A dependant (British English) or dependent (American English) is a person who relies on another as a primary source of income. For example, minors (children who are under the age of majority) are dependants of their parents or legal guardians. A common-law spouse who is financially supported by their partner may also be included in this definition.[1] In some jurisdictions, supporting a dependant may enable the provider to claim a tax deduction.

In the United Kingdom, a full-time student in higher education who financially supports another adult may qualify for an Adult Dependant's Grant.[2]

See also


  1. ^ "SE71308 - Tax treatment of Working Rule agreements: lodging allowances - definition of "dependant"". HM Revenue and Customs. Archived from the original on 12 May 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  2. ^ "Adult Dependants' Grant". HM Government. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
British Overseas Territories

The British Overseas Territories (BOTs) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom. They are remnants of the British Empire that have not been granted independence or have voted to remain British territories. These territories do not form part of the United Kingdom and, with the exception of Gibraltar, are not part of the European Union. Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. Three are inhabited only by a transitory population of military or scientific personnel. They all share the British monarch (Elizabeth II) as head of state.

As of April 2018 the Minister responsible for the Territories excluding the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar and the Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus, is the Minister of State for the Commonwealth and the UN. The other three territories are the responsibility of the Minister of State for Europe and the Americas.

British Overseas Territories citizen

The status of British Overseas Territories citizen (BOTC) relates to persons holding British nationality by virtue of a connection with a British Overseas Territory (BOT). Nearly all BOTCs are also British citizens as a result of the changes made to British nationality law in 2002.


A caregiver or carer is an unpaid or paid member of a person's social network who helps them with activities of daily living. Caregiving is most commonly used to address impairments related to old age, disability, a disease, or a mental disorder.

Typical duties of a caregiver might include taking care of someone who has a chronic illness or disease; managing medications or talking to doctors and nurses on someone's behalf; helping to bathe or dress someone who is frail or disabled; or taking care of household chores, meals, or bills for someone who cannot do these things alone.

With an increasingly aging population in all developed societies, the role of caregiver has been increasingly recognized as an important one, both functionally and economically. Many organizations which provide support for persons with disabilities have developed various forms of support for carers as well.

Christina piercing

A Christina piercing, also known as a Venus piercing, is a female genital piercing. It is located where the outer labia meet, below the pubic mound. The Christina piercing is anatomy dependant; it has a high rejection rate, and is not possible for all women due to anatomical variation. The piercing does not facilitate sexual stimulation and can be found uncomfortable when pressure is applied. It is usually pierced with either a custom made curved barbell or surface bar to reduce the risk of rejection.

The Christina piercing is of contemporary origin. The first known Christina piercing was performed in the 1990s. As is common practice in the piercing industry, it was named after the first recipient of the piercing, a woman named Christina. It is also occasionally referred to by the less commonly used term "Venus", in reference to its placement at the mons Venus.

The piercing usually heals in 6 to 9 months. However, complications may occur depending on jewelry and the pierced person’s anatomy. In some cases, it is performed as a surface piercing. Further difficulties can develop due to the relatively long piercing canal and constant movement and friction. Christina piercings may also be susceptible to infection.

Conservation-dependent species

A conservation-dependent species is a species which has been categorised as "Conservation Dependent" ("LR/cd") by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, i.e. as dependent on conservation efforts to prevent it from becoming threatened with extinction. Such species must be the focus of a continuing species-specific and/or habitat-specific conservation programme, the cessation of which would result in the species qualifying for one of the threatened categories within a period of five years.

The category is part of the IUCN 1994 Categories & Criteria (version 2.3), which is no longer used in evaluation of taxa, but persists in the IUCN Red List for taxa evaluated prior to 2001, when version 3.1 was first used. Using the 2001 (v3.1) system these taxa are classed as near threatened, but those that have not been re-evaluated remain with the "Conservation Dependent" category.

As of December 2015, there remains 209 conservation-dependent plant species and 29 conservation-dependent animal species.

Examples of conservation-dependent species include the black caiman (Melanosuchus niger), the sinarapan, the salamander mussel, the California ground cricket, and the flowering plant Garcinia hermonii.

Cupola sign

The cupola sign is seen on a supine chest or abdominal radiograph in the presence of pneumoperitoneum.

It refers to dependant air that rises within the abdominal cavity of the supine patient to accumulate underneath the central tendon of the diaphragm in the midline. It is seen as lucency overlying the lower thoracic vertebral bodies. The superior border is well defined, but the inferior margin is not.

"Cupola" is an architectural term, referring to a small dome (in particular, a small dome crowning a roof or a turret) 2. The word derives from a Latin word for a "little cup".

Dependent and independent variables

In mathematical modeling, statistical modeling and experimental sciences, the values of dependent variables depend on the values of independent variables. The dependent variables represent the output or outcome whose variation is being studied. The independent variables, also known in a statistical context as regressors, represent inputs or causes, that is, potential reasons for variation. In an experiment, any variable that the experimenter manipulates can be called an independent variable. Models and experiments test the effects that the independent variables have on the dependent variables. Sometimes, even if their influence is not of direct interest, independent variables may be included for other reasons, such as to account for their potential confounding effect.

Dependent personality disorder

Dependent personality disorder (DPD) is a personality disorder that is characterized by a pervasive psychological dependence on other people. This personality disorder is a long-term condition in which people depend on others to meet their emotional and physical needs, with only a minority achieving normal levels of independence. Dependent personality disorder is a Cluster C personality disorder, characterized by excessive fear and anxiety. It begins by early adulthood, and it is present in a variety of contexts and is associated with inadequate functioning. Symptoms can include anything from extreme passivity, devastation or helplessness when relationships end, avoidance of responsibilities and severe submission.

Force gauge

A force gauge (also force gage) is a small measuring instrument used across all industries to measure the force during a push or pull test. Applications exist in research and development, laboratory, quality, production and field environment. There are two kinds of force gauges today: mechanical and digital force gauges. Force Gauges usually measure pressure in stress increments and other dependant human factors.

Helper dependent virus

A helper dependent virus also termed a gutless virus is a synthetic viral vector dependent on the assistance of a helper virus in order to replicate.Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an example of a replication defective, helper dependent ssRNA virus because it requires Hepatitis B virus (HBV) to provide HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) for the encapsidation of its genome. The envelope proteins on the outer surface of HDV are entirely provided by HBV.

Since the genome of the gutless virus does not include genes encoding the enzymes and/or structural proteins required to replicate, it is deemed safe for use in gene therapy since an infection cannot occur except in the presence of a suitable helper virus.Well established protocols allow scientists to propagate helper dependent viruses in the lab. However, using an actual helper virus poses problems when it comes to purification of a desired transgenic virus. Therefore, lab methods often utilize minimal fragments of the helper DNA that can serve this purpose without creating unwanted virus. This process usually involves the introduction of three separate DNA plasmids into a eukaryotic cell line through a process called transfection. These plasmids contain either transgenic DNA or replication and capsid encoding DNA, plus helper DNA. Every cell that is successfully transfected with all three DNA fragments will produce the necessary proteins to produce infective viruses. These viruses will only have transgenic DNA encapsidated and therefore once they've infected a patient's cell, they will not be capable of reproducing.Helper dependent viruses can also occur in nature without being "gutted". The term satellite virus has been given to a large group of viruses that all require the presence of another virus to replicate. Many of these are plant viruses, but animal viruses can be seen in the case of dependoviruses. Within the family parvoviridae, the dependovirus genus was given a distinct classification due to their dependence on another virus. The most widely known dependovirus is adeno-associated virus (AAV) which was originally discovered as a contaminant in a sample of simian adenovirus. Though AAV is considered to be dependent on adenovirus, it is able to replicate in the presence of herpesvirus as well as certain cytotoxic events such as UV irradiation or some carcinogens During the course of a natural dependovirus infection, if the helper virus is not present, the dependovirus is often capable of integrating into the host genome and going into a latent phase of its life cycle—effectively waiting for the next helper virus infection. For gene therapy uses, the vector is stripped of its ability to integrate. Because AAV can deliver transgenic material in a non-replicating form, it is a strong candidate for gene therapy and is currently used in about 5% of clinical trials.

List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe

The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political. Fifty-six generally recognized sovereign states, one de facto state with limited, but substantial, international recognition, and five largely unrecognized de facto states with limited to no recognition, are listed with territory in Europe and/or membership in international European organisations. There are eight areas that are not integral parts of a European state or have special political status.


A photoresistor (or light-dependent resistor, LDR, or photo-conductive cell) is a light-controlled variable resistor. The resistance of a photoresistor decreases with increasing incident light intensity; in other words, it exhibits photoconductivity. A photoresistor can be applied in light-sensitive detector circuits, and light-activated and dark-activated switching circuits.

A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. In the dark, a photoresistor can have a resistance as high as several megohms (MΩ), while in the light, a photoresistor can have a resistance as low as a few hundred ohms. If incident light on a photoresistor exceeds a certain frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electrons (and their hole partners) conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance. The resistance range and sensitivity of a photoresistor can substantially differ among dissimilar devices. Moreover, unique photoresistors may react substantially differently to photons within certain wavelength bands.

A photoelectric device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor, for example, silicon. In intrinsic devices the only available electrons are in the valence band, and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the electron across the entire bandgap. Extrinsic devices have impurities, also called dopants, added whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band; since the electrons do not have as far to jump, lower energy photons (that is, longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities), there will be extra electrons available for conduction. This is an example of an extrinsic semiconductor.

Physical dependence

Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms. Physical dependence can develop from low-dose therapeutic use of certain medications such as benzodiazepines, opioids, antiepileptics and antidepressants, as well as the recreational misuse of drugs such as alcohol, opioids, and benzodiazepines. The higher the dose used, the greater the duration of use, and the earlier age use began are predictive of worsened physical dependence and thus more severe withdrawal syndromes. Acute withdrawal syndromes can last days, weeks or months. Protracted withdrawal syndrome, also known as post-acute-withdrawal syndrome or "PAWS", is a low-grade continuation of some of the symptoms of acute withdrawal, typically in a remitting-relapsing pattern, often resulting in relapse and prolonged disability of a degree to preclude the possibility of lawful employment. Protracted withdrawal syndrome can last for months, years, or depending on individual factors, indefinitely. Protracted withdrawal syndrome is noted to be most often caused by benzodiazepines. To dispel the popular misassociation with addiction, physical dependence to medications is sometimes compared to dependence on insulin by persons with diabetes.

Pine Hill Soak Conservation Park

Pine Hill Soak Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located in the state's Limestone Coast in the gazetted locality of Bangham about 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of the town centre in Bordertown.The conservation park occupies land in section 67 of the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Geegeela on the eastern side of Frances Road. It is bounded by McCarthy Road to the north and by a vehicle track to its east and south boundaries. Land adjoining its south-west boundary is gazetted as a recreation reserve and contains a hall called the Bangham Hall and some tennis courts. Its name is derived from a soak known as Pine Hill Soak which is located near the conservation park's southern boundary.The conservation park was proclaimed on 17 September 1987. As of 2012, access to the conservation park for the purpose of petroleum exploration under the Petroleum and Geothermal Energy Act 2000 was not permitted.In 1992, the conservation park was described as follows. The land contains a field of “relict sand dunes and associated swale depressions.” The former landform supported a brown stringybark “open forest” with desert banksia being the “dominant shrub species” while the latter landform supported a “woodland of river red gum … and South Australian blue gum … with an open understorey of grasses, sedges and herbs.” The conservation park contains native pine which is “an occurrence close to the southern limit of this species' distribution” and which was considered as “suitable habitat” for the red-tailed black cockatoo - a species considered to be “threatened” at the time and which is “dependant on brown stringybark for food and nesting resources.” Further, visitation to the conservation park was described as “low.”The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category III protected area.

Radionuclide ventriculography

Radionuclide ventriculography, a type of cardiac ventriculography, is a form of nuclear imaging, where a gamma camera is used to create an image following injection of radioactive material, usually Technetium-99m (99mTc) labeled red blood cells. In radionuclide ventriculography, the radionuclide has the property of circulating through the cardiac chambers, availing for studies of the pumping function of the heart. In contrast, in myocardial perfusion imaging, the radionuclide is taken up by the myocardial cells, making its presence correlating with myocardial perfusion or viability of the cells.Radionuclide ventriculography is done to evaluate coronary artery disease (CAD), valvular heart disease, congenital heart diseases, cardiomyopathy, and other cardiac disorders. It exposes patients to less radiation than do comparable chest x-ray studies. However, the radioactive material is retained in the patient for several days after the test, during which sophisticated radiation alarms may be triggered, such as in airports. Radionuclide ventriculography has largely been replaced by echocardiography, which is less expensive, and does not require radiation exposure. Radionuclide ventriculography gives a much more precise measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) than a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE). Transthoracic echocardiogram is highly operator dependant, therefore radionuclide ventriculography is a more reproducible measurement of LVEF. Its primary use today is in monitoring cardiac function in patients receiving certain chemotherapeutic agents (anthracyclines: doxorubicin or daunorubicin) which are cardiotoxic. The chemotherapy dose is often determined by the patient's cardiac function. In this setting, a much more accurate measurement of ejection fraction, than a transthoracic echocardiogram can provide, is necessary.


Seyitgazi is a town and district of Eskişehir Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. The central town of Seyitgazi lies at a distance of 43 km (27 mi) towards the south from the province capital of Eskişehir. According to 2010 census, population of the district is 16,222 of which 2,890 live in the town of Seyitgazi. The district covers an area of 1,502 km2 (580 sq mi), and the average elevation is 1,040 m (3,412 ft).

Apart from the central town of Seyitgazi, the district has two dependant townships with own municipalities. These are Kırka and Doğançayır. The district also has 46 villages.

Substance dependence

Substance dependence, also known as drug dependence, is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use. A drug addiction, a distinct concept from substance dependence, is defined as compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences. An addictive drug is a drug which is both rewarding and reinforcing. ΔFosB, a gene transcription factor, is now known to be a critical component and common factor in the development of virtually all forms of behavioral addiction and drug addictions, but not dependence.

Within the framework of the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), substance dependence is redefined as a drug addiction, and can be diagnosed without the occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome. It was described accordingly: "When an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance, substance dependence may be diagnosed. Compulsive and repetitive use may result in tolerance to the effect of the drug and withdrawal symptoms when use is reduced or stopped. This, along with Substance Abuse are considered Substance Use Disorders." In the DSM-5 (released in 2013), substance abuse and substance dependence have been merged into the category of substance use disorders and they now longer exist as individual diagnosis.

Voltage-gated ion channel

Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the electrical membrane potential near the channel. The membrane potential alters the conformation of the channel proteins, regulating their opening and closing. Cell membranes are generally impermeable to ions, thus they must diffuse through the membrane through transmembrane protein channels. They have a crucial role in excitable cells such as neuronal and muscle tissues, allowing a rapid and co-ordinated depolarization in response to triggering voltage change. Found along the axon and at the synapse, voltage-gated ion channels directionally propagate electrical signals. Voltage-gated ion-channels are usually ion-specific, and channels specific to sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), and chloride (Cl–) ions have been identified. The opening and closing of the channels are triggered by changing ion concentration, and hence charge gradient, between the sides of the cell membrane.


Épenède is a commune in the Charente department in southwestern France.

Épenède, of which the Latin spina would mean thorn shrub, is bordered to the north by the department of Vienne and to the southwest by the valley of the River Transon. The village is situated on the dividing line of the waters of the Charente and the Vienne. The parish of Épenède was a dependant of the vast domains of the Benedictine abbey at nearby Charroux and in the diocese of Poitiers.

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