outwardly serious appearance, Der Stürmer often ran material such as caricatures of Jews and accusations of blood libel,[1] as well as sexually explicit, anti-Catholic, anti-Communist, and anti-monarchist propaganda.

The newspaper originated at Nuremberg during Adolf Hitler's attempt to establish power and control. The first copy of Der Stürmer was published on 20 April 1923.[3] Der Stürmer’s circulation grew over time, distributing to a large percentage of the German population, as well as Argentina, Brazil, Canada, and the United States. The newspaper reached a peak circulation of 486,000 in 1937.[2]

As early as 1933, Streicher was calling for the extermination of the Jews in Der Stürmer.[4] During the war, Streicher regularly authorized articles demanding the annihilation and extermination of the Jewish race.[3] After the war, he was convicted of crimes against humanity, and executed.[5]

Der Stürmer
Der Stürmer Christian blood
1934 Stürmer special issue, image shows Jews extracting blood from Christian children for use in religious rituals (an example of the blood libel against Jews)
TypeWeekly newspaper
FormatTabloid
PublisherJulius Streicher
Founded20 April 1923
Political alignment
LanguageGerman
Ceased publication1 February 1945
HeadquartersNuremberg, Nazi Germany
Circulation480,000 (1938)

Racist caricatures

Der Stürmer was best known for its anti-Semitic caricatures, which depicted Jews as ugly characters with exaggerated facial features and misshapen bodies. In his propaganda work, Streicher furthered medieval stereotypes, e. g., that Jews killed children, sacrificed them, and drank their blood. The large majority of these drawings were the work of Philipp Rupprecht, known as Fips, who was one of the best-known anti-Semitic cartoonists of the "Third Reich". Through the adaptation and amalgamation of almost every existing anti-Semitic stereotype, myth, and tradition, Rupprecht's virulent attacks aimed predominantly at the dehumanization and demonization of Jews.[6]

StreicherDarkerSharpHLSL
Julius Streicher, Der Stürmer's publisher, at the Nuremberg trials

At the bottom of the title page there was always the motto "Die Juden sind unser Unglück!" ("The Jews are our misfortune!"), coined by Heinrich von Treitschke in the 1880s.[7] In the nameplate was the motto "Deutsches Wochenblatt zum Kampfe um die Wahrheit" ("German Weekly Newspaper in the Fight for Truth").

Circulation

Most of its readers were young people and people from the lowest strata of German society. Copies of Der Stürmer were displayed in prominent red Stürmerkasten (display boxes) throughout the Reich; as well as advertising the publication, the cases also allowed its articles to reach those readers who either did not have time to buy and read a daily newspaper in depth, or could not afford the expense. In 1927, Der Stürmer sold about 27,000 copies every week; by 1935, its circulation had increased to around 480,000.

Nazi attitudes towards the paper

Since the late 1920s, Streicher's vulgar and inconsiderate style was increasingly a cause of embarrassment for the Nazi party. In 1936, the sale of the Der Stürmer in Berlin was restricted during the Olympic Games. Joseph Goebbels tried to ban the newspaper in 1938.[2] Hermann Göring forbade Der Stürmer in all of his departments, and Baldur von Schirach banned it as a means of education in the Hitler Youth hostels and other education facilities by a "Reichsbefehl" ("Reich command").[8] Göring harboured a particularly intense hatred of the paper, especially after it published a libellous article alleging that his daughter Edda had been conceived through artificial insemination. It was only through Hitler's intervention that Streicher was spared any punishment.[9]

However, other senior Nazi officials, including Heinrich Himmler (head of the SS), Robert Ley (leader of the German Labour Front), and Max Amann (proprietor of the Zentral Verlag (Central Press), comprising 80% of the German press in 1942), endorsed the publication, and their statements were often published in the paper. Albert Forster, Gauleiter of Danzig (now Gdańsk), wrote in 1937:

USHMM 64415
Boys in front of a Stürmerkasten, the public stands in cities featuring Der Stürmer during the Nazi era in Germany
Bundesarchiv Bild 133-075, Worms, Antisemitische Presse, "Stürmerkasten"
German citizens, publicly reading Der Stürmer, in Worms, 1933. The billboard heading reads: "With the Stürmer against Judea"

