Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (German pronunciation: [deːɐ̯ ˈʃpiːɡl̩], lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.[1] With a weekly circulation of 840,000 copies, it is the largest such publication in Europe.[2][3][4]

It was founded in 1947[5] by John Seymour Chaloner, a British army officer, and Rudolf Augstein, a former Wehrmacht radio operator who was recognised in 2000 by the International Press Institute as one of the fifty World Press Freedom Heroes.[6] Spiegel Online, the online sibling of Der Spiegel, was launched in 1994 with an independent editorial staff. Typically, the magazine has a content to advertising ratio of 2:1.

Der Spiegel is known in German-speaking countries mostly for its investigative journalism. It has played a key role in uncovering many political scandals such as the Spiegel scandal in 1962 and the Flick affair in the 1980s. According to The Economist, Der Spiegel is one of continental Europe's most influential magazines.[7]

Der Spiegel
Logo-der spiegel
Der Spiegel front page
1 May 2004 issue
Editor-in-ChiefKlaus Brinkbäumer
CategoriesNews magazine
FrequencyWeekly (on Saturdays)
First issue4 January 1947
Based inHamburg


Spiegel Building Hamburg 1
Old Spiegel headquarters, Hamburg
Spiegel headquarters since 2011, Hamburg

The first edition of Der Spiegel was published in Hanover on Saturday, 4 January 1947.[8] Its release was initiated and sponsored by the British occupational administration and preceded by a magazine titled Diese Woche (meaning This Week in English),[8] which had first been published in November 1946. After disagreements with the British, the magazine was handed over to Rudolf Augstein as chief editor, and was renamed Der Spiegel. From the first edition in January 1947, Augstein held the position of editor-in-chief, which he retained until his death on 7 November 2002.

After 1950, the magazine was owned by Rudolf Augstein and John Jahr; Jahr's share merged with Richard Gruner in 1965 to form the publishing company Gruner + Jahr. In 1969, Augstein bought out Gruner + Jahr for DM 42 million and became the sole owner of Der Spiegel. In 1971, Gruner + Jahr bought back a 25% share in the magazine. In 1974, Augstein restructured the company to make the employees shareholders. All employees with more than three years seniority were offered the opportunity to become an associate and participate in the management of the company, as well as in the profits.

Since 1952, Der Spiegel has been headquartered in its own building in the old town part of Hamburg.[9]

Der Spiegel's circulation rose quickly. From 15,000 copies in 1947, it grew to 65,000 in 1948 and 437,000 in 1961. It was nearly 500,000 copies in 1962.[10] By the 1970s, it had reached a plateau at about 900,000 copies. When the German re-unification in 1990 made it available to a new readership in former East Germany, the circulation exceeded one million.

The magazine's influence is based on two pillars; firstly the moral authority established by investigative journalism since the early years and proven alive by several impressive scoops during the 1980s; secondly the economic power of the prolific Spiegel publishing house. Since 1988, it has produced the TV programme Spiegel TV, and further diversified during the 1990s.

During the second quarter of 1992 the circulation of Der Spiegel was 1.1 million copies.[11] In 1994, Spiegel Online was launched.[12][13] It has separate and independent editorial staff from Der Spiegel. In 1999, the circulation of Der Spiegel was 1,061,000 copies.[14]

Der Spiegel had an average circulation of 1,076,000 copies in 2003.[15] In 2007 the magazine started a new regional supplement in Switzerland.[16] It was the first regional supplement of the magazine which covers 50-page review of Switzerland.[16]

In 2010 Der Spiegel was employing the equivalent of 80 full-time fact checkers, which the Columbia Journalism Review called "most likely the world's largest fact checking operation".[17] The same year it was the third best-selling general interest magazine in Europe with a circulation of 1,016,373 copies.[18]

In 2018, Der Spiegel became involved in a journalistic scandal after it discovered and made public that one of its leading reporters, Claas Relotius, had "falsified his articles on a grand scale".[19][20]


When Stefan Aust took over in 1994, the magazine's readers realised that his personality was different from his predecessor. In 2005, a documentary by Stephan Lamby quoted him as follows: "We stand at a very big cannon!"[21] Politicians of all stripes who had to deal with the magazine's attention often voiced their disaffection for it. The outspoken conservative Franz Josef Strauß contended that Der Spiegel was "the Gestapo of our time". He referred to journalists in general as "rats".[22] The Social Democrat Willy Brandt called it "Scheißblatt" (i.e., a "shit paper") during his term in office as Chancellor.[23]

Der Spiegel often produces feature-length articles on problems affecting Germany (like demographic trends, the federal system's gridlock or the issues of its education system) and describes optional strategies and their risks in depth.[24][25][26][27][28] The magazine plays the role of opinion leader in the German press.[29]

Investigative journalism

Der Spiegel has a distinctive reputation for revealing political misconduct and scandals. Online Encyclopædia Britannica emphasizes this quality of the magazine as follows: "The magazine is renowned for its aggressive, vigorous, and well-written exposés of government malpractice and scandals."[12] It merited recognition for this as early as 1950, when the federal parliament launched an inquiry into Spiegel's accusations that bribed members of parliament had promoted Bonn over Frankfurt as the seat of West Germany's government.

