Depression (mood)

Depression, a state of low mood and aversion to activity, can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being. A depressed mood is a normal temporary reaction to life events, such as the loss of a loved one. It is also a symptom of some physical diseases and a side effect of some drugs and medical treatments. Depressed mood may also be a symptom of some mood disorders such as major depressive disorder or dysthymia.[1]

Depression
A man diagnosed as suffering from melancholia with strong su Wellcome L0026693
Lithograph of a man diagnosed as suffering from melancholia with strong suicidal tendency (1892)
SpecialtyPsychiatry, psychology

Factors

Life events

Adversity in childhood, such as bereavement, neglect, mental abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and unequal parental treatment of siblings can contribute to depression in adulthood.[2][3] Childhood physical or sexual abuse in particular significantly correlates with the likelihood of experiencing depression over the victim's lifetime.[4]

Life events and changes that may precipitate depressed mood include (but are not limited to): childbirth, menopause, financial difficulties, unemployment, stress (such as from work, education, family, living conditions etc.), a medical diagnosis (cancer, HIV, etc.), bullying, loss of a loved one, natural disasters, social isolation, rape, relationship troubles, jealousy, separation, and catastrophic injury.[5][6][7] Adolescents may be especially prone to experiencing depressed mood following social rejection, peer pressure, or bullying.[8]

Personality

High scores on the personality domain neuroticism make the development of depressive symptoms as well as all kinds of depression diagnoses more likely,[9] and depression is associated with low extraversion.[10] Other personality indicators could be: temporary but rapid mood changes, short term hopelessness, loss of interest in activities that used to be of a part of one's life, sleep disruption, withdrawal from previous social life, appetite changes, and difficulty concentrating.[11]

Gender identity and sexuality

People who are marginalized due to either their gender identity or sexual orientation are more prone to depression.[12]

Medical treatments

Depression may also be the result of healthcare, such as with medication induced depression. Therapies associated with depression include interferon therapy, beta-blockers, isotretinoin, contraceptives,[13] cardiac agents, anticonvulsants, antimigraine drugs, antipsychotics, and hormonal agents such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist.[14]

Substance-induced

Several drugs of abuse can cause or exacerbate depression, whether in intoxication, withdrawal, and from chronic use. These include alcohol, sedatives (including prescription benzodiazepines), opioids (including prescription pain killers and illicit drugs such as heroin), stimulants (such as cocaine and amphetamines), hallucinogens, and inhalants.[15]

Non-psychiatric illnesses

Depressed mood can be the result of a number of infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies, neurological conditions[16] and physiological problems, including hypoandrogenism (in men), Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, hypothyroidism, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, chronic pain, stroke,[17] diabetes,[18] and cancer.[19]

Psychiatric syndromes

A number of psychiatric syndromes feature depressed mood as a main symptom. The mood disorders are a group of disorders considered to be primary disturbances of mood. These include major depressive disorder (MDD; commonly called major depression or clinical depression) where a person has at least two weeks of depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities; and dysthymia, a state of chronic depressed mood, the symptoms of which do not meet the severity of a major depressive episode. Another mood disorder, bipolar disorder, features one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood, cognition and energy levels, but may also involve one or more episodes of depression.[20] When the course of depressive episodes follows a seasonal pattern, the disorder (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, etc.) may be described as a seasonal affective disorder. Outside the mood disorders: borderline personality disorder often features an extremely intense depressive mood; adjustment disorder with depressed mood is a mood disturbance appearing as a psychological response to an identifiable event or stressor, in which the resulting emotional or behavioral symptoms are significant but do not meet the criteria for a major depressive episode;[21]:355 and posttraumatic stress disorder, a mental disorder that sometimes follows trauma, is commonly accompanied by depressed mood.[22]

Historical legacy

Researchers have begun to conceptualize ways in which the historical legacies of racism and colonialism may create depressive conditions.[23][24]