With pleasure, I say that the Stürmer, more than any other daily or weekly newspaper, has made clear to the people in simple ways the danger of Jewry. Without Julius Streicher and his Stürmer, the importance of a solution to the Jewish question would not be seen to be as critical as it actually is by many citizens. It is therefore to be hoped that those who want to learn [the] unvarnished truth about the Jewish question will read the Stürmer.[10]

Hitler considered Streicher's primitive methods to be effective in influencing "the man in the street".[3] Although Streicher and his paper were increasingly isolated in the Nazi party, Hitler continued to support Streicher, and was an avid reader of Der Stürmer.[2] In December 1941, he stated: "Streicher is reproached for his Stürmer. The truth is the opposite of what people say: He idealized the Jew. The Jew is baser, fiercer, more diabolical than Streicher depicted him." In February 1942, he praised the newspaper: "One must never forget the services rendered by the Stürmer ... Now that Jews are known for what they are, nobody any longer thinks that Streicher libelled them."[11]

Hermann Rauschning, who claimed to be Hitler's "confidant", said in the mid-1930s:

Anti-Semitism ... was beyond question the most important weapon in [Hitler's] propagandist arsenal, and almost everywhere, it was of deadly efficiency. That was why he had allowed Streicher, for example, a free hand. The man's stuff, too, was amusing, and very cleverly done. Wherever, he wondered, did Streicher get his constant supply of new material? He, Hitler, was simply on thorns to see each new issue of the Stürmer. It was the one periodical that he always read with pleasure, from the first page to the last.[12]

During the war, the paper's circulation dropped because of paper shortages, as well as Streicher's exile from Nuremberg for corruption. More ominously, because of the Holocaust, the people it targeted had begun to disappear from everyday life, which diminished the paper's relevance. Hitler, however, insisted that Streicher receive sufficient support to continue publishing Der Stürmer. The final edition of the newspaper was published on 1 February 1945.[13]

Dead Julius Streicher
The body of Julius Streicher after being hanged, 16 October 1946

After the war, Streicher was tried at the Nuremberg trials. His publishing and speaking activities were a major part of the evidence presented against him. In essence, the prosecutors took the line that Streicher's role in inciting Germans to exterminate Jews made him an accessory to murder, and thus as culpable as those who actually carried out the killing. Prosecutors also introduced evidence that Streicher continued his incendiary articles and speeches when he was well aware that Jews were being slaughtered. Streicher was found guilty of crimes against humanity, and hanged.[5]

Stuermer1934
1934 Stürmer issue: "Storm above Judah" - attacking institutional churches as "Judaized" organizations. Caption: Two thousand years ago I called the Jews a cursed people, but you have made out of them the Elect Nation.

Anti-Semitic content

According to the American writer Dennis Showalter, "a major challenge of political anti-Semitism involves overcoming the images of the 'Jew next door' – the living, breathing acquaintance or associate whose simple existence appears to deny the validity of that negative stereotype". The newspaper's lurid content appealed to a large spectrum of readers who were lower class and less-sophisticated.[3] Der Stürmer was known for its use of simple themes that required little thought. The newspaper often gave descriptions of how to identify Jewish people, and included racist political cartoons, including anti-Semitic caricatures. Besides the graphic depictions, articles often focused on imaginary fears, exaggerations, and perceived behavioral differences between Jews and other German citizens.[14]

Sexual crimes

Stories of Rassenschande, i. e., the Jewish men and German women having sex, were staples of Der Stürmer.[15] Streicher described Jews as sex offenders who were[14] "violators of the innocent", "perpetrators of bizarre sex crimes", and "ritual murderers" who performed in religious ceremonies using blood of other humans, usually Christians. Streicher also frequently reported attempts of child molestation by Jews. Der Stürmer never lacked details about sex, names, and crimes in order to keep readers aroused and entertained. These accusations, articles, and crimes printed in Der Stürmer were often inaccurate, and rarely investigated by staff members.