During the Spiegel scandal in 1962, which followed the release of a report about the possibly low state of readiness of the German armed forces, minister of defence and conservative figurehead Franz Josef Strauß had Der Spiegel investigated. In the course of this investigation, the editorial offices were raided by police while Rudolf Augstein and other Der Spiegel editors were arrested on charges of treason. Despite a lack of sufficient authority, Strauß even went after the article's author, Conrad Ahlers, who was consequently arrested in Spain where he was on holiday. When the legal case collapsed, the scandal led to a major shake-up in chancellor Konrad Adenauer's cabinet and Strauß had to stand down. The affair was generally received as an attack on the freedom of the press. Since then, Der Spiegel has repeatedly played a significant role in revealing political grievances and misdeeds, including the Flick Affair.[10]

The Spiegel scandal is now remembered for altering the political culture of post-war Germany and—with the first mass demonstrations and public protests—being a turning point from the old Obrigkeitsstaat (authoritarian state) to a modern democracy.

In 2010, the magazine supported WikiLeaks in publishing leaked materials from the United States State Department, along with The Guardian, The New York Times, El País, and Le Monde[30] and in October 2013 with the help of former NSA contractor Edward Snowden unveiled the systematic wiretapping of Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel's private cell phone over a period of over 10 years at the hands of the National Security Agency's Special Collection Service (SCS).[31]

The leading role of the magazine in investigative journalism and its monopoly came to end in 2013 since other German media outlets, including Süddeutsche Zeitung, Bild, ARD and ZDF, began to effectively deal with political scandals.[32]


One of the main criticism of Der Spiegel concerns its use of language. In 1957, writer Hans Magnus Enzensberger published his essay Die Sprache des Spiegels (“The Language of Der Spiegel”), in which he criticised what he called a "pretended objectivity". Wolf Schneider, an eminent journalist and stylist has called Der Spiegel "the biggest mangler of the German language" and used quotations from the magazine as examples of inept German in his style guides. Their criticism was not so much one of linguistic aesthetics as an argument that Der Spiegel "hides and distorts its actual topics and issues by manipulative semantics and rhetoric rather than by reporting and analysing them". In 1957, however, Enzensberger admitted in a written statement that no other contemporary German magazine attained the Spiegel's level of objectivity.

Opinions about the level of language employed by Der Spiegel changed in the late 1990s. After hiring many of Germany's best feature writers, Der Spiegel has become known for its "Edelfedern" ("noble quills"—wordsmiths). The magazine frequently wins the Egon Erwin Kisch Prize for the best German feature. Der Spiegel ended up joining the ranks of the guardians of proper grammar and jargon with the Zwiebelfisch ("(printer's) pie") column on the magazine's website, which has even produced several best-selling books.

Some critics, in particular the media historian Lutz Hachmeister and the Augstein biographer and former Der Spiegel author Otto Köhler, have brought charges against the magazine's dealings with former Nazis, even SS officers. Allegedly, Der Spiegel, which at other times showed no restraint when exposing the Nazi past of public figures, distorted history and covered up for criminals after enlisting insiders hired to write about Third Reich topics. Its early reports and serials about the Reichstag fire, written by former SS officers Paul Carell (who had also served as chief press spokesman for Nazi Germany's Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop) and Fritz Tobias, have since been considered influential in historiography because since the 1960s the Spiegel reports written by these two authors have been corroborated by authoritative historian Hans Mommsen.

2018 fabrication scandal

On 19 December 2018, Der Spiegel made public that reporter Claas Relotius had admitted that he had "falsified his articles on a grand scale", inventing facts, persons and quotations in at least 14 of his stories.[19][20] The magazine uncovered the fraud after a co-author of one of Relotius's stories, Juan Moreno, became suspicious of the veracity of Relotius's contributions and gathered evidence against him.[20] Relotius resigned, telling the magazine that he was "sick" and needed to get help. Der Spiegel left his articles accessible, but with a notice referring to the magazine's ongoing investigation into the fabrications.[19]

The Wall Street Journal cited a former Der Spiegel journalist who said "some of the articles at issue appeared to confirm certain German stereotypes about Trump voters, asking “was this possible because of an ideological bias?”"[33] An apology ensued from Der Spiegel for looking for a cliché of a Trump-voting town, and not finding it.[34] Mathias Bröckers, former Die Tageszeitung editor, wrote: "the imaginative author simply delivered what his superiors demanded and fit into their spin".[35] The Atlantic and Focus reported that "Der Spiegel has long peddled crude and sensational anti-Americanism."[36][37]


A special 25 March 2008 edition of Der Spiegel on Islam was banned in Egypt in April 2008 for publishing material deemed by authorities to be insulting Islam and the Prophet Muhammed.[38][39]

Head office

Der Spiegel began moving into its current head office in HafenCity in September 2011. The facility was designed by Henning Larsen Architects of Denmark. The magazine was previously located in a high-rise building with 8,226 square metres (88,540 sq ft) of office space.[40]


  • 1962–1968: Claus Jacobi
  • 1968–1973: Günter Gaus
  • 1973–1986: Erich Böhme and Johannes K. Engel
  • 1986–1989: Erich Böhme and Werner Funk
  • 1989–1994: Hans Werner Kilz and Wolfgang Kaden
  • 1994–2008: Stefan Aust
  • 2008–2011: Mathias Müller von Blumencron and Georg Mascolo
  • 2011–2013: Georg Mascolo[32]
  • 2013–2014: Wolfgang Büchner[41]
  • 13 January 2015 – present: Klaus Brinkbäumer

