Deputy Prime Minister of Australia

The Deputy Prime Minister of Australia is the second-most senior officer in the Government of Australia. The office of Deputy Prime Minister was officially created as a ministerial portfolio in 1968, although the title had been used informally for many years previously. The Deputy Prime Minister is appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister. When Australia has a Labor Government, the deputy leader of the parliamentary party holds the position of Deputy Prime Minister. When Australia has a Coalition Government (as it does now), the Coalition Agreement mandates that all Coalition members support the leader of the Liberal Party becoming Prime Minister and mandates that the leader of the National Party be selected as Deputy Prime Minister.[1]

The present office-holder, Michael McCormack, was elected Leader of the National Party on Monday 26 February 2018[2] at a meeting at which the resignations of his predecessor, Barnaby Joyce, became effective.[3][4][5] Joyce resigned following controversies over his actions[3] and returned to the back bench.[6] McCormack was sworn in as Deputy Prime Minister later the same day.[7]

The 2017 Australian constitutional crisis resulted in the position being made vacant for the first time since its official creation. Barnaby Joyce, the then-incumbent, was ruled ineligible to be a member of parliament by the High Court of Australia sitting as the Court of Disputed Returns on 27 October 2017, as he held New Zealand citizenship at the time of his election in contravention of Section 44 of the Constitution of Australia.[8][9] Joyce regained the position on 6 December 2017[10] after he won the by-election for the seat of New England several days earlier.[9]

Deputy Prime Minister of Australia
Coat of Arms of Australia
Michael McCormack 2018-02 (cropped)
Incumbent
Michael McCormack

since 26 February 2018
StyleThe Honourable
AppointerGovernor-General of Australia on the recommendation of the Prime Minister
Term lengthAt the Governor-General's pleasure
Inaugural holderJohn McEwen
Formation10 January 1968 (first gazetted)
SalaryAU$416,212 (since 2017)

History

McEwen And Gorton
Prime Minister John McEwen with John Gorton on 9 January 1968. The following day, Gorton was sworn in as Prime Minister, and McEwen became the inaugural Deputy Prime Minister.

Originally the position of deputy Prime Minister was an unofficial or honorary position. The unofficial position acquired more significance following the 1922 federal election, which saw the governing Nationalist Party lose its parliamentary majority. The Nationalists eventually reached a coalition agreement with the Country Party, which called for Country Party leader Earle Page to take the second rank in the Nationalist-led ministry of Stanley Bruce. While Page's only official title was Treasurer, he was considered as a deputy to Bruce.[11] Until 1968 the term was used unofficially for the second-highest ranking minister in the government, especially while the Coalition was in government. Under the Coalition agreement between the Liberals (and their predecessors) and Country Party, when in government, the position was held by the leader of the Country Party (subsequently the National Party). That continues to be case when the Coalition is in government.[1] In the case of Labor governments, the party's deputy leader was and continues to be the Deputy Prime Minister.

On 19 December 1967, John McEwen, the long-serving leader of the Country Party in the Coalition government, was sworn in as interim Prime Minister following the sudden death in office of Prime Minister Harold Holt. (There was discussion that deputy Liberal leader and Treasurer William McMahon should assume the office. McMahon had planned a party room meeting on 20 December to elect a new leader, intending to stand for the position himself. However, this was pre-empted by McEwen who publicly declared on the morning of 18 December that he would not serve in a McMahon government.) McEwen was sworn in as Prime Minister on the understanding that his commission would continue only so long as it took for the Liberals to elect a new leader. The Liberal leadership ballot was rescheduled for 9 January 1968. As it turned out, McMahon did not stand, and Senator John Gorton was elected, replacing McEwen as Prime Minister on 10 January 1968.[12] McEwen reverted to his previous status as the second-ranking member of the government, as per the Coalition agreement. He had unofficially been Deputy Prime Minister since becoming Country Party leader in 1958, and since 1966 had exercised an effective veto over government policy by virtue of being the longest-serving member of the government; he had been a member of the Coalition frontbench without interruption since 1937. To acknowledge McEwen's long service and his status as the second-ranking member of the government, Gorton formally created the post of Deputy Prime Minister, with McEwen as the first holder of the post.