In the newspaper's opinion, if a German girl became pregnant by a Jew, the Jew would deny paternity, offer to pay for an abortion, fail to pay child support, or simply leave for the U.S. Within Der Stürmer, it was not uncommon to hear reports of German women aborting their children because they did not want to bring a "Jewish bastard into the world".[14]

Showlter said, "For Julius Streicher, the Jews' hatred for Christianity was concealed only for one reason: Business." Jewish businessmen were often portrayed as doing almost anything to obtain financial wealth, which included, in his words, "become a usurer, a traitor, a murderer".[14] In the summer of 1931, Streicher focused much of the paper's attention on a Jewish-owned butchery. One philanthropic merchant operated a soup kitchen; Der Stürmer ran articles accusing the business of poisoning the food served. Der Stürmer criticized and twisted every single price increase and decrease in Jewish shops, as well as their charitable donations, as a further form of financial greed. This attack on Jewish benevolence received the most public criticism out of all of Der Stürmer's anti-Semitic propaganda. Its "Letter Box" encouraged the reporting of Jewish illegal acts; the unofficial style helped prevent suspicion of propaganda, and lent it an air of authenticity.[16]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b Koonz, p. 228
  2. ^ a b c d Zelnhefer, Siegfried (ndg) "Der Stürmer. Deutsches Wochenblatt zum Kampf um die Wahrheit" Historisches Lexikon Bayerns
  3. ^ a b c d Holocaust Education and Archive Research Team. Holocaust Research Project. 2009. Web. 21 October 2009.
  4. ^ Streicher, Julius (1933). Die Geheimpläne gegen Deutschland enthüllt (in German). Der Stürmer.
  5. ^ a b "Streicher judgement".
  6. ^ Linsler, Carl-Eric. Stürmer-Karikaturen, in: Handbuch des Antisemitismus. Judenfeindschaft in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Bd. 7: Literatur, Film, Theater und Kunst, hrsg. von Wolfgang Benz, Berlin 2015, p. 477.
  7. ^ Ben-Sasson, H.H., ed. (1976) A History of the Jewish People. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 875. ISBN 0-674-39730-4
  8. ^ IMT vol. XIII/XIV
  9. ^ Dolibois, John E. (2001) Pattern of Circles: An Ambassador's Story. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. ISBN 0873387023
  10. ^ Thompson, Allan (2007) The Media and the Rwanda Genocide. London: Pluto Press. p. 334 ISBN 9780745326252
  11. ^ Trevor-Roper, Hugh R. and Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2013). Hitler's Table Talk 1941–1944: Secret Conversations. Enigma Books. pp.118, 250. ISBN 978-1-936274-93-2.
  12. ^ Rauschning, Hermann (1939) Hitler Speaks. London: Thornton Buttersworth. pp. 233–234
  13. ^ Jennifer Rosenberg (2 April 2017). "Der Stuermer - An Overview of the Nazi's Antisemitic Newspaper". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
  14. ^ a b c d Showalter, Dennis E. (1982) Little Man What Now? Der Stürmer in the Weimer Republic Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books.
  15. ^ Fink, Fritz (1935) "The End: Betrayed to Death by a Jew" Der Sturner from Calvin College German Propaganda Archive
  16. ^ Koonz, pp. 230–231

Bibliography

  • Bytwerk, R.L. Julius Streicher (New York: Cooper Square, 2001), p. 59.
  • Imbleau, Martin. "Der Stürmer." Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Ed. Dinah Shelton. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 247-249. 3 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Thomson Gale.
  • Keysers, Ralph. Der Stürmer: Instrument de l'idéologie nazie: Une analyse des caricatures d'intoxication. L'Harmattan, Paris 2012. ISBN 978-2-296-96258-3.
  • Koonz, Claudia (2003) The Nazi Conscience. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press.ISBN 0-674-01172-4
  • Wistrich, Robert. Who's Who in Nazi Germany (Routledge, New York, 1995), q. v. Streicher, Julius.

External links

Antisemitenbund

The Antisemitenbund (German: Der Antisemitenbund, "The Antisemite League") was an Austrian antisemitic collective movement that existed between 1919 and 1938. Their organ was a printed magazine named Der Eiserne Besen ("The Iron Broom").

The movement was founded 1919 in Vienna by Christian Socialist politician Anton Jerzabek. This antisemitic movement was first based in the district of Gersthof (Schindlergasse 20). It was later forced to be moved to Salzburg.In the beginning of the Austrofascist era, the Antisemitenbund was officially forbidden 1933 by the Ständesstaat, but because it was counted as a NSDAP society, it was allowed to continue its activities. After the German annexation of Austria 1938, the movement dissolved.

Their printed organ Der Eiserne Besen was published from 1919 to 1922 in Vienna, then in Salzburg until 1932. The circulation was small, never exceeding 6 000. The magazine was known for its sensationalist content, with stories focusing on sex scandals involving Jews as well as stories about alleged Jewish ritual murders. Because of its diction and expression, it is seen by many scholars as a predecessor to Der Stürmer.

Enemy of the people

The term enemy of the people is a designation for the political or class opponents of the subgroup in power within a larger group. The term implies that by opposing the ruling subgroup, the "enemies" in question are acting against the larger group, for example against society as a whole. It is similar to the notion of "enemy of the state". The term originated in Roman times as Latin: hostis publicus, typically translated into English as the "public enemy". The term in its "enemy of the people" form has been used for centuries in literature (see An Enemy of the People, the play by Henrik Ibsen, 1882; or Coriolanus, the play by William Shakespeare, c. 1605).

The Soviet Union made extensive use of the term until 1956. Since early 2017 it has been used on multiple occasions by US President Donald Trump to refer to news organizations and journalists whom he considers to be biased.

Ernst Hiemer

Ernst Hiemer (5 July 1900 – 29 July 1974) was a German writer, who worked closely with Julius Streicher, the founder of the anti-Semitic newspaper Der Stürmer. Hiemer's three main books were all published in the Second World War and had anti-Semitic themes.

Freedom for Humanity

Freedom for Humanity is a mural by the American artist Mear One (Kalen Ockerman), painted on a wall in Hanbury Street, London in 2012. Commentators and some local residents likened it to antisemitic propaganda in Nazi Germany, and it was removed by Tower Hamlets London Borough Council.The mural depicted a group of elderly bankers or businessmen sitting around a board game that resembled Monopoly and was supported by crouching naked human figures with dark complexions. Above the group was an Eye of Providence pyramid symbol, and to the side stood a protesting figure bearing a placard with the slogan "The New World Order is the enemy of humanity". According to Holocaust historian Deborah E. Lipstadt, as well as contemporary local media, the "hook-nosed, repulsive-looking characters at the table" resembled the imagery used by the anti-Semitic Der Stürmer newspaper.Lutfur Rahman, then Mayor of Tower Hamlets, said "the images of the bankers perpetuate antisemitic propaganda about conspiratorial Jewish domination of financial and political institutions" and ordered it to be removed. Before its removal, the mural was painted over in white paint; the artist also said that the BBC has broadcast his mural being defaced with the name of a "now defunct Jewish paramilitary organisation".

Mear One has stated"I came to paint a mural that depicted the elite banker cartel known as the Rothschilds, Rockefellers, Morgans, the ruling class elite few, the Wizards of Oz. They would be playing a board game of monopoly on the backs of the working class. The symbol of the Free Mason [sic] Pyramid rises behind this group and behind that is a polluted world of coal burning and nuclear reactors. I was creating this piece to inspire critical thought and spark conversation. A group of conservatives do not like my mural and are playing a race card with me. My mural is about class and privilege. The banker group is made up of Jewish and white Anglos. For some reason they are saying I am anti-semitic. This I am most definitely not... What I am against is class." He has written that the painting "never said anything about these characters representing anything more than greedy old European and American men in power". He added that "Some of the older white Jewish folk in the local community had an issue with me portraying their beloved #Rothschild or #Warburg etc as the demons they are." (in reference to the Rothschild and Warburg banking families).One commentator on graffiti art asked "So why is this mural so offensive to the local community that Mr Rahman is asking for it to be removed? Because it reveals that the global financial system is run by white, middle aged men, some of whom are also Jewish? I really hate to break it to Mr Rahman but if he travelled a few miles down the road to the City of London and went and sat in the boardrooms of the major banks I think he'd be in for a shock."In March 2018, the issue of the mural resurfaced as the British politician Jeremy Corbyn, leader of the British Labour Party, on being sent an image of the mural by Mear One on Facebook in 2012, along with the news that it was to be removed, had asked the artist why it was to be destroyed, saying that he was "in good company. Rockerfeller(sic) destroyed Diego Viera's mural because it includes a picture of Lenin", referring to Nelson Rockefeller's destruction of Diego Rivera's Man at the Crossroads fresco in 1934. In response to allegations of sympathising with antisemitism (see: Antisemitism in the UK Labour Party), Corbyn stated, "I sincerely regret that I did not look more closely at the image I was commenting on, the contents of which are deeply disturbing and anti-Semitic."Karen Pollock of the Holocaust Educational Trust said the mural was "indefensible", as it "was blatantly anti-Semitic, using images commonly found in anti-Semitic propaganda – it is impossible not to notice".