See also


  1. ^ "Der Spiegel - Magazin". Euro Topcis.
  2. ^ "DER SPIEGEL is Germany's oldest news magazine; founded in 1946 as a German version of America's TIME and NEWSWEEK magazines". Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  3. ^ Kevin J. O'Brien (19 April 2004). "Scoop on Bundesbank head returns focus to Der Spiegel". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2008.
  4. ^ "Average circulation: 1.1 million". Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  5. ^ Catherine C. Fraser; Dierk O. Hoffmann (1 January 2006). Pop Culture Germany!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. p. 200. ISBN 978-1-85109-733-3. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  6. ^ Laudatory submission for Hero of World Press Freedom Award: Rudolf Augstein Archived 8 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Der Spiegel and Germany's press: His country's mirror". The Economist. 16 November 2002. Retrieved 30 June 2013. Mr Augstein's success in making Der Spiegel one of continental Europe's most influential magazines...
  8. ^ a b "Six Decades of Quality Journalism: The History of DER SPIEGEL". Der Spiegel. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  9. ^ "Wicona lands Spiegel project in Hamburg". Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  10. ^ a b Frank Esser; Uwe Hartung (2004). "Nazis, Pollution, and no Sex: Political Scandals as a Reflection of Political Culture in Germany". American Behavioral Scientist. 47 (1040): 1040–1071. doi:10.1177/0002764203262277. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  11. ^ Georg Hellack (1992). "Press, Radio and Television in the Federal Republic of Germany" (Report). Inter Nationes. Bonn. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  12. ^ a b Christina Schäffner (2005). "Bringing a German Voice to English-speaking Readers: Spiegel International". Language and Intercultural Communication. 5 (2): 154–167. doi:10.1080/14708470508668891.
  13. ^ Anne Penketh; Philip Oltermann; Stephen Burgen (12 June 2014). "European newspapers search for ways to survive digital revolution". The Guardian. Paris, Berlin, Barcelona. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  14. ^ Ingomar Kloss; M. Abe (1 January 2001). Advertising Worldwide: Advertising Conditions in Selected Countries. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 130. ISBN 978-3-540-67713-0. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  15. ^ "European Publishing Monitor" (Report). Turku School of Economics (Media Group). March 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  16. ^ a b Stephan Russ-Mohl (27 June 2007). "The Lemon Dealers". Der Tagesspiegel. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  17. ^ Craig Silverman (9 April 2010). "Inside the World's Largest Fact Checking Operation. A conversation with two staffers at Der Spiegel". Columbia Journalism Review.
  18. ^ "World Magazine Trends 2010/2011" (PDF). FIPP. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  19. ^ a b c "The Relotius Case: Answers to the Most Important Questions". Spiegel Online. 19 December 2018. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  20. ^ a b c Connolly, Kate (19 December 2018). "Der Spiegel says top journalist faked stories for years". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  21. ^ ""We stand at a very big cannon!" Aust ranks his influence with the Spiegel - and openly acknowledges that he has enemies". Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  22. ^ "Strauss claimed that journalists were like vermin around shit (Ratten und Schmeißfliegen)". Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  23. ^ "70 Jahre "Der Spiegel": Alles Gute, "Scheißblatt"". (in German). Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  24. ^ "The best investigative reporting, the widest foreign coverage, the sharpest political analysis, and the most insightful social commentary". The Economist. 14 November 2002. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  25. ^ Sarah Lambert (29 September 1992). "'Der Spiegel' report hits VW shares". The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  26. ^ "Holders of sovereign bonds, while taking a so-called haircut, would be guaranteed half the bond's face value as an incentive to take part in debt restructuring, Spiegel said". Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  27. ^ "Here's how Spiegel puts it: "Germany is witnessing a stunning political about-face". It said ..." BBC News. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  28. ^ Luke Harding (14 March 2011). "Der Spiegel has long been a German institution and is essential reading for anyone who wants to understand Germany or German politics". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  29. ^ Wolfgang Donsbach (May 2004). "Psychology of news decisions". Journalism. 5 (2): 131–157. doi:10.1177/146488490452002. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
  30. ^ WikiLeaks FAQ: What Do the Diplomatic Cables Really Tell Us? Der Spiegel, 28 November 2010
  31. ^ Embassy Espionage: The NSA's Secret Spy Hub in Berlin Der Spiegel, 27 October 2013
  32. ^ a b Eric Pfanner (29 April 2013). "As One German Weekly Falters, Another Celebrates Big Gains". The New York Times. Serraval. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  33. ^ Bojan Pancevski; Sara Germano (20 December 2018). "Germany's Der Spiegel Says Reporter Made Up Facts". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 December 2018. Stefan Niggemeier, an independent media blogger in Berlin and a former Spiegel journalist, said some of the articles at issue appeared to confirm certain German stereotypes about Trump voters, asking “was this possible because of an ideological bias?”
  34. ^ Matt Furber and Mitch Smith (27 December 2018). "Minnesota Town Defamed by German Reporter Is Ready to Forgive". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 December 2018. he was trying to look for a cliché of a Trump-voting town and he simply didn’t find it,” said Christoph Scheuermann, the Der Spiegel correspondent who visited Fergus Falls last week to apologize
  35. ^ "If the narrative is correct, facts are secondary". Question Authority - Think For Yourself (in German). Mathias Broeckers. 22 December 2018. Retrieved 28 December 2018. Claas Relotius, because the imaginative author has just delivered what his superiors demanded and fit into their spin
  36. ^ James Kirchick (3 January 2019). "Germany's Leading Magazine Published Falsehoods About American Life". The Atlantic. Retrieved 6 January 2019. Though it is respected abroad as an authoritative news source, Der Spiegel has long peddled crude and sensational anti-Americanism, usually grounded in its brand of knee-jerk German pacifism
  37. ^ ""The Atlantic" deplores the destructive effect Der Spiegel propaganda against the United States". Focus (German magazine) (in German). 6 January 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2019. Der Spiegel wird zwar international als zuverlässige Nachrichtenquelle geachtet, doch er verbreitet seit langem schon einen kruden und sensationslüsternen Antiamerikanismus
  38. ^ "Der Spiegel issue on Islam banned in Egypt". France24. 2 April 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
  39. ^ "Leading German Magazine Banned in Egypt". The Arab Press Network. 3 April 2008. Archived from the original on 10 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  40. ^ "HafenCity Headquarters: SPIEGEL Moves to a New Home" (Archive). Der Spiegel 5 October 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  41. ^ Eric Pfanner (29 April 2013). "New Der Spiegel Editor will Also Oversee Web Business". The New York Times. Serraval. Retrieved 6 October 2013.

External links

Afghan War documents leak

The Afghan War documents leak, also called the Afghan War Diary, is the disclosure of a collection of internal U.S. military logs of the War in Afghanistan, which were published by WikiLeaks on 25 July 2010. The logs consist of over 91,000 Afghan War documents, covering the period between January 2004 and December 2009. Most of the documents are classified secret. As of 28 July 2010, only 75,000 of the documents have been released to the public, a move which WikiLeaks says is "part of a harm minimization process demanded by [the] source". Prior to releasing the initial 75,000 documents, WikiLeaks made the logs available to The Guardian, The New York Times and Der Spiegel in its German and English online edition, which published reports in line with an agreement made earlier the same day, 25 July 2010.The leak, which is considered to be one of the largest in U.S. military history, revealed information on the deaths of civilians, increased Taliban attacks, and involvement by Pakistan and Iran in the insurgency. WikiLeaks says it does not know the source of the leaked data. The three outlets which had received the documents in advance, The New York Times, The Guardian, and Der Spiegel, have all concluded that they are genuine when compared with independent reports.The New York Times described the leak as "a six-year archive of classified military documents [that] offers an unvarnished and grim picture of the Afghan war". The Guardian called the material "one of the biggest leaks in U.S. military history ... a devastating portrait of the failing war in Afghanistan, revealing how coalition forces have killed hundreds of civilians in unreported incidents, Taliban attacks have soared and NATO commanders fear neighbouring Pakistan and Iran are fuelling the insurgency". Der Spiegel wrote that "the editors in chief of Spiegel, The New York Times and the Guardian were 'unanimous in their belief that there is a justified public interest in the material'."Some time after the first dissemination by WikiLeaks, the U.S. Justice Department considered using the U.S. Espionage Act of 1917 to prevent WikiLeaks from posting the remaining 15,000 secret war documents it claimed to possess.


The Bild newspaper (or Bild-Zeitung, literally Picture; [ˈbɪlt]) is a German tabloid published by Axel Springer AG. The paper is published from Monday to Saturday; on Sundays, its sister paper Bild am Sonntag ("Bild on Sunday") is published instead, which has a different style and its own editors. Bild is tabloid in style but broadsheet in size. It is the best-selling European newspaper and has the sixteenth-largest circulation worldwide. Bild has been described as "notorious for its mix of gossip, inflammatory language, and sensationalism" and as having a huge influence on German politicians. Its nearest English-language stylistic and journalistic equivalent is often considered to be the British national newspaper The Sun, the second highest selling European tabloid newspaper, with which it shares a degree of rivalry.Der Spiegel wrote in 2006 that Bild "flies just under the nonsense threshold of American and British tabloids ... For the German desperate, it is a daily dose of high-resolution soft porn". According to The Guardian, for 28 years from 1984 to 2012, Bild had topless women featuring on its first page; the paper published more than 5,000 topless pictures.

Claas Relotius

Claas-Hendrik Relotius (born 15 November 1985) is a German journalist. He resigned from Der Spiegel in 2018 after admitting numerous instances of journalistic fraud.

Daniel Domscheit-Berg

Daniel Domscheit-Berg (né Berg; born 1978), previously known under the pseudonym Daniel Schmitt, is a German technology activist. He is best known as the author of Inside WikiLeaks: My Time with Julian Assange at the World's Most Dangerous Website (2011).After leaving WikiLeaks, he announced plans in January 2011 to open a new website for anonymous online leaks called OpenLeaks. At a Chaos Computer Club (CCC) event in August 2011, he announced its preliminary launch and invited hackers to test the security of the OpenLeaks system, as a result of which the CCC criticized him for exploiting the good name of the club to promote his OpenLeaks project and expelled him from their club, despite his lack of membership. This decision was revoked in February 2012. In September 2011, several news organizations cited Domscheit-Berg's split from Julian Assange and WikiLeaks as one of a series of events and errors that led to the release that month of all 251,287 United States diplomatic cables in the Cablegate affair. In 2011, he was named by Foreign Policy magazine in its FP Top 100 Global Thinkers, with Sami Ben Gharbia and Alexey Navalny.

Gholam Ghaus Z.

Gholam Ghaus Z.

was a German citizen wrongly imprisoned for over four months in the Bagram Theater Internment Facility in Afghanistan.

According to Der Spiegel Gholam Z. is of Afghan background and was arrested when visiting Afghan relatives. According to Deutsche Welle he is from the German city of Wuppertal.

Der Spiegel reports that the 41-year-old Gholam Z. had taken early retirement, due to medical problems.

A second Der Spiegel report states that his Kabul relatives told him that, as a German citizen, he could shop in the supermarket in the American base in Kabul without any problems:

Gholam Z. borrowed a relative's car to go on, what a security expert called, his "fatal shopping trip." He planned to buy a razor, among other items. According to his version of events, he drove up to the military base on Jan. 4, showed the guard his German passport and was then allowed to pass through several security checkpoints without incident.

It reported that German security officials who investigated his background in Germany, and who interviewed him in Afghanistan, were satisfied that there was no evidence of any tie to terrorism. Nevertheless, the USA told German officials that he could not be released unless Germany provided assurances of measures that amounted to "round the clock surveillance".