Management

Depressed mood may not require professional treatment, and may be a normal temporary reaction to life events, a symptom of some medical condition, or a side effect of some drugs or medical treatments. A prolonged depressed mood, especially in combination with other symptoms, may lead to a diagnosis of a psychiatric or medical condition which may benefit from treatment. The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 2009 guidelines indicate that antidepressants should not be routinely used for the initial treatment of mild depression, because the risk-benefit ratio is poor.[25] Physical activity can have a protective effect against the emergence of depression.[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association. 2013.
  2. ^ Christine Heim; D. Jeffrey Newport; Tanja Mletzko; Andrew H. Miller; Charles B. Nemeroff (July 2008). "The link between childhood trauma and depression: Insights from HPA axis studies in humans". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 33 (6): 693–710. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.03.008. PMID 18602762. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  3. ^ Pillemer, Karl; Suitor, J. Jill; Pardo, Seth; Henderson Jr, Charles (2010). "Mothers' Differentiation and Depressive Symptoms Among Adult Children". Journal of Marriage and Family. 72 (2): 333–345. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00703.x. PMC 2894713. PMID 20607119.
  4. ^ Lindert J, von Ehrenstein OS, Grashow R, Gal G, Braehler E, Weisskopf MG (April 2014). "Sexual and physical abuse in childhood is associated with depression and anxiety over the life course: systematic review and meta-analysis". Int J Public Health. 59 (2): 359–72. doi:10.1007/s00038-013-0519-5. PMID 24122075.
  5. ^ Schmidt, Peter (2005). "Mood, Depression, and Reproductive Hormones in the Menopausal Transition". The American Journal of Medicine. 118 Suppl 12B (12): 54–8. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.09.033. PMID 16414327.
  6. ^ Rashid, T.; Heider, I. (2008). "Life Events and Depression" (PDF). Annals of Punjab Medical College. 2 (1). Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  7. ^ Mata, D. A.; Ramos, M. A.; Bansal, N; Khan, R; Guille, C; Di Angelantonio, E; Sen, S (2015). "Prevalence of Depression and Depressive Symptoms Among Resident Physicians: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA. 314 (22): 2373–2383. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.15845. PMC 4866499. PMID 26647259.
  8. ^ Davey, C. G.; Yücel, M; Allen, N. B. (2008). "The emergence of depression in adolescence: Development of the prefrontal cortex and the representation of reward". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 32 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.04.016. PMID 17570526.
  9. ^ Jeronimus; et al. (2016). "Neuroticism's prospective association with mental disorders: A meta-analysis on 59 longitudinal/prospective studies with 443 313 participants". Psychological Medicine. 46 (14): 2883–2906. doi:10.1017/S0033291716001653. PMID 27523506.
  10. ^ Kotov; et al. (2010). "Linking "big" personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: a meta-analysis". Psychological Bulletin. 136 (5): 768–821. doi:10.1037/a0020327. PMID 20804236.
  11. ^ "Signs and Symptoms of Mild, Moderate, and Severe Depression". 2017-03-27.
  12. ^ Plöderl, M; Tremblay, P (2015). "Mental health of sexual minorities. A systematic review". International Review of Psychiatry (Abingdon, England). 27 (5): 367–85. doi:10.3109/09540261.2015.1083949. PMID 26552495.
  13. ^ Rogers, Donald; Pies, Ronald (9 January 2017). "General Medical Drugs Associated with Depression". Psychiatry (Edgmont). 5 (12): 28–41. ISSN 1550-5952. PMC 2729620. PMID 19724774.
  14. ^ Botts, S; Ryan, M. Drug-Induced Diseases Section IV: Drug-Induced Psychiatric Diseases Chapter 18: Depression. pp. 1–23.
  15. ^ American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
  16. ^ Murray ED, Buttner N, Price BH. (2012) Depression and Psychosis in Neurological Practice. In: Neurology in Clinical Practice, 6th Edition. Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J (eds.) Butterworth Heinemann. 12 April 2012. ISBN 978-1437704341
  17. ^ Saravane, D; Feve, B; Frances, Y; Corruble, E; Lancon, C; Chanson, P; Maison, P; Terra, JL; et al. (2009). "Drawing up guidelines for the attendance of physical health of patients with severe mental illness". L'Encéphale. 35 (4): 330–9. doi:10.1016/j.encep.2008.10.014. PMID 19748369.
  18. ^ Rustad, JK; Musselman, DL; Nemeroff, CB (2011). "The relationship of depression and diabetes: Pathophysiological and treatment implications". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 36 (9): 1276–86. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.03.005. PMID 21474250.
  19. ^ Li, M; Fitzgerald, P; Rodin, G (2012). "Evidence-based treatment of depression in patients with cancer". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 30 (11): 1187–96. doi:10.1200/JCO.2011.39.7372. PMID 22412144.
  20. ^ Gabbard, Glen O. Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders. 2 (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 1296.
  21. ^ American Psychiatric Association (2000a). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-0-89042-025-6.
  22. ^ Vieweg, W. V.; Fernandez, D. A.; Beatty-Brooks, M; Hettema, J. M.; Pandurangi, A. K.; Pandurangi, Anand K. (May 2006). "Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology, and Treatment". Am. J. Med. 119 (5): 383–90. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.09.027. PMID 16651048.
  23. ^ Cvetkovich, Ann (2012). Depression: A Public Feeling. Durham, NC: Duke University Press Books. ISBN 978-0822352389.
  24. ^ Cox, William T.L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Devine, Patricia G.; Hollon, Steven D. (2012). "Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Depression: The Integrated Perspective". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 7 (5): 427–49. doi:10.1177/1745691612455204. PMID 26168502.
  25. ^ NICE guidelines, published October 2009. Nice.org.uk. Retrieved on 2015-11-24.
  26. ^ Schuch, FB; Vancampfort, D; Firth, J; Rosenbaum, S; Ward, PB; Silva, ES; Hallgren, M; Ponce De Leon, A; Dunn, AL; Deslandes, AC; Fleck, MP; Carvalho, AF; Stubbs, B (1 July 2018). "Physical Activity and Incident Depression: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 175 (7): 631–648. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.17111194. PMID 29690792.