Governor-General Lord Casey also accepted the view put to him by McEwen that to commission a Liberal temporarily as Prime Minister would give that person an unfair advantage in the forthcoming party room ballot for the permanent leader. McEwen's appointment was in keeping with the previous occasion when the main non-Labor party was without a leader; Earle Page of the Country Party was interim Prime Minister between 7 and 26 April 1939—the period between Joseph Lyons' sudden death and the United Australia Party naming Robert Menzies his successor.

Since 1968 only two Deputy Prime Ministers have gone on to become Prime Minister: Paul Keating and Julia Gillard. In both cases, they succeeded incumbent Prime Ministers who lost the support of their party caucus mid-term and their election as party leader preceded their predecessor's resignations and their subsequent appointments as Prime Minister. Frank Forde, who had been deputy Labor leader when John Curtin died, was interim Prime Minister between 6 and 13 July 1945, when a leadership ballot took place that elected Ben Chifley as Curtin's successor.

In November 2007, when the Australian Labor Party won government, Julia Gillard became Australia's first female, and first foreign-born, Deputy Prime Minister.

In 2017, the position became vacant for a period of 40 days, the only time in its history when it has been unoccupied. As part of the 2017–18 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis, it emerged that the then-incumbent Barnaby Joyce was a citizen of New Zealand by descent (jus sanguinis – by right of blood) at the time of the 2016 federal election.[13] Joyce told the House of Representatives that he was advised of his citizenship status on 10 August 2017 by the New Zealand High Commission[14] and his renunciation of his dual citizenship became effective on 15 August 2017.[15] Nevertheless, he asked for his case to be referred to the High Court of Australia (sitting as the Court of Disputed Returns) for adjudication,[13] and they ruled that his election was invalid under section 44 of the Constitution of Australia.[8][9] The government immediately issued writs for a by-election for the seat of New England to be held on 2 December 2017, which Joyce won easily.[9] Governor-General Sir Peter Cosgrove re-appointed Joyce as Deputy Prime Minister on 6 December 2017.[10]

In practice, only National party leaders or Labor Party deputy leaders have held the position.

Duties

The duties of the Deputy Prime Minister are to act on behalf of the Prime Minister in his or her absence overseas or on leave. The Deputy Prime Minister has always been a member of the Cabinet, and has always held at least one substantive portfolio. (It would be technically possible for a minister to hold only the portfolio of Deputy Prime Minister, but this has never happened).

If the Prime Minister were to die, become incapacitated or resign, the Governor-General would normally appoint the Deputy Prime Minister as Prime Minister on an interim basis until the governing party elects a new leader, but is not obligated to do so. This has not occurred since the office was created as a portfolio in 1968.

Salary

Members of parliament receive a base salary of $203,030, which is set by the Remuneration Tribunal (an independent statutory authority). Government ministers receive an additional amount, which is determined by the government itself based on the recommendations of the Remuneration Tribunal.[16] The deputy prime minister receives an additional 105 percent of the base salary, making for a total salary of $416,212.[17] The holder of the office also receives various other allowances and entitlements.[16]

List of Deputy Prime Ministers of Australia

The following individuals have been officially appointed as Deputy Prime Minister of Australia since the office of Deputy Prime Minister was created as a ministerial portfolio in 1968:[18][19]