Der Spiegel reported that the USA had been holding Gholam Ghaus Z. for approximately four months, and that his continued detention had been putting a strain on the relationship between Germany and the USA.Der Spiegel compared his detention to that of Murat Kurnaz.

After talks with United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier stated:

We hope that we can soon bring this case to a happy ending.

On 2008-05-31, Der Spiegel reports that Gholam Ghaus Z. finally was released and brought to Germany.

Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present)

Ongoing news reports in the international media have revealed operational details about the United States National Security Agency (NSA) and its international partners' global surveillance of both foreign nationals and U.S. citizens. The reports mostly emanate from a cache of top secret documents leaked by ex-NSA contractor Edward Snowden, which he obtained whilst working for Booz Allen Hamilton, one of the largest contractors for defense and intelligence in the United States. In addition to a trove of U.S. federal documents, Snowden's cache reportedly contains thousands of Australian, British and Canadian intelligence files that he had accessed via the exclusive "Five Eyes" network. In June 2013, the first of Snowden's documents were published simultaneously by The Washington Post and The Guardian, attracting considerable public attention. The disclosure continued throughout 2013, and a small portion of the estimated full cache of documents was later published by other media outlets worldwide, most notably The New York Times (United States), the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Der Spiegel (Germany), O Globo (Brazil), Le Monde (France), L'espresso (Italy), NRC Handelsblad (the Netherlands), Dagbladet (Norway), El País (Spain), and Sveriges Television (Sweden).These media reports have shed light on the implications of several secret treaties signed by members of the UKUSA community in their efforts to implement global surveillance. For example, Der Spiegel revealed how the German Foreign Intelligence Service (German: Bundesnachrichtendienst; BND) transfers "massive amounts of intercepted data to the NSA", while Swedish Television revealed the National Defence Radio Establishment (FRA) provided the NSA with data from its cable collection, under a secret treaty signed in 1954 for bilateral cooperation on surveillance. Other security and intelligence agencies involved in the practice of global surveillance include those in Australia (ASD), Britain (GCHQ), Canada (CSEC), Denmark (PET), France (DGSE), Germany (BND), Italy (AISE), the Netherlands (AIVD), Norway (NIS), Spain (CNI), Switzerland (NDB), Singapore (SID) as well as Israel (ISNU), which receives raw, unfiltered data of U.S. citizens that is shared by the NSA.On June 14, 2013, United States prosecutors charged Edward Snowden with espionage and theft of government property. In late July 2013, he was granted a one-year temporary asylum by the Russian government, contributing to a deterioration of Russia–United States relations. On August 6, 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama made a public appearance on national television where he told Americans that "We don't have a domestic spying program" and that "There is no spying on Americans". Towards the end of October 2013, the British Prime Minister David Cameron warned The Guardian not to publish any more leaks, or it will receive a DA-Notice. In November 2013, a criminal investigation of the disclosure was being undertaken by Britain's Metropolitan Police Service. In December 2013, The Guardian editor Alan Rusbridger said: "We have published I think 26 documents so far out of the 58,000 we've seen."The extent to which the media reports have responsibly informed the public is disputed. In January 2014, Obama said that "the sensational way in which these disclosures have come out has often shed more heat than light" and critics such as Sean Wilentz have noted that many of the Snowden documents released do not concern domestic surveillance. The US & UK Defense establishment weigh the strategic harm in the period following the disclosures more heavily than their civic public benefit. In its first assessment of these disclosures, the Pentagon concluded that Snowden committed the biggest "theft" of U.S. secrets in the history of the United States. Sir David Omand, a former director of GCHQ, described Snowden's disclosure as the "most catastrophic loss to British intelligence ever".

Hans-Ulrich Rudel

Hans-Ulrich Rudel (2 July 1916 – 18 December 1982) was a German ground-attack pilot during World War II. Rudel was the most decorated German serviceman of World War II, being the sole recipient of the Knight's Cross with Golden Oak Leaves and Swords, and Diamonds in January 1945. Post-war, he was a prominent neo-Nazi activist in Latin America and West Germany.

During the war, Rudel was credited with the destruction of 519 tanks, as well as one battleship, one cruiser, 70 landing craft and 150 artillery emplacements. He claimed 7 aerial victories and the destruction of more than 800 vehicles of all types. He flew 2,530 ground-attack missions exclusively on the Eastern Front, usually flying the Junkers Ju 87 "Stuka" dive bomber.Rudel surrendered to US forces on 8 May 1945 and emigrated to Argentina in 1948. A committed and unrepentant Nazi, he founded the "Kameradenwerk", a relief organization for Nazi criminals that helped fugitives escape to Latin America and the Middle East. Together with Willem Sassen, Rudel helped shelter Josef Mengele, the notorious former SS doctor at Auschwitz. He worked as an arms dealer and a military advisor to the regimes of Juan Perón in Argentina, of Augusto Pinochet in Chile, and of Alfredo Stroessner in Paraguay. Due to these activities, he was placed under observation by the US Central Intelligence Agency.

In the West German federal election of 1953, Rudel, who had returned to West Germany, was the top candidate for the far-right German Reich Party but was not elected to the Bundestag. Following the Revolución Libertadora in 1955, the uprising that ended the second presidential term of Perón, Rudel moved to Paraguay, where he acted as a foreign representative for several German companies. In 1977, he became a spokesman for the German People's Union, a neo-Nazi political party founded by the extremist politician Gerhard Frey. Rudel died in West Germany in 1982.

Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel

Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel (19 January 1736 in Middelburg – 7 May 1800 in Lingen) was Grand Pensionary of Zeeland and, from 9 November 1787 to 4 February 1795, of Holland. He was an Orangist, which means that he was a supporter of Prince William V of Orange. He became grand pensionary of Holland when the Prussian army had reinstated William V in power in 1787. He fled to Germany in 1795, when the French defeated the Dutch army and an anti-orangist revolution broke out. He died in Lingen, Prussia.

Van de Spiegel was the last Grand Pensionary of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, which was replaced with the Batavian Republic modelled after the French revolutionary state.

Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel was married to Digna Johanna Ossewaarde (1741–1813). The couple had eight children, one of them, jonkheer Cornelis Duvelaer van de Spiegel (1771–1829), was a member of parliament (1815–29) after the French era. Cornelis was ennobled by King William I in 1815.

Max Buskohl

Max Buskohl (born 18 November 1988 in Berlin, Germany) was a contestant who finished 4th in season 4 of Deutschland sucht den Superstar. Buskohl stated in an interview with Der Spiegel that he left DSDS voluntarily while RTL claims they threw out Max.

NSA ANT catalog

The NSA ANT catalog is a 50-page classified document listing technology available to the United States National Security Agency (NSA) Tailored Access Operations (TAO) by the Advanced Network Technology (ANT) Division to aid in cyber surveillance. Most devices are described as already operational and available to US nationals and members of the Five Eyes alliance. According to Der Spiegel, which released the catalog to the public on December 30, 2013, "The list reads like a mail-order catalog, one from which other NSA employees can order technologies from the ANT division for tapping their targets' data." The document was created in 2008.Security researcher Jacob Appelbaum gave a speech at the Chaos Communications Congress in Hamburg, Germany, in which he detailed techniques that the simultaneously published Der Spiegel article he coauthored indicate the NSA uses in its surveillance efforts in the US and internationally.The prices of the items in the catalog range from free (typically for software) to US$250,000.

National Socialist Underground

The National Socialist Underground or NSU (German: Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund) was a far-right German neo-Nazi terrorist group which was uncovered in November 2011.

The NSU is mostly associated with Uwe Mundlos, Uwe Böhnhardt and Beate Zschäpe, who lived together under false identities. Between 100 and 150 further associates were identified who supported the core trio in their decade-long underground life and provided them with money, false identities, and weapons.

Unlike other terror groups, the NSU had not claimed responsibility for their actions. The group's existence was only discovered following the deaths of Böhnhardt and Mundlos, and the subsequent arrest of Zschäpe.

So far, the following crimes have been attributed to the NSU: the National Socialist Underground murders, a series of murders of nine immigrants of Turkish, Greek and Kurdish descent between 9 September 2000 and 6 April 2006; the murder of a policewoman and attempted murder of her colleague; a 1999 bombing in Nuremberg; the 2001 and 2004 Cologne bombings; and a series of 14 bank robberies. The Attorney General of Germany called the NSU a "right-wing extremist group whose purpose was to kill foreigners, and citizens of foreign origin".

Only a God Can Save Us

"Only a God Can Save Us" (German: Nur noch ein Gott kann uns retten) refers to an interview given by Martin Heidegger to Rudolf Augstein and Georg Wolff for Der Spiegel magazine on September 23, 1966. Heidegger agreed to discuss his political past provided that the interview be published posthumously. It was published five days after his death, on 31 May 1976. It is translated by William J. Richardson into English.