External links

Alitretinoin

Alitretinoin, or 9-cis-retinoic acid, is a form of vitamin A. It is also used in medicine as an antineoplastic (anti-cancer) agent developed by Ligand Pharmaceuticals. It is a first generation retinoid. Ligand gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for alitretinoin in February 1999.

Automatic negative thoughts

Automatic negative thoughts (ANT) are thoughts that are negative and random in nature in reference to one’s self.

Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy

The Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) is a talking therapy, a synthesis model of interpersonal and cognitive and behavioral therapies developed (and patented) by James P. McCullough Jr [2000, 2006] of Virginia Commonwealth University specifically for the treatment of all varieties of DSM-IV Chronic Depression. CBASP is often mistakenly labeled a variant of Cognitive Therapy (CT) or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) but it is not. Dr. McCullough writes that Chronic Depression (i.e., depressive disorder in adults that lasts continuously for two or more years; one year continuously in adolescents), particularly the type beginning during adolescence (early-onset), is essentially a refractory "Mood Disorder" arising from traumatic experiences or interpersonal psychological insults delivered by the patient's Significant Others (nuclear or extended family). The chronic depression mood disorder, at the core, is fueled by a generalized fear of others resulting in a lifetime history of interpersonal avoidance. The disorder rarely remits without proper treatment. Some basic assumptions underlying McCullough's approach to chronic depression and its treatment as a Mood Disorder are briefly described below.

Depressive

Depressive may refer to:

Major depressive disorder

Dysthymia

Minor depressive disorder

Recurrent brief depression

Depressive personality disorder

Depression (mood)

English Disease

The English disease or British disease may refer to:

The British disease, a term for the economic stagnation the nation underwent during the 1970s

Football hooliganism carried out by British fans

Depression (mood), in particular, hypochondria

Sudor anglicus, also known as the sweating sickness, common in sixteenth-century Europe

Rickets

Homosexuality

The English Disease, a novel by Joseph Skibell

Writing compound Dutch words as separate words, see Engelse ziekte on the Dutch Wikipedia

Perceived trade union militancy in the 1970s–1980s, in particular the Winter of Discontent and ending with the 1984–1985 miners' strike

James Herndon (media psychologist)

James Neil Herndon (born May 16, 1952 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) is a media psychologist. He received his Ph.D. in Educational Technology from Arizona State University. His early experimental research focused on new methods of personalizing training materials. More recent work explores the use of media psychology research in digital public relations. His qualitative research tool, Affective Encryption Analysis, has received press notice as a trend analysis methodology. He writes for LewRockwell.com, primarily on the topics of Ron Paul, United States presidential politics and the Federal Reserve System. He is coauthor of the book, Ron Paul: A Life of Ideas (2008), where he explores Paul in the modern media landscape. He has also authored two books on depression (mood), which he views as primarily a media-driven phenomenon. His company is Media Psychology Affiliates.