# Deputy Prime Minister Party affiliation
and position
Portfolio(s) Term start Term end Term in office Prime Minister
1 John McEwen Sir John McEwen   Country
Leader 1958–71
Trade and Industry 10 January 1968 5 February 1971 3 years, 26 days   John Gorton
2 Doug Anthony Doug Anthony   Country
Leader 1971–84
Trade and Industry 5 February 1971 10 March 1971 1 year, 304 days  
  10 March 1971 5 December 1972   William McMahon
3 Lance Barnard LanceBarnard1967   Labor
Deputy Leader 1967–74
Defence 5 December 1972 12 June 1974 1 year, 189 days   Gough Whitlam
4 Jim Cairns JimCairns1962   Labor
Deputy Leader 1974–75
Treasurer 12 June 1974 2 July 1975 1 year, 20 days
5 Frank Crean FrankCrean1967   Labor
Deputy Leader 1975
Overseas Trade 2 July 1975 11 November 1975 132 days
6 Doug Anthony Doug Anthony   Country National
Leader 1971–84
Trade and Industry 12 November 1975 11 March 1983 7 years, 119 days   Malcolm Fraser
7 Lionel Bowen Lionel Bowen   Labor
Deputy Leader 1977–90
Trade
Attorney-General
11 March 1983 4 April 1990 7 years, 24 days   Bob Hawke
8 Paul Keating Paul Keating 1985   Labor
Deputy Leader 1990–91
Treasurer 4 April 1990 3 June 1991 1 year, 60 days  
9 Brian Howe Second Keating Cabinet 1994 (cropped Howe)   Labor
Deputy Leader 1991–95
Health
Housing
Community Services
Local Government
Regional Affairs
3 June 1991 20 December 1991 4 years, 17 days  
  20 December 1991 20 June 1995   Paul Keating
10 Kim Beazley Kim Beazley crop   Labor
Deputy Leader 1995–96
Finance 20 June 1995 11 March 1996 265 days  
11 Tim Fischer Tim Fischer   National
Leader 1990–99
Trade 11 March 1996 20 July 1999 3 years, 131 days   John Howard
12 John Anderson John Anderson 2001 (cropped)   National
Leader 1999–2005
Transport and Regional Development 20 July 1999 6 July 2005 5 years, 351 days
13 Mark Vaile Mark Vaile (TM)   National
Leader 2005–7
Minister for Trade
Transport and Regional Services
6 July 2005 3 December 2007 2 years, 150 days
14 Julia Gillard Julia Gillard 2010   Labor
Deputy Leader 2006–10
Employment and Workplace Relations
Education
Social Inclusion
3 December 2007 24 June 2010 2 years, 203 days   Kevin Rudd
15 Wayne Swan Treasurer Wayne Swan, 2009, crop   Labor
Deputy Leader 2010–13
Treasurer 24 June 2010 27 June 2013 3 years, 3 days   Julia Gillard
16 Anthony Albanese Anthony Albanese   Labor
Deputy Leader 2013
Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy
Infrastructure and Transport
27 June 2013 18 September 2013 83 days   Kevin Rudd
17 Warren Truss Warren Truss Portrait 2010   National
Leader 2007–16
Infrastructure and Regional Development 18 September 2013 15 September 2015 2 years, 153 days   Tony Abbott
15 September 2015 18 February 2016 Malcolm Turnbull
18 Barnaby Joyce Barnaby Joyce Portrait 2010   National
Leader 2016–18
Agriculture and Water Resources
Resources and Northern Australia
(25 July 2017 – 27 October 2017)
18 February 2016 27 October 2017 2 years, 8 days
Minister for Infrastructure and Transport
(from 20 December 2017)
6 December 2017 26 February 2018
19 Michael McCormack Michael McCormack 2018-02 (cropped)   National
Leader 2018–Present
Infrastructure and Transport
Defence Personnel
(until 5 March 2018)
Veterans' Affairs (until 5 March 2018)
26 February 2018 24 August 2018 1 year, 86 days
24 August 2018 Incumbent Scott Morrison

Living former Deputy Prime Ministers

As of May 2019, there are 12 living former Deputy Prime Ministers of Australia, the oldest being Doug Anthony (born 1929). The most recent former deputy prime minister to die was Lionel Bowen (1983–1990), on 1 April 2012.

Informal Deputy Prime Ministers

The office of Deputy Prime Minister was created in January 1968 but prior to that time the term was used unofficially for the second-highest ranking minister in the government.

Name Picture Term of office Political party and position Ministerial Offices Prime Minister
Alfred Deakin AlfredDeakinA-G 1901 1903 Protectionist Party
Deputy Leader 1901–03
Attorney-General
Acting Prime Minister 1902
Edmund Barton
William Lyne Williamlyne 1903 1904 Protectionist Party
Deputy Leader 1901–09
Minister for Trade and Customs Alfred Deakin
Gregor McGregor Gregor McGregor1 1904 1904 Australian Labor Party
Deputy Leader 1901–14
Vice-President of the Executive Council Chris Watson
Allan McLean 19Allanmclean 1904 1905 Protectionist Party Minister for Trade and Customs George Reid
William Lyne Williamlyne 1905 1908 Protectionist Party
Deputy Leader 1901–09
Minister for Trade and Customs
Treasurer
Alfred Deakin
Gregor McGregor Gregor McGregor1 1908 1909 Australian Labor Party
Deputy Leader 1901–14
Vice-President of the Executive Council Andrew Fisher
Joseph Cook Joseph Cook - Broothorn Studios 1909 1910 Commonwealth Liberal Party
Deputy Leader 1909–13
Minister for Defence Alfred Deakin
Gregor McGregor Gregor McGregor1 1910 1913 Australian Labor Party
Deputy Leader 1901–14
Vice-President of the Executive Council Andrew Fisher
John Forrest JohnForrest1909 1913 1914 Commonwealth Liberal Party
Deputy Leader 1913–16
Treasurer Joseph Cook
Billy Hughes Billy Hughes 1915 1914 1915 Australian Labor Party
Deputy Leader 1914–15
Attorney-General
Acting Prime Minister 1915
Andrew Fisher
George Pearce Sir George Pearce 1915 1916 Australian Labor Party
Deputy Leader 1915–16
Minister for Defence
Acting Prime Minister 1916
Billy Hughes
1916 1917 National Labor Party
Deputy Leader 1916–17
William Watt 24Williamwatt 1918 1920 Nationalist
Deputy Leader 1918–20
Treasurer
Acting Prime Minister 1918–19
Joseph Cook Sir Joseph Cook 1917 1921 Nationalist
Deputy Leader 1920–21
Minister for the Navy
Treasurer
acting Prime Minister May–September 1921
Earle Page Earle Page 1920 1923 1929 Country Party
Leader 1921–39
Treasurer Stanley Bruce
Ted Theodore Ted Theodore 1931 1929 1932 Australian Labor Party
Deputy Leader 1929–32
Treasurer James Scullin
James Fenton James Fenton 1930 1931 Australian Labor Party
Temporary Leader 1929–32
Acting Prime Minister 1930–31 James Scullin
John Latham Johnlatham 1932 1934 United Australia Party
Deputy Leader 1932–34
Attorney-General
Minister for External Affairs
Minister for Industry
Joseph Lyons
George Pearce Sir George Pearce 1934 1934 United Australia Party
Deputy Leader 1934
Minister for External Affairs
Minister in Charge of Territories
Earle Page Earle Page 1934 1939 Country Party
Leader 1921–39
Minister for Commerce
Minister for Health
Archie Cameron Archie Cameron 1940 1940 1940 Country Party
Leader 1939–40
Postmaster-General
Minister for Commerce
Minister for the Navy
Robert Menzies
Arthur Fadden FaddenPEO 1940 1941 Country Party
Leader 1940–58
Minister for the Air
Minister for Civil Aviation
Treasurer
Acting Prime Minister 1940
Robert Menzies Robert Menzies in 1939 1941 1941 United Australia Party
Leader 1939–41
Minister for Defence Co-ordination Arthur Fadden
Frank Forde Frank Forde 1941 crop 1941 1946 Australian Labor Party
Deputy Leader 1932–46
Minister for the Army
Minister for Defence
Acting Prime Minister April–July 1944, November 1944 – January 1945, Prime Minister for one week in 1945
John Curtin
Ben Chifley
H. V. Evatt Herbert V. Evatt 1946 1949 Australian Labor Party
Deputy Leader 1946–51
Minister for External Affairs
Attorney-General
Arthur Fadden Arthur Fadden 1949 1958 Country Party
Leader 1940–58
Treasurer Robert Menzies
John McEwen John McEwen 1957 1958 1967 Country Party
Leader 1958–71
Minister for Trade and Industry
Acting Prime Minister June–July 1965
Harold Holt

References

  1. ^ a b Koziol, Michael; Bagshaw, Eryk (16 February 2018). "Why can't Malcolm Turnbull sack Barnaby Joyce?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  2. ^ Murphy, Katharine (26 February 2018). "Nationals appoint Michael McCormack as leader after George Christensen mounts challenge". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  3. ^ a b Probyn, Andrew (24 February 2018). "Malcolm Turnbull says Barnaby Joyce made 'right decision', says bond with Nationals 'strong'". ABC News (Online). News and Current Affairs Division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  4. ^ Dziedzic, Stephen; Lipson, David (24 February 2018). "Barnaby Joyce's exit leaves Nationals looking to repair broken bonds". ABC News (Online). News and Current Affairs Division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  5. ^ Massola, James (23 February 2018). "Barnaby Joyce quits as Deputy Prime Minister". The Age. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  6. ^ Elton-Pym, James (23 February 2018). "Barnaby Joyce has resigned as the leader of the Nationals and deputy prime minister of Australia to sit on the government's backbench". SBS World News. Special Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  7. ^ Yaxley, Louise (26 February 2018). "Michael McCormack replaces Barnaby Joyce as Deputy Prime Minister and Nationals leader". ABC News (Online). News and Current Affairs Division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  8. ^ a b Massola, James (27 October 2017). "High Court citizenship verdict: Barnaby Joyce facing byelection in hammer blow to Turnbull government". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d Green, Antony (2017). "2017 New England by-election – Guide". ABC News (Online). News and Current Affairs Division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
    Green, Antony (15 January 2018). "2017 New England by-election – Commentary". ABC News (Online). News and Current Affairs Division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  10. ^ a b Murphy, Jamieson (6 December 2017). "Barnaby Joyce is once again the Deputy Prime Minister after being sworn in". Northern Daily Leader. Rural Press. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  11. ^ PrimeFacts: Deputy Prime Ministers of Australia
  12. ^ http://primeministers.naa.gov.au/primeministers/mcmahon/before-office.aspx
  13. ^ a b Gartrell, Adam; Remeikis, Amy (14 August 2017). "Barnaby Joyce refers himself to High Court over potential dual citizenship". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  14. ^ Barnaby Joyce, Deputy Prime Minister (14 August 2017). "Parliamentary Representation" (PDF). Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Commonwealth of Australia: House of Representatives. p. 8185. Retrieved 26 February 2018. Last Thursday afternoon the New Zealand High Commission contacted me to advise that, on the basis of preliminary advice from their Department of Internal Affairs, which had received inquiries from the New Zealand Labour Party, they considered that I may be a citizen by descent of New Zealand.
  15. ^ Vielleris, Renee (15 August 2017). "Documentary evidence Barnaby Joyce has renounced his NZ citizenship". news.com.au. News Corp Australia. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  16. ^ a b Determination 2017/23: Members of Parliament, Remuneration Tribunal. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  17. ^ Report on Ministers of State - Salaries Additional to the Basic Parliamentary Salary, Remuneration Tribunal. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  18. ^ "Ministries and Cabinets". 43rd Parliamentary Handbook: Historical information on the Australian Parliament. Parliament of Australia. 2010. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  19. ^ "Deputy Prime Ministers of Australia" (PDF). Museum of Australian Democracy. Retrieved 27 July 2013.

External links

1996 Australian Labor Party leadership election

The Australian Labor Party held a leadership election on 19 March 1996, following the resignation of Paul Keating after the party's defeat at the 1996 federal election. Kim Beazley was elected unopposed as Keating's replacement, thus becoming Leader of the Opposition.

Speculation about Keating's successor began midway through his second term in office, as a result of consistently poor polling. Finance Minister Kim Beazley, Health Minister Carmen Lawrence, Foreign Minister Gareth Evans, and Employment Minister Simon Crean were all reported as possible contenders at various stages. In June 1995, deputy leader Brian Howe announced his resignation. Beazley was elected unopposed as his replacement, thus becoming Deputy Prime Minister of Australia. Keating then endorsed Beazley as his own eventual successor, stating that he was "the obvious person in the long run". It was reported that Carmen Lawrence was the preferred candidate of Howe's Labor Left faction for the deputy leadership, but that she chose not to stand because she did not have the numbers in the caucus as a whole. Her position was thought to have been damaged by an ongoing Western Australian royal commission into her role in the Easton affair.In April 1995, opinion polling by AGB McNair on behalf of The Sydney Morning Herald had Gareth Evans (20 percent), Carmen Lawrence (18 percent), Kim Beazley (13 percent), and Simon Crean (8 percent) as the favourites to succeed Paul Keating as Labor leader, although 31 percent of respondents were unsure. By July 1995, the same polling firm had Beazley on 27 percent, followed by Lawrence (19 percent), Evans (10 percent), and Crean (9 percent).Keating announced he would resign as Labor leader on the night of 2 March 1996, when it became clear that Labor had lost the federal election to John Howard's Coalition. By the following week, it was correctly being reported that Beazley would be elected unopposed as his successor when the Labor caucus met on 19 March. However, there was initially some concern that he would not win his seat, the Division of Brand in Western Australia – his final margin of victory was only 387 votes. In the lead-up to the caucus meeting, most media attention was given to who would be the party's new deputy leader. Gareth Evans eventually defeated Simon Crean by 42 votes to 37.

2010 Australian Labor Party leadership spill

The Australian Labor Party leadership spill, 2010 occurred on 24 June 2010. Kevin Rudd, the Prime Minister of Australia, was challenged by Julia Gillard, the Deputy Prime Minister of Australia, for the leadership of the Australian Labor Party. Gillard won the election unopposed after Rudd declined to contest, choosing instead to resign. Gillard was duly sworn in as Prime Minister by Quentin Bryce, the Governor-General, on 24 June 2010 at Government House, becoming Australia's first female Prime Minister.

Gillard was the Deputy Leader of the Labor Party since 4 December 2006, and was appointed Deputy Prime Minister of Australia after Labor's landslide victory in the 2007 federal election. She was also appointed the Minister for Education and Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations.

Amanda Bishop

Amanda Diana Bishop is an Australian actress, singer and comedian, known for her comedy portrayals of Julia Gillard, the former Prime Minister of Australia, in the television comedy At Home with Julia. Bishop had previously portrayed Gillard in the series Double Take, when Gillard was Deputy Prime Minister of Australia.

Raised in Bunnan in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Bishop gained a degree in music from the University of New England (1991), and then trained at the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts (1993).Bishop has played a supporting role in the children's television series The Upside Down Show, and the title role in Penelope K, by the way.

Bishop first impersonated Julia Gillard as part of Waiting for Garnaut, the 2008 Wharf Revue by the Sydney Theatre Company's Jonathan Biggins, Phillip Scott and Drew Forsythe. She reprised the role for the short-lived sketch comedy Double Take. A clip filmed for Double Take of Bishop performing "9 to 9", a parody of "9 to 5" mocking Kevin Rudd's reputation for working his staff hard, was a hit on YouTube after Gillard became Prime Minister and the skit was mentioned on Q&A by Magda Szubanski. In 2011 Bishop co-wrote, and portrayed Gillard in, the four-part sitcom, At Home with Julia, on ABC1 lampooning the relationship between Gillard and her real partner Tim Mathieson (played by Bishop's Myles Barlow co-star, Phil Lloyd). Bishop reprised the Gillard character once again, among other roles, in the comedy series Wednesday Night Fever.In 2017, she appeared in the children's television series Drop Dead Weird.

Anthony Albanese

Anthony Norman Albanese ( AL-bə-neez; born 2 March 1963) is an Australian Labor Party politician who has been Member of Parliament for Grayndler since 1996. Albanese served as Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and Deputy Leader of the Labor Party in 2013, and was a Cabinet Minister in the Rudd and Gillard Governments between 2007 and 2013.

Albanese was born in Sydney and attended St Mary's Cathedral College before going on to the University of Sydney to study economics. He joined the Labor Party as a student, and before entering politics worked as a party official and research officer. Albanese was elected to the House of Representatives at the 1996 election, winning the Division of Grayndler in New South Wales. He was appointed to the Shadow Cabinet in 2001.

When Labor won the 2007 election, Albanese became Minister for Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development, and Local Government, and was also appointed Leader of the House. Albanese publicly criticised the leadership divisions between Kevin Rudd and Julia Gillard from 2010 to 2013, though remained in the Cabinet under both leaders. After the final leadership ballot in June 2013, Albanese was elected Deputy Leader and was sworn in as the 15th Deputy Prime Minister of Australia the following day.

After Labor was defeated in the 2013 election, Albanese stood against Bill Shorten in the 2013 leadership election, the first to include party members. Although Albanese won a majority of the membership, Shorten won more heavily among Labor MPs; Shorten subsequently appointed Albanese to his Shadow Cabinet. After Labor was defeated in the 2019 election, Shorten resigned as opposition leader. Albanese was the first to announce his candidacy for 2019 leadership election.

Betty Judge

Betty Beazley (née Judge; 21 March 1921 – 13 September 2015), known as Betty Judge during her career, was an Australian athletics world record holder at 880 yards, 330 yards and 300 metres. She coached the Olympic champion Shirley Strickland, and was also the mother of Kim Beazley, a former Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and current Governor of Western Australia.

Brian Howe (politician)

Brian Leslie Howe AO (born 23 January 1936) is a retired Australian politician and Uniting Church minister. He served as Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and deputy leader of the Labor Party from 1991 to 1995, under Bob Hawke and Paul Keating. He was a government minister continuously from 1983 to 1996, and a member of the House of Representatives from 1977 to 1996, representing the Division of Batman in Victoria.

Cameron Highway

The Cameron Highway is an arterial road in South Australia, connecting Alawoona on the Karoonda Highway to Paruna on the Browns Well Highway. It follows part of the former Barmera railway line.

The Cameron Highway was named around 2008 after either Archie Cameron (a local state and Federal politician who reached the level of Deputy Prime Minister of Australia) or Alex Cameron who had been Chairman of the District Council of Brown's Well from 1919 to 1939.

Closer Economic Relations

The Australia–New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement, commonly known as Closer Economic Relations (CER), is a free trade agreement between the governments of New Zealand and Australia. It came into force on 1 January 1983, but the actual treaty was not signed until 28 March 1983 by the Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and Minister for Trade, Lionel Bowen and the New Zealand High Commissioner to Australia, Laurie Francis in Canberra, Australia.

Digital Education Revolution

The Digital Education Revolution (DER) was an Australian Government funded educational reform program, promised by then Prime Minister of Australia Kevin Rudd during the launch of his 2007 Australian federal election campaign in Brisbane. It was officially launched in late 2008, with the first deployments announced by then Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and Minister for Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, Julia Gillard and then New South Wales counterpart, Verity Firth. The first deployment took place at Fairvale High School in August that year.

Division of New England

The Division of New England is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The division is located in the north-east of the state, adjoining the border with Queensland. The division was proclaimed in 1900, and was one of the original 65 divisions to be contested at the first federal election. It is named after the New England region in northern New South Wales.

The 66,394 km² division covers a largely rural area, with agriculture the main industry. From south to north it includes the regional population centres of Scone, Tamworth, Armidale, Glen Innes, Inverell and Tenterfield.

The member since the 2013 federal election has been Barnaby Joyce, who served as Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and leader of the National Party from 2016 to 2018. Amid the 2017–18 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis, the seat was declared vacant on 27 October 2017 by the High Court of Australia arising from Joyce's dual citizenship. Joyce had renounced his dual citizenship effective from August in order to become a sole citizen of Australia and was thus eligible to run for federal parliament. Joyce regained the seat at a by-election on 2 December.

Division of Wide Bay

The Division of Wide Bay is an Australian electoral division in the state of Queensland. The division was proclaimed in 1900, and was one of the original 65 divisions to be contested at the first federal election. Wide Bay is located in south east Queensland and includes the cities of Maryborough, Gympie, Noosa, all of Fraser Island, and inland areas extending west to Murgon.

Notable representatives have included three time Prime Minister Andrew Fisher, who was the seat's first member. However, it has been a conservative seat for most of its history; only one other Labor member has ever won it. Warren Truss, former leader of the National Party and Deputy Prime Minister of Australia, held the seat from 1990 to 2016.