German People's Party (Romania)

The German People's Party (German: Deutsche Volkspartei in Rumänien; Romanian: Partidul Poporului German din România, PPGR) was a political party that operated in Romania between 1935 and 1938, claiming to represent the ethnic German community.

Alfred Bonfert founded the PPGR on April 22, 1935, in a split with the Nazi-oriented German Party, whose president he accused of having a conciliatory attitude toward the party's democratic leaders, and which he denounced as Judeo-Communist during the next few years. The party's base was the Volksdeutsche bourgeoisie, influenced by Nazism. It was organised on the Hitler-created model, with a paramilitary system in which the cadres were named by superior hierarchical organs. It ran three official newspapers: Der Stürmer (Timișoara), Ost-deutscher beobachter (Sibiu) and Sachsenburg (Brașov).

In its programme of 1935, the PPGR asked for the 1923 Constitution to be respected, as well as for cultural autonomy for the local German community. Besides its programme, the party's practical activity entailed cultivating a German (in this case Nazi) spirit among the Germans of Romania, and implanting each one of these with the idea that he represented an element, living abroad, of the Great Reich, whose interests he had to serve. The PPGR was hostile to Romanians and tried to isolate ethnic Germans from the general population. It adopted an intransigent attitude toward the country's governments, disavowing collaboration and pursuing a policy of confrontation toward them. A veritable fifth column for the Reich, it was never very popular, gaining under 1% of the vote at the 1937 election despite Germans forming over 4% of the population.

The German People's Party, along with all other parties extant in Romania, was dissolved on March 30, 1938. On October 27, 1938, following orders from Berlin, the remnants of PPGR were merged with the German Party.

Hate media

Thomas Kamilindi, author of Journalism in a Time of Hate Media, describes hate media as a form of violence, which helps to demonize and stigmatize people that belong to different groups. This type of media has had an influential role in the incitement of genocide, with its most infamous cases perhaps being Radio Televizija Srbije during wars in Yugoslavia, Radio Télévision Libre des Milles Collines (RTLM) during the Rwandan Genocide and Nazi Germany’s Der Stürmer.

Helmut Hirsch

Helmut Hirsch (January 27, 1916 in Stuttgart – June 4, 1937 in Berlin) was a German Jew who was executed for his part in a bombing plot intended to destabilize the German Reich. Although a full and accurate account of the plot is unknown, his targets were understood to be the Nazi party headquarters in Nuremberg, (Germany), and/or the plant where the antisemitic weekly propaganda newspaper Der Stürmer was printed.

Imperial Fascist League

The Imperial Fascist League (IFL) was a British fascist political movement founded by Arnold Leese in 1929 after he broke away from the British Fascists. It included a blackshirted paramilitary arm called the Fascists Legion, modeled after the Italian Fascisti. The group espoused anti-Semitism and the dominance of the 'Aryan race' in a 'Racial Fascist Corporate State', especially after Leese met Nazi Party propagandist Julius Streicher, the virulently racist publisher of Der Stürmer; the group later indirectly received funding from the Nazis. Although it had only between 150 and 500 members at maximum, its public profile was higher than its membership numbers would indicate.

After the IFL turned down a merger with the British Union of Fascists in 1932, due to policy differences, the BUF mounted a campaign against the IFL, physically breaking up its meetings and fabricating phony plans that showed the IFL planning to attack the BUF's headquarters, which were passed on to the British government.

The Imperial Fascist League went into a steep decline upon the outbreak of World War II, after Leese declared his allegiance to "King and country", to the displeasure of pro-German members. Nevertheless, Leese was interned under wartime security regulations, and the IFL was not reformed after the war.

Julius Streicher

Julius Streicher (12 February 1885 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent member of the Nazi Party. He was the founder and publisher of the semi-pornographic and virulently antisemitic newspaper Der Stürmer, which became a central element of the Nazi propaganda machine. His publishing firm also released three antisemitic books for children, including the 1938 Der Giftpilz (translated into English as The Toadstool or The Poisonous Mushroom), one of the most widespread pieces of propaganda, which warned about the supposed dangers Jews posed by using the metaphor of an attractive yet deadly mushroom. The publishing firm was financially very successful and made Streicher a multi-millionaire.After falling out with Hermann Göring in 1939, Streicher was declared unfit for leadership by a Nazi Party Court and stripped of his party posts, although he continued to publish Der Stürmer, which was not an official publication of the Nazi Party.At the end of the war, Streicher was convicted of crimes against humanity in the Nuremberg trials and was executed.

Karl Leopold von Möller

Karl von Möller (born October 11, 1876, Vienna, died February 21, 1943) was an officer, journalist, author and politician from Banat. He was an enthusiastic supporter of Hitler's National Socialism, and in 1932 he published the antisemitic newspaper "Der Stürmer" in Timişoara, an imitation of the German Nazi publication. He was married to Margaret Jung, with whom he had two children.

List of Légion d'honneur recipients by name (S)

The following is a list of some notable Légion d'honneur recipients by name. The Légion d'honneur is the highest order of France. A complete, chronological list of the members of the Legion of Honour nominated from the very first ceremony in 1803 to now does not exist. The number is estimated at one million including about 3,000 Grand Cross.

Satyajit Ray, film director, India

Sakip Sabanci

Pari Saberi (1932–), Iranian drama and theatre director, awarded this in 2004.

Anthony Sadler, together with his friends Spencer Stone and Alek Skarlatos (see Stone's entry for more)

Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo

Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko

Louis Santi (?–abt 1925), awarded Croix de Guerra, awarded the rank of Chevalier of the Ordre National du Mérite, and the Médaille de la

Eran Sachs

Karine Saporta

Nicolas Sarkozy

Jalal Sattari, Iranian Iranologist, mythologist, writer and translator.

Jérôme Savary

Adolphe Sax

Levon Sayan

Paolo Scaroni

Ary Scheffer

Anne Cécile Schmitt 1917–2011, awarded for actions in World War Two.

Guillaume Schnaebelé (1831–1900), awarded 1870/1 for his service in the Franco-Prussian War, he is better known for the Schnaebelé incident (1877)

Dominique Schnapper

Eugène Schneider

Pierre Schneiter

Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. (1934–2012), retired United States Army General who, while he served as Commander-in-Chief (now known as "Combatant Commander") of U.S. Central Command, was commander of the Coalition Forces in the Gulf War of 1991.

Martin Scorsese

Herbert Scott R. N., Coxswain of an L.C.A delivering 47 Commando to Gold Beach Normandy 1944.

Horace François Bastien Sébastiani de La Porta

Marc Seguin (1786–1875), French inventor and entrepreneur, invented the tubular steam engine and brought suspension bridges to continental Europe; awarded in 1836.

Philippe Paul, comte de Ségur

John F. R. Seitz

Monique Sené, French, nuclear physicist.

Edgar Sengier

Mohammad-Ali Sepanlou (1941–), Iranian writer and literary figure.

Andrzej Seweryn

Shah Rukh Khan

Ravi Shankar, India

Ali-Akbar Siassi, Iranian intellectual, psychologist and politician during the 1930s and 1960s, serving as the country's Foreign Minister, Minister of Education, Chancellor of University of Tehran, and Minister of State without portfolio.

Henryk Siemiradzki

Henryk Sienkiewicz

Władysław Sikorski

Rodrigo Augusto da Silva, Brazilian foreign minister and Senator in 1889, Grand Cross.

Kumar de Silva, Sri Lanka

Franklin Simon (1865–1934), honored for doing more to put American women in French styles.

Paul-Louis Simond (1858–1947), French biologist who discovered the transmission of the bubonic plague through rat fleas.

Jules Herman Sitrick, single-handedly captured 21 German soldiers during WWII.

Alek Skarlatos together with his friends Spencer Stone and Anthony Sadler (see Stone's entry for more)

Albert Skorupa (1919–?), World War II veteran who served as an engineer. Honored alongside 99 other World War II veterans, as part of the commemoration of the 60th anniversary of D-Day(Battle of Normandy).

Jan Zygmunt Skrzynecki

Edward David Smout

Jan Smuts

Thomas D'Oyly Snow

Nelson Socorro, Venezuelan attorney, politician

Jacob Söderman

Michał Sokolnicki (1760–1816), Polish general

Omar Soliman, (Omar Mahmoud Soliman), Egyptian Spy Chief till 2011

Jean-François André Sordet (1852–1923)

Jean-Pierre Sourdin, ancien directeur d'un journal français en Australie; 51 ans d'activités professionnelles, associatives et de services militaires.

Prince Mangkra Souvannaphouma (1938–), Lao Prince living in exile in France.

Józef Sowinski

Carl Andrew Spaatz

Edmund Charles Spencer, World War I veteran awarded the Légion d'Honneur on the 80th anniversary of the armistice.

John Strange Spencer-Churchill

Lord Ivor Spencer-Churchill

Steven Spielberg, American film director/producer

Alma de Bretteville Spreckels (1881–1926), American philanthropist who raised large amounts of money for France during World War I; awarded in 1924.

Waclaw Stachiewicz

Milan Rastislav Štefánik

Johannes Steinhoff

Stepa Stepanović

Ninian Stephen

Anthony Coningham Sterling

John Mills Sterling, Brig. General, USAF Air Attache US Embassy in Paris, France WW2. Honored for certain "classified reasons".

Major A.J.A. Stewart (d. 2017 aged 95), Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. Honoured for his part in the D-Day Landings.

Joseph Stilwell

Yates Stirling, Jr., American Navy Read Admiral

Bill Stone

Sharon Stone, American actress

Spencer Stone (1992–present), awarded for assisting in the prevention of an Islamic terrorist attack on French soil.

Julius Streicher, German National Socialist, publisher of the Nazi newspaper Der Stürmer. He received the award 1939 before the war started.

Barbra Streisand

Jean Baptiste Alexandre Strolz, baron Strolz

Albert Edward Stuart (2016), awarded for actions on D Day during liberation of France.

Doveton Sturdee

Jacques Gervais, baron Subervie

Evelyne Sullerot

Bruce Sundlun

Stevan Šupljikac

Léopold Survage

Nikolai Sverchkov

Greggory Swarz, U.S. Airman pulled three French airmen from the burning wreckage of a Greek F-16 jet on January 26, 2015.

Stefan Szlaszewski

List of defunct newspapers of Germany

This is a list of defunct newspapers of Germany.

Allgemeine Zeitung

Das Andere Deutschland

Das Reich

Das Schwarze Korps

Der Angriff

Der Morgen

Der Pionier

Der Stürmer

Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung

Deutsche Volkszeitung

Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden

Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen

Die Einigkeit

Die Rote Fahne

Die Fanfare

Financial Times Deutschland

Frankfurter Zeitung

Freie Presse (Alsace), not to be confused with today's Freie Presse (Saxony)

Iskra

Israelitisches Familienblatt

Kreuzzeitung

Münchener Beobachter

Münchener Post

Neue Montagzeitung

Neue Rheinische Zeitung

Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift

NS Månedshefte

Panzerbär

Prizyv

Regensburger Echo

Rheinische Zeitung

Völkischer Beobachter

Vossische Zeitung

Philipp Rupprecht

Philipp Rupprecht (4 September 1900 – 4 April 1975) was a German cartoonist best known for his anti-Semitic caricatures in the Nazi publication Der Stürmer, under the pen-name Fips.

Rassenschande

Rassenschande (German: [ˈʁasn̩ˌʃandə], lit. "race disgrace") or Blutschande (German: [ˈbluːtˌʃandə] (listen) "blood disgrace") was an anti-miscegenation concept in Nazi German racial policy, pertaining to sexual relations between Aryans and non-Aryans. It was put into practice by policies like the Aryan certificate requirement, and later the Nuremberg Laws, adopted unanimously by the Reichstag on 15 September 1935. Initially, these laws referred predominantly to relations between Germans and non-Aryans. In the early stages the culprits were targeted informally, and then later on punished systematically by a repressive legal apparatus.

In the course of the ensuing war years, relations between Reichsdeutsche Germans and millions of foreign Ostarbeiters brought to Germany by force, were also legally forbidden. Concerted efforts were made to foment popular distaste for it. The reasons for this were purely practical, because the Eastern European female slave labour servicing the German war economy soon became targets of rampant sexual abuse at the hands of the German farm workers and overseers. The Polish and Soviet women and girls began giving so many unwanted births on the farms that hundreds of special homes known as Ausländerkinder-Pflegestätte had to be created, in order to exterminate the infants out of sight.