Leen Ryckaert

Leen Ryckaert (Ghent, 8 November 1957) is a Flemish psychologist and writer.

Ryckaert studied psychology and educational sciences at the University of Ghent. She was scientific assistant at the University of Ghent and psycho-pedagogic consultant at a PMS-centre (now CLB - Centre for Student Coaching). She now has an independent practice as clinical psychologist.

In March 2011, the book Je bent niet jouw gedachten was published. It is a guide for people suffering from occupational burnout and depression (mood) and offers a way to choose for happiness.

Ryckaert is the author of the book Omgaan met Ouders, a handbook for teachers to help them deal in their meetings with parents.

In 1985, Ryckaert published the paper "Kohlberg's cognitive moral development theory. Application to juvenile delinquency" and in 1987 the paper "The control of anger and aggressive behaviour. The role of cognitive factors"

Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations. It is often accompanied by low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain without a clear cause. People may also occasionally have false beliefs or see or hear things that others cannot. Some people have periods of depression separated by years in which they are normal, while others nearly always have symptoms present. Major depressive disorder can negatively affect a person's personal life, work life, or education, as well as sleeping, eating habits, and general health. Between 2–8% of adults with major depression die by suicide, and about 50% of people who die by suicide had depression or another mood disorder.The cause is believed to be a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Risk factors include a family history of the condition, major life changes, certain medications, chronic health problems, and substance abuse. About 40% of the risk appears to be related to genetics. The diagnosis of major depressive disorder is based on the person's reported experiences and a mental status examination. There is no laboratory test for major depression. Testing, however, may be done to rule out physical conditions that can cause similar symptoms. Major depression is more severe and lasts longer than sadness, which is a normal part of life. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for depression among those over the age 12, while a prior Cochrane review found that the routine use of screening questionnaires has little effect on detection or treatment.Typically, people are treated with counseling and antidepressant medication. Medication appears to be effective, but the effect may only be significant in the most severely depressed. It is unclear whether medications affect the risk of suicide. Types of counseling used include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy. If other measures are not effective, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be considered. Hospitalization may be necessary in cases with a risk of harm to self and may occasionally occur against a person's wishes.Major depressive disorder affected approximately 216 million people (3% of the world's population) in 2015. The percentage of people who are affected at one point in their life varies from 7% in Japan to 21% in France. Lifetime rates are higher in the developed world (15%) compared to the developing world (11%). It causes the second-most years lived with disability, after lower back pain. The most common time of onset is in a person's 20s and 30s. Females are affected about twice as often as males. The American Psychiatric Association added "major depressive disorder" to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) in 1980. It was a split of the previous depressive neurosis in the DSM-II, which also encompassed the conditions now known as dysthymia and adjustment disorder with depressed mood. Those currently or previously affected may be stigmatized.

Melancholia

Melancholia (from Greek: µέλαινα χολή melaina chole "gall bladders" also Latin lugere lugubriousness to mourn, Latin morosus moroseness of self-will or fastidious habit, and old English wist wistfulness of intent or saturnine) is a concept from ancient or pre-modern medicine. Melancholy was one of the four temperaments matching the four humours. In the 19th century, "melancholia" could be physical as well as mental, and melancholic conditions were classified as such by their common cause rather than by their properties.

Melancholia (disambiguation)

Melancholia was one of the four temperaments in proto-psychology and pre-modern medicine, representing a state of low mood.

Melancholia may also refer to

Depression (mood), a state of low mood also known as "melancholia"

Major depressive disorder, a mood disorder historically called "melancholia"

Melancholia (1989 film), a British-German film by Andi Engel, starring Jeroen Krabbé

Melancholia (2008 film), a Philippine film by Lav Diaz

Melancholia (2011 film), an English-language film by Lars von Trier

"Melancholia", a musical composition by Duke Ellington that first appeared on the album The Duke Plays Ellington

5708 Melancholia, an asteroid

Melencolia I, an engraving by Albrecht Dürer

Melancholia I, a 1995 novel by Jon Fosse

Melancholia II, a 1996 novella by Jon Fosse

Melancholia (painting), a painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder

Involutional melancholia, a traditional name for a psychiatric disorder affecting mainly elderly or late middle-aged people that is no longer in use

Melancholy

Melancholy may refer to:

Melancholia, one of the four temperaments in pre-modern medicine and proto-psychology, representing a state of low mood

Depression (mood), a state of low mood, also known as melancholy

Major depressive disorder, a mood disorder historically called melancholy

Mood stabilizer

A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizoaffective disorder.

Mood swing

A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood. Such mood swings can play a positive part in promoting problem solving and in producing flexible forward planning. However, when mood swings are so strong that they are disruptive, they may be the main part of a bipolar disorder.

Occupational burnout

Occupational burnout is thought to result from long-term, unresolvable, job stress. In 1974, Herbert Freudenberger became the first researcher to publish in a psychology-related journal a paper that used the term burnout. The paper was based on his observations of the volunteer staff (including himself) at a free clinic for drug addicts. He characterized burnout by a set of symptoms that includes exhaustion resulting from work's excessive demands as well as physical symptoms such as headaches and sleeplessness, "quickness to anger" and closed thinking. He observed that the burned-out worker "looks, acts, and seems depressed". After the publication of Freudenberger's original paper, interest in occupational burnout grew. Because the phrase "burnt-out" was part of the title of a 1961 Graham Greene novel, A Burnt-Out Case, which dealt with a doctor working in the Belgian Congo with patients who had leprosy, the phrase may have been in use outside the psychology literature before Freudenberger employed it.In order to study burnout, a number of researchers developed more focused conceptualizations of burnout. In one conceptualization, job-related burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization (treating clients/students and colleagues in a cynical way), and reduced feelings of work-related personal accomplishment. In another conceptualization, burnout is thought to comprise emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness. A third conceptualization holds that burnout consists of exhaustion and disengagement. The core of the three conceptualizations, as well as Freudenberger's, is exhaustion. Long limited to these dimensions, burnout is now known to involve the full array of depressive symptoms (e.g., low mood, cognitive alterations, sleep disturbance).Originally, Maslach and her colleagues focused on burnout within human service professions (e.g., teachers, social workers). She later expanded the application of burnout to include individuals in many other occupations.

Pseudodementia

Pseudodementia (otherwise known as “depression-related cognitive dysfunction”) is a condition whose presenting symptoms appear as dementia, but may result from a misdiagnosis of depression or the adverse effects of medications being taken. This form of dementia is not the true form and does not result from the same cognitive changes. Once the depression is properly treated or the medication therapy is changed, the cognitive impairment can be effectively reversed. True dementia involves a steady and irreversible cognitive decline. In addition, diminished mental capacity and social withdrawal are commonly identified as symptoms in the elderly but oftentimes is due to symptoms of depression. As a result, elderly patients are often misdiagnosed especially when healthcare professionals do not make an accurate assessment.

Pseudodementia is a phenotype approximated by a wide variety of underlying disorders. Data indicate that some of the disorders that can convert to a pseudodementia-like presentation include depression (mood), schizophrenia, mania, dissociative disorders, Ganser syndrome, conversion reaction, and psychoactive drugs. Although the frequency distribution of disorders presenting as pseudodementia remains unclear, what is clear is that depressive pseudodementia, synonymously referred to as depressive dementia or major depression with depressive dementia, represents a major subclass of the overarching category of pseudodementia. It has long been observed that in the differential diagnosis between dementia and pseudodementia, depressive pseudodementia appears to be the single most difficult disorder to distinguish from nosologically established "organic" categories of dementia, especially degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type. Depressive pseudodementia is a syndrome seen in older people in which they exhibit symptoms consistent with dementia but the cause is actually depression.

Older people with predominantly cognitive symptoms such as loss of memory, and vagueness, as well as prominent slowing of movement and reduced or slowed speech, were sometimes misdiagnosed as having dementia when further investigation showed they were suffering from a major depressive episode. This was an important distinction as the former was untreatable and progressive and the latter treatable with antidepressant therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, or both. In contrast to major depression, dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome involving a pervasive impairment of higher cortical functions resulting from widespread brain pathology.

Sullen

Sullen may refer to:

Sullens, Swiss municipality

Squire Sullen and Kate Sullen, fictional characters in the 1707 comedy play The Beaux' Stratagem

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