Rock Hard (magazine)

Rock Hard (also RockHard) is a German music magazine published in Dortmund, Germany, with other language editions in various countries worldwide, including France, Spain, Brazil/Portugal, Italy and Greece. The magazine focuses on hard rock and heavy metal content, including reports, interviews, specials, reviews and news. Next to the German edition of Metal Hammer, it is the leading magazine for metal and hard rock in Germany. German news magazine Der Spiegel has called it the Zentralorgan ("central organ") of heavy metal fandom in Germany; others have dubbed it a Kultzeitschrift ("cult magazine"). Founded by Holger Stratmann, more than 300 issues have been published in Germany since 1983; it has been published monthly since 1989. Rock Hard magazine is independent from major media companies. Its slogan is "critical, competent, independent". Since 1990, magazine employees have also organized the Rock Hard Festival, which has been held annually in Gelsenkirchen on the Pentecost weekend since 2003. The festival is streamed by news magazine Spiegel Online, the internet edition of Der Spiegel, and by WDR television under the Rockpalast label.Götz Kühnemund was editor-in-chief of Rock Hard from 1990 until January 2014, when he and some other editors had to leave the magazine due to financial needs and creative differences with the magazine's founder and publisher Holger Stratmann. Kühnemund, who is a well-known figure not only in the German metal scene, was known for his efforts to preserve what he called "real heavy metal" instead of going more commercial, opening the magazine to influences from different metal substyles. Kühnemund's departure was compared to "the pope leaving the church". Kühnemund then founded a new magazine called Deaf Forever. Boris Kaiser and Michael Rensen became the new editors-in-chief in a dual leadership. Since February 2016, only Boris Kaiser is editor-in-chief, while Michael Rensen works as an editor again.Rock Hard has its own music streaming channel on the internet video portal It also publishes its own mobile app in addition to the magazine which is available on iTunes and Google Play. This development was due to the falling sales of the printed magazine, a phenomenon which has affected all music press in Germany in recent years and also forced Rock Hard to "concentrate on the core business", using the online sector for marketing and additional services.

Rudolf Augstein

Rudolf Karl Augstein (5 November 1923 – 7 November 2002) was one of the most influential German journalists, founder and part-owner of Der Spiegel magazine.

Spiegel Online

Spiegel Online (SPON) is one of the most widely read German-language news websites. It was founded in 1994 as the online offshoot of the German news magazine, Der Spiegel, with a staff of journalists working independently of the magazine. Today, Spiegel Online is the most frequently quoted online media product in Germany. Spiegel Online International, a section featuring articles translated into English, was launched in autumn 2004.

Spiegel affair

The Spiegel affair of 1962 (German: Spiegel-Affäre) was a political scandal in West Germany. It stemmed from the publication of an article in Der Spiegel, West Germany's weekly political magazine, about the nation's defense forces.The scandal involved a conflict between Franz Josef Strauss, federal minister of defense, and Rudolf Augstein, owner and editor-in-chief of Der Spiegel. The affair cost Strauss his office and, according to some commentators, put the postwar West German democracy to its first successful test of press freedom.

Stefan Aust

Stefan Aust (born 1 July 1946 in Stade, Lower Saxony) is a German journalist and publisher of the conservative leaning Die Welt newspaper. Until December 2016, he was also the paper's editor. He was the editor-in-chief of the weekly news magazine Der Spiegel from 1994 to February 2008.Two of Aust's books have been made into films: Der Pirat 1997 by Bernd Schadewald and Der Baader Meinhof Komplex 2008 by Uli Edel.In 2010 Aust was awarded the Mercator Visiting Professorship for Political Management at the Universität Essen-Duisburg's NRW School of Governance. He gave both seminars and lectures at the university.

Tailored Access Operations

The Office of Tailored Access Operations (TAO), now Computer Network Operations, is a cyber-warfare intelligence-gathering unit of the National Security Agency (NSA). It has been active since at least circa 1998. TAO identifies, monitors, infiltrates, and gathers intelligence on computer systems being used by entities foreign to the United States.TAO is reportedly "now the largest and arguably the most important component of the NSA's huge Signals Intelligence Directorate (SID) (SIGINT), consisting of more than 1,000 military and civilian computer hackers, intelligence analysts, targeting specialists, computer hardware and software designers, and electrical engineers".A document leaked by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden describing the unit's work says TAO has software templates allowing it to break into commonly used hardware, including "routers, switches, and firewalls from multiple product vendor lines". According to The Washington Post, TAO engineers prefer to tap networks rather than isolated computers, because there are typically many devices on a single network.

Tomas Van Den Spiegel

Tomas Van Den Spiegel (born 10 July 1978 in Ghent, Belgium) is a Belgian former professional basketball player and the current president of ULEB. At a height of 2.14 m (7 ft ​1⁄4) tall, he played at the center position.

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