Schloss Ermreuth

Schloss Ermreuth is a manor house (Rittergut) in the Upper Franconian village of Ermreuth in the municipality of Neunkirchen am Brand. The three-storey hipped roof building was owned by various Franconian noble families in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period. From 1926 the estate was used as a meeting point and training establishment for leading Nazis and, since 1980, has been the residence of right-wing extremist, Karl-Heinz Hoffmann.

Srulik

Srulik (Hebrew: שרוליק‎, IPA: [ˈsʁu.lik]) is a cartoon character symbolizing Israel. The character was created in 1956 by the Israeli cartoonist Kariel Gardosh, known by his pen name Dosh.

The cartoon appeared for many years in the newspaper Maariv. Yosef Lapid, Dosh's colleague on the editorial board of Maariv, described Srulik as an icon of Israel in the same way that Marianne and Uncle Sam were respectively icons of France and the United States. Srulik is a common nickname for "Yisrael" (Israel).

Srulik is generally depicted as a young man wearing a tembel hat, Biblical sandals, and khaki shorts. Srulik is a pioneering Zionist, a lover of the land of Israel and its soil, a dedicated farmer who in time of need puts on a uniform and goes out to defend the state of Israel. Dosh drew Srulik in cartoons on current events for Maariv, and also for various "specials" and occasions of the young state. During wartime, Srulik put on a uniform and was drafted to raise the national morale.

Many have pointed out Srulik's function as an antithesis of the antisemitic caricatures which appeared in Der Stürmer and other European and Arab journals. As against the stereotype of the weak or cunning Jew that was propagated by Joseph Goebbels, Dosh — a Holocaust survivor — drew a proud, strong and sympathetic Jewish character. The journalist Shalom Rosenfeld, editor of Maariv in 1974-1980, wrote:

Srulik became not only a mark of recognition of [Dosh's] amazing daily cartoons, but an entity standing on its own, as a symbol of the Land of Israel - beautiful, lively, innocent ... and having a little chutzpah, and naturally also of the new Jew. Because of our history and our religion and the relations between us and the nations that absorbed us in their countries and cultures, stereotypes were created, mostly not so positive of the Jewish man. In the works of the greatest artists of prose, poetry and painting these stereotypes moved between a Wandering Jew, restless, tragic and pathetic and the hunchbacked, crooked-nosed, fleshy-lipped Jew with a pack of banknotes in his pockets, a prototype of the Shakespearean Shylock and The Jew Süss, in Goebbelsian interpretation, and in the modern times of many caricaturists in the Arab countries.

Streicher

Streicher is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Streicher's, police equipment and supply company founded in 1953 in Butler, Wisconsin

Herbert Streicher, also known as Harry Reems, a pornographic actor

Johann Andreas Streicher (1761, Stuttgart - 1833, Vienna), German pianist, composer and piano maker

Nannette Streicher, née Stein (1769, Augsburg - 1833, Vienna), German piano maker, composer and music educator.

Johann Baptist Streicher (1796, Vienna - 1871, Vienna), Austrian piano maker

Julius Streicher (1885 - 1946), prominent Nazi prior to World War II, founder and publisher of anti-Semitic Der Stürmer newspaper, executed for war crimes

Ludwig Streicher (1920 - 2003), contrabass is from Vienna, Austria.

Michael A. Streicher (1921 - 2006), American metallurgist and engineer who became internationally recognized

Mike Streicher (born in Findlay, Ohio), American auto racing driver

Stürmer

Stürmer may refer to:

Der Stürmer, Nazi newspaper published from 1923 to 1945.

Trust No Fox on his Green Heath and No Jew on his Oath

Trau keinem Fuchs auf grüner Heid und keinem Jud auf seinem Eid (English: Trust No Fox on his Green Heath and No Jew on his Oath) is a children’s book written and published in 1936 during the Third Reich in Germany. The children’s book was written by Elvira Bauer, a kindergarten teacher and Nazi supporter, and was illustrated by Philipp Rupprecht, a publisher to the Nazi newspaper Der Stürmer. The book was the first of three children’s books to be published by Julius Streicher, who was later executed for war crimes. The book teaches children, according to the Nazi Party in Germany, what a Jew is and what they look like. Children's books like Trau keinem Fuchs auf grüner Heid und keinem Jud auf seinem Eid were used to educate the youth of Nazi Germany in being a citizen of the Third Reich.

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