Division of Yarra

The Division of Yarra was an Australian electoral division in the state of Victoria. It was located in inner eastern suburban Melbourne, and was named after the Yarra River, which originally formed the eastern border of the Division, and eventually ran through it. It originally covered the suburbs of Abbotsford, Collingwood, Richmond and part of Fitzroy. By the time it was abolished in 1969, it no longer covered Abbotsford or Fitzroy, but included Burnley and Hawthorn.

The division was proclaimed in 1900, and was one of the original 65 divisions to be contested at the first federal election. It was abolished at the redistribution of 21 November 1968. For its entire existence, it was a very safe Labor seat. It was held by only four MPs – Frank Tudor, a leader of the Australian Labor Party; James Scullin, the thirteenth Prime Minister of Australia; Stan Keon, an important figure in the Australian Labor Party split of 1955, and Jim Cairns, who would go on to become Deputy Prime Minister of Australia, though he was the member for Lalor by then.

John Anderson (Australian politician)

John Duncan Anderson (born 14 November 1956) is a former Australian politician who was the Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and leader of the National Party from 1999 to 2005. He was a member of the House of Representatives from 1989 to 2007, and served as Minister for Primary Industries and Energy (1996–1998) and Minister for Transport and Regional Development (1998–2005) in the Howard Government.

Lionel Bowen

Lionel Frost Bowen, AC (28 December 1922 – 1 April 2012) was an Australian politician and senior Labor Party figure, serving in the ministries of Gough Whitlam and Bob Hawke. He was Deputy Prime Minister of Australia from 1983 to 1990.

Mark Vaile

Mark Anthony James Vaile (born 18 April 1956) is a former Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and former leader of the National Party of Australia. Vaile is currently a non-executive director of a number of public listed corporations.

Michael McCormack (Australian politician)

Michael Francis McCormack (born 2 August 1964) is an Australian politician who has been leader of the National Party and Deputy Prime Minister of Australia since February 2018. He is also Minister for Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Development, having previously served as Minister for Defence Personnel and Minister for Veterans' Affairs from 2017 to 2018. McCormack has been a member of the House of Representatives since 2010, representing the Division of Riverina in New South Wales. He was a newspaper editor before entering politics.

My Story (Julia Gillard autobiography)

My Story is a political memoir of Julia Gillard, who served as the 13th Deputy Prime Minister of Australia from 2007 to 2010, and then the 27th Prime Minister of Australia from 2010 to 2013. She is the first, and to date, only woman to serve in either position. Published in 2014 by Random House Australia, My Story reflects on various personal aspects of her life and career, including her own analysis of the people and key players of the Rudd-Gillard Governments (2007–2013).

Warren Truss

Warren Errol Truss, (born 8 October 1948) is a former Australian politician who served as the 16th Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and Minister for Infrastructure and Regional Development in the Abbott Government and the Turnbull Government. Truss served as the federal leader of the National Party of Australia (The Nationals) between 2007 and 11 February 2016 when he announced his decision to retire and not contest the 2016 federal election. He was the member of the House of Representatives for Wide Bay from the 1990 election until his retirement in May 2016. Following the merger of the Queensland branches of the Nationals and Liberals, Truss was re-elected in 2010 for the Liberal National Party.

Wayne Swan

Wayne Maxwell Swan (born 30 June 1954) is a Australian politician who was the Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and Deputy Leader of the Labor Party from 2010 to 2013, and the Treasurer of Australia from 2007 to 2013.

Swan was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1993 for Lilley in Queensland, although he lost this seat in 1996. He regained the seat in 1998 and has represented it until 2019. Following the Labor victory in 2007, Swan was appointed Treasurer of Australia by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.

On 24 June 2010, after Julia Gillard became Prime Minister, Swan was elected unopposed as her deputy and was subsequently sworn in as the Deputy Prime Minister. In 2011, Swan was named Finance Minister of the Year by Euromoney magazine, joining Paul Keating as the only Australian Treasurer to have been awarded that title.After Rudd successfully challenged Gillard for the leadership in June 2013, Swan resigned both of his positions, but remained in the Parliament. In June 2018, Swan was elected National President of the Labor Party.

Deputy Prime Ministers of Australia
Sovereign states
Associated states of New Zealand

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