A department (French: département, Spanish: departamento) is an administrative or political subdivision in many countries. Departments are the first-level subdivisions of 11 countries, nine in the Americas and two in Africa. An additional 10 countries use departments as second-level subdivisions, eight in Africa, and one each in the Americas and Europe.
As a territorial entity, "department" was first used by the French Revolutionary governments, apparently to emphasize that each territory was simply an administrative sub-division of the united sovereign nation. (The term "department", in other contexts, means an administrative sub-division of a larger organization.) This attempt to de-emphasize local political identity contrasts strongly with countries divided into "states" (implying local sovereignty).
The division of France into departments was a project particularly identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had already been frequently discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers. The earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson.
Department may refer to:
Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibilityDepartments of El Salvador
El Salvador is divided into 14 departments (Spanish: departamentos) for administrative purposes, subdivided into 262 municipalities (Spanish: municipios). The country is a unitary state.
Designations for types of administrative territorial entities
1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics.