Dennis Martínez

José Dennis Martínez Ortiz (born May 14, 1955), nicknamed "El Presidente" (The President),[1] is a former Major League Baseball pitcher.[2] He was the first Nicaraguan to play in the majors.

Dennis Martínez
Dennis Martínez 1980
Martínez in 1980
Pitcher
Born: May 14, 1955 (age 64)
Granada, Nicaragua
Batted: Right Threw: Right
MLB debut
September 14, 1976, for the Baltimore Orioles
Last MLB appearance
September 27, 1998, for the Atlanta Braves
MLB statistics
Win–loss record245–193
Earned run average3.70
Strikeouts2,149
Teams
Career highlights and awards
Member of the Canadian
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Induction2016

Early life

Martínez was born in Granada, Nicaragua, the last of seven children to Edmundo and Emilia Martínez. The family was poor, but he helped his parents on the farm that raised food for the family. He was scouted by Ray Poitevint of the Baltimore Orioles on December 10, 1973 for $3,000. He spent three years in the minor leagues with three separate teams. He went 15-6 with the Miami Orioles in 1974 with a 2.06 ERA.[3] The following year, he spent time with Miami, Asheville, and the Rochester Red Wings, going 12-4 with the former and 4-1 with the middle while having no wins and losses with the latter. He went 14-8 with the Red Wings for 1976 with a 2.50 ERA before being called up by the team late in the season.[4]

Playing career

Baltimore Orioles (1976–1986)

Martínez made his debut on September 14, 1976 against the Detroit Tigers at Memorial Stadium. He replaced Dave Pagan in the top of the fourth inning with the Orioles trailing 7–5. He pitched 5.2 innings while allowing no runs on four hits, one walk and five strikeouts as the Orioles rallied in the seventh to win 9–7 and give Martínez his first career win.[5] In four games pitched with the team, he went 1–2 with a 2.60 ERA in 27.2 innings. He had 18 strikeouts and eight walks.

The following year, Martínez went 14–7 with a 4.10 ERA in 42 games (of which he started 13) in 166.2 innings, with four saves and five complete games. He had 107 strikeouts and 64 walks.

For 1978, Martínez went 16–11 with a 3.52 ERA while appearing in 40 games, having 15 complete games in 276.1 innings of work. He had 142 strikeouts and 93 walks (a career high). He faced 1,140 batters, the first of three times in his career that he would do so. He finished in the top ten for numerous categories in the AL, such as innings pitched (6th), strikeouts (9th), walks (6th), and hits (9th with 257).

Denny Martinez 1977
Martínez in 1977

The following year, he was at his peak of usage, appearing in 40 games with 39 starts while having 18 complete games and 292.1 innings of work (the latter three being career highs). He went 15–16 with a 3.66 ERA while having 132 strikeouts and 78 walks. He faced a career and league high 1,206 batters. Martínez made his postseason debut in Game 3 of the ALCS against the California Angels, pitching eight and one third innings while allowing three runs on eight hits while striking out four, although he did not receive a decision in the 4–3 loss.

For the 1980 season, Martínez went 6–4 with a 3.97 ERA in 25 games. He had two complete games and one save in a total of 99.2 innings. He had 42 strikeouts and 44 walks. He was put into the lineup as a designated hitter on September 29, 1980, although he was pinch hit for Terry Crowley prior to batting. On the field, he had five putouts, 16 assists and one double play for a 1.000 fielding percentage.[6]

The following year, Martínez improved. He went 14–5 with a 3.32 ERA in 25 games, having nine complete games with two shutouts in 179 innings of work. He had 88 strikeouts and 62 walks. He had 20 putouts, 44 assists, two errors, and four double plays for a .970 fielding percentage. He received votes for the Cy Young Award and the Most Valuable Player award, finishing 5th and 23rd, respectively.

For the 1982 season, Martínez was selected to pitching the Opening Day game against the Kansas City Royals at Memorial Stadium on April 5, 1982. In four innings of work, he allowed four runs on six hits with two strikeouts and three walks while allowing a home run, although the Orioles rallied in the seventh to win 13–5.[7] That year, he went 16–12 with a 4.21 ERA in 40 games. He had ten complete games in 252 innings of work, while having 111 strikeouts and 87 walks. He faced 1,093 batters, the third and last time he faced a thousand batters in a season.

The following year, he was selected for the Opening Day start once again. Facing the Royals on April 4, he allowed four runs on six hits and six innings of work, with six strikeouts and two walks as the Royals trounced the Orioles 7–2.[8] That year, he went 7–16 with a 5.53 ERA. In 32 games and 153 innings of work, he had four complete games while having 71 strikeouts and 45 walks.

Martínez was plagued by alcoholism in the beginning of his career; he had been introduced to drinking when he was 17, with his drinking problem developing further by the time he made the majors. With the clubhouse always having beer, he drank only on road trips and not in front of the presence of his family. It was this problem that led him to not be included in the 1983 postseason roster by Joe Altobelli, although he did receive a championship ring. One night after the Series was over, Martínez and a friend of his went drinking. On the ride home, he was cited for intoxication by a state trooper. The humiliation from the arrest, which his kids had heard about, led him to enter rehab.

Despite quitting drinking, he struggled in the seasons afterwards, going 6–9 in 1984 with a 5.02 ERA in 34 games and 141.2 innings with 77 strikeouts and 37 walks. Martínez stated that it was dedication to sobriety that affected his focus on the field, saying "When I tried to play, it wasn’t the same. I wasn’t the same pitcher, not the same before I stopped drinking. And it’s true, you can’t concentrate on the game and on sobriety at the same time. You have to concentrate on one or the other."[9][10][11] He had slight improvements in 1985, going 13–11 with a 5.15 ERA in 33 games and 180 innings of work. He allowed more hits and runs than the season before while having 68 strikeouts and 63 walks. On June 5, Martínez recorded his 100th win. Pitching against the California Angels at Memorial Stadium, he threw a complete game while allowing no runs on one hit while striking out three and having one walk and one hit batsman.[12] In 1986, Martinez's struggles proved to be the end of his tenure in Baltimore. He had a 6.75 ERA in his four games with the Orioles, pitching a total of 6.2 innings while having two walks and strikeouts. On June 16, he was traded by the Orioles with along with an additional player to be named later (which the Orioles did by sending John Stefero later in the year) to the Montreal Expos for a player to be named later (which the Expos did by sending Rene Gonzales). In his eleven seasons, Martínez went 108–93 while having a 4.16 ERA in 1,775 innings with 858 strikeouts and 583 walks. He still ranks in the top ten of numerous categories for the Orioles, such as wins (10th), innings (9th), strikeouts (10th), walks (8th), losses (8th), and earned runs (6th).[13] Gonzales would bat .221 in four seasons of 267 total games with the Orioles while Martínez won 100 games with the Expos.

Trade and Montreal Expos (1986–1993)

Martinez pitched in relief for his first three games before being put in as a starter in July. He lost three of his first four starts (with one no decision).[14] Although his sluggish start did not improve with the Expos, he went 3–6 with a 4.59 ERA in 19 appearances, with a complete game and a save in 98 innings of work. He had 63 strikeouts and 28 walks.

After the season, Martinez had a contract dispute with the Expos, who offered him half ($250,000) of what he had been earning with the Orioles. He entered free agency, but no one took an offer on him, and so he re–signed with the Expos, although he couldn't sign until May 1, which he would do for the minimum.[15] He pitched in the minor leagues to start his comeback to the team, pitching with the Miami Marlins, a Class A independent team. He later went to the Indianapolis Indians, a AAA affiliate for the Expos, going 3–2 with a 4.46 ERA, but he was called back up to the Expos in June. Martinez went 11–4 with a 3.30 ERA in 22 games, pitching 144.2 innings while having 84 strikeouts and 40 walks.

Martinez made the Opening Day start for the team in 1988, which was the first one in Montreal at Olympic Stadium. Facing the New York Mets on April 4, he faced off against Dwight Gooden. He pitched six innings while allowing seven runs on nine hits (three being home runs), with four walks and seven strikeouts while the Expos lost 10–6.[16] That year, Martinez went 15–13 with a 2.72 ERA in 34 games and 235.1 innings of work while having nine complete games, the last two being the most for him since 1982. He had 120 strikeouts and 55 walks. He made 19 putouts, 39 assists, six errors (a league high) and three double plays for a .906 fielding percentage. He finished in the top ten of numerous categories, such as ERA (9th), innings (9th), complete games (6th), home runs (5th with 21), hits (9th with 215) along with batters faced (10th with 968), and adjusted ERA+ (8th with 133).

The following year, Martinez was the Opening Day starter for the Expos once again. Pitching against the Pittsburgh Pirates at Olympic Stadium, he threw seven innings while allowing three runs on eight hits while having three strikeouts, with the Expos rallying to win in the ninth 6–5.[17] That season, he went 16–7 with a 3.18 ERA in 34 games and 232 innings. He had 142 strikeouts and 49 walks, the former being tied for the most in his career with his 1978 season. He made 11 putouts, 50 assists, two errors with six double plays for a .968 fielding percentage. He finished in the top ten in numerous categories of the National League, such as wins (6th), win–loss % (4th), walks per nine innings (3rd with 1.901), innings pitched (8th), games started (7th), home runs (6th with 21), hits (3rd with 227), and batters faced (8th with 950). During Martinez' time with the Expos, a variation of the Montreal hot dog topped with cheese and bacon called the Denny Dog was sold at Olympic Stadium.[18]

1990 was a mixed bag in certain ways for Martinez. He started the year off as the Opening Day pitcher against the St. Louis Cardinals at Busch Stadium. He went five innings while allowing three runs on seven hits with five strikeouts and four walks while the Expos lost 6–5 in eleven innings.[19] He went 10–11 with a 2.95 ERA in 32 games and 226 innings, having seven complete games. He had a career high 156 strikeouts with 49 walks. Despite this, he was named to the All-Star Game at Wrigley Field. He had a 6–7 record at the time of his selection with a 2.84 ERA. It was his first career All–Star selection. He pitched the fourth inning for the National League. Facing the 4–5–6 order of Cal Ripken, Jr, Ken Griffey, Jr and Mark McGwire, Martinez had one strikeout while allowing no hits.[20]

For 1991, Martinez improved. For the fourth year in a row, he was the Opening Day starter, pitching against the Pittsburgh Pirates at Three Rivers Stadium. He threw seven innings of work while allowing one hit and no runs with five strikeouts and two walks as the Expos won 7–0. It was his first and only Opening Day win with the Expos.[21] He went 14–11 with a 2.39 ERA (a career low) in 31 games and 222 innings of work. He had nine complete games while having five shutouts, the latter being a career high. July proved to be a highlight He had 123 strikeouts with 62 walks while being named to the All-Star Game at SkyDome in Toronto on July 9. Martinez pitched the third and fourth inning for the NL, allowing three runs on four hits, including a home run from Cal Ripken, Jr. He received the loss as the American League held on to win 4–2.[22] Nineteen days later, on July 28, Martínez pitched the thirteenth perfect game in Major League Baseball history, pitching for the Montreal Expos against the Los Angeles Dodgers. He was the first Latin American–born pitcher to pitch a perfect game. Martinez threw 96 pitches, 66 for strikes while having five strikeouts and no walks.[23][24] He finished the month of July with a 2–1 record in five games started while named NL Pitcher of the Month.[25] He finished with the lowest ERA in the league, beating out José Rijo, who finished with a 2.51 ERA. He was the first Expo since Steve Rogers in 1982 to win the ERA title.

The following year, Martinez went 16–11 with a 2.47 ERA in 32 games and 226.1 innings of work. He had 147 strikeouts and 60 walks while being selected for a third straight All-Star Game, this time in San Diego. Martinez entered in the top of the seventh inning. He had a strikeout and a walk while allowing no hits in his one inning of work. In August, he was named the Pitcher of the Month for the NL. In his five starts for the month, he went 4–0 while pitching at least seven innings in each of the start, allowing more than one earned run in just one game.[26] He finished in the top for numerous categories in the league once again, such as ERA (5th), wins (3rd), walks & hits per inning (4th), and innings pitched (10th).

1993 was his final season with the Expos. He went 15–9 with a 3.85 ERA in 35 games, having two complete games along one save in 224.2 innings. He struck out 138 batters while walking 64 batters. On the field, he made 17 putouts, 46 assists, one error and one double play for a .984 fielding percentage. On June 18, Martinez received his 200th win. Pitching in Montreal against the Atlanta Braves, he threw eight innings while allowing one run of four hits with three walks and seven strikeouts as the Expos won 2–1.[27] On September 28, Martínez won his 100th game for the Expos, doing so against the Florida Marlins at Joe Robbie Stadium. Martínez threw 7.2 innings while allowing two runs on four hits with six strikeouts and one walk on 105 pitches, but the Expos held on to win with John Wetteland throwing a 1.1 inning save to preserve the 3–2 win for the Expos. In August, the Expos put him on waivers. Three teams put a claim on him, the Atlanta Braves, the San Francisco Giants, and the Philadelphia Phillies, with the Braves doing so in order to try and stop him going to the Giants. The Expos were only willing to let him go to the Braves if they included a player that the team wanted in order to give up Martínez. However, he used his 10–and–5 rights privilege to veto a trade.[28] The team finished 94–68 that year, the best record during Martinez's tenure with the club, although they finished three games back of the Philadelphia Phillies.[29] With the win, he became the seventh pitcher with at least 100 wins in both the American and National leagues, joining Jim Bunning, Ferguson Jenkins, Al Orth, Gaylord Perry, Nolan Ryan and Cy Young; since Martínez, Kevin Brown and Randy Johnson have joined him on the list. Martinez finished his career in the top ten of numerous categories for the franchise, such as wins (2nd behind Steve Rogers), ERA (5th being Tim Burke), innings pitched (2nd behind Rogers), and strikeouts (6th behind Rogers).

Cleveland Indians (1994–1996)

Martínez entered free agency after the 1993 season ended, and he signed with the Cleveland Indians in the winter. Martinez was named the pitcher for the Opening Day game against the Seattle Mariners on April 4, which happened to be the first regular season game held at Jacobs Field in Cleveland. He pitched seven innings while allowing two runs on three hits with four strikeouts and walks each, with the Indians rallying to win 4–3 in ten innings.[30] The season, he went 11–6 with a 3.52 ERA in 24 games pitched and 176.2 innings. He had three shutouts, the first time he pitched a shutout in a season since 1991. He had 92 strikeouts and 44 walks. He made 11 putouts, 33 assists, two double plays and no errors for a 1.000 fielding percentage, the first time that Martínez compiled the percentage since 1980. He finished in the top ten in numerous categories, such as WAR (6th with 4.6), wins (10th), walks & hits per inning (6th with 1.189), walks per nine innings (7th with 2.242), innings pitched (4th), complete games (2nd), and home runs per nine innings (6th with 0.713). Although the season was cancelled midway through August, the Indians had won 60 games and were on track for a playoff spot.

For 1995, he kept consistent form. He started the Opening Day game for the team once again, this time allowing two runs off four hits while striking out three in six innings of work, although the Indians prevailed over the Texas Rangers 11–6.[31] He went 12–5 with a 3.08 ERA in 28 games and 187 innings pitched. He had 99 strikeouts with 46 walks. He made 15 putouts, three double plays, 46 assists and four errors, the latter being league highs while having a .938 fielding percentage. He finished in the top ten of numerous categories, such as WAR (5th, 5.7), ERA (3rd), walks & hits per inning (3rd, 1.176), and home runs per nine innings (9th, 0.818). On September 28, a wild pitch by Martínez broke the jaw of Hall of Famer Kirby Puckett. This would be Puckett's last official game of his career, retiring in 1996 due to glaucoma in his right eye, a problem unrelated to Martínez's pitch. Martínez pitched in five games for the Indians during their run to the American League pennant, his first postseason action since 1979 with the Orioles. He went 1–2 with two no decisions. He started Game 1 of both the ALDS and the ALCS. He earned his first postseason win in Game 6 of the ALCS, pitching seven innings while allowing four hits and no runs with three strikeouts and one walk on 90 pitches as the Indians clinched the pennant 4–0 over the Seattle Mariners. He started Game 2 and 6 of the World Series, receiving the loss in the former while having a no decision in the latter, although the Braves prevailed to win the Series in six games.

The following year, now at the age of 42 (oldest in the American League), he had a year plagued by inconsistency. Martinez started the Opening Day game for the team for the third straight year, the first Indians pitcher to have three consecutive Opening Day starts since Gaylord Perry in 1974. He pitched seven innings while allowing two runs on five hits, with five strikeouts and two walks, although the Indians lost 7–1.[32] He went 9–6 with a 4.50 ERA in 20 games and 122 innings. He had 48 strikeouts (his lowest since 1980) and 37 walks. He didn't make any appearances for the Indians after August 27, in which he pitched just 2/3 innings while allowing two runs.[33]

End parts of career (1997–1998)

Martínez signed with the Seattle Mariners as a free agent on February 20, 1997. He appeared in nine games while going 1–5 with a 7.71 ERA in 49 innings. He struck–out 17 batters and walked 29 batters before being released on May 24, three days after allowing 7 runs on 7 hits with two walks in 1.2 innings against the Anaheim Angels in an 18–3 loss.

Martínez spent his final season in 1998 with the Atlanta Braves. He went 4–6 with a 4.45 ERA, appearing in 53 games while making five starts and having two saves within 91 innings. He had 62 strikeouts and 19 walks. He made four appearances in the postseason for the Braves, all in the NLCS against the San Diego Padres. He received the win for Game 4, getting the final out of the 6th inning in relief of Denny Neagle by having Chris Gomez ground–out before the Braves scored in the next inning. His final appearance was in Game 6 on October 14, replacing John Rocker in the top of the 6th inning. He retired all four batters he faced, although the Braves lost the game 5–0 along with the series.[34]

After the season, Martinez retired, stating that there was nothing more to do with his career. He retired having the most wins by a Latin American pitcher, holding that record until Bartolo Colon surpassed him in 2018.[35]

During a 23–year baseball career, Martínez compiled 245 wins, 2,149 strikeouts, and a 3.70 earned run average. He is one of the top Latin American pitchers of all–time. Martínez is one of only 17 pitchers in MLB history to start on Opening Day more than 10 times, having done it 11 times. Martínez has the most career victories of any pitcher who has never won 20 games in a single season. Mark Buehrle, Milt Pappas, Jerry Reuss, Frank Tanana, Charlie Hough, Chuck Finley, Kenny Rogers, and Tim Wakefield are the only other pitchers with at least 200 career victories who have done so. Four of these pitchers (Buehrle, Pappas, Reuss and Rogers) had pitched no–hitters, with Buehrle also pitching a perfect game, and Rogers' also being a perfect game, three years to the day of Martínez's.

Post-playing career

In 2002, he was inducted into the Baltimore Orioles Hall of Fame. Martinez has worked as a spring training instructor for the Baltimore Orioles in 2005 and 2006,[36] and pitching coach for the Palm Beach Cardinals in the Florida State League.[37]

On November 5, 2012, the Houston Astros finalized their coaching staff for the 2013 season, naming Martínez as their new bullpen coach. He was fired on October 1, 2013.[38]

Martinez also is manager of the Nicaragua national baseball team, and managed during the 2013 World Baseball Classic Qualifying Tournament. The national baseball park in Managua (Nicaragua's capital city), Dennis Martínez National Stadium, was named in his honor.

Martinez runs his own organization, The Dennis Martínez Foundation, to help poor children around the world.

In 2016, Martinez was inducted into the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame. Martinez was selected as the manager of the National League Futures Team as part of the 2019 All-Star Game.[39]

Highlights

  • 4-time All-Star (1990–1992, 1995)
  • Twice Top 10 Cy Young Award (1981, 1991)
  • Led league in wins (1981)
  • Led league in ERA (1991)
  • Led league in shutouts (1991)
  • 6-time Top 10 in shutouts (1979, 1981, 1990, 1994–1996)
  • Led league in games started, innings pitched and batters faced (1979)
  • 9-time pitched 220 or more innings in a season (1978–1979, 1982, 1988–1993)
  • 3-time oldest player in the majors (1996–1998)
  • 60th on the strikeouts all-time list
  • Set record for most wins by a Latin American pitcher (244 – August 9, 1998)
  • Pitched the 13th perfect game in baseball history (July 28, 1991) with the Montreal Expos.[40]

See also

References

  1. ^ Washburn, Gary. "'El Presidente' happy in new job". Major League Baseball. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
  2. ^ Brian McTaggart [@brianmctaggart] (5 November 2012). "#Astros finalize coaching staff: Dennis Martinez as bullpen coach and Eduardo Perez as bench coach. Dave Clark to 1B" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  3. ^ https://www.baseball-reference.com/register/team.cgi?id=4e6306b5
  4. ^ https://sabr.org/research/el-presidente-life-and-times-dennis-martinez
  5. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/BAL/BAL197609140.shtml
  6. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/BOS/BOS198009292.shtml
  7. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/BAL/BAL198204050.shtml
  8. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/BAL/BAL198304040.shtml
  9. ^ https://sabr.org/research/el–presidente–life–and–times–dennis–martinez
  10. ^ http://sabr.org/bioproj/person/05148239
  11. ^ http://mlb.nbcsports.com/2016/04/04/orioles–walk–off–to–beat–the–twins–there–was–pie/
  12. ^ https://www.baseball-reference.com/boxes/BAL/BAL198506050.shtml
  13. ^ https://www.baseball-reference.com/teams/BAL/leaders_pitch.shtml
  14. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/players/gl.fcgi?id=martide01&t=p&year=1986
  15. ^ https://sabr.org/bioproj/person/05148239
  16. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/MON/MON198804040.shtml
  17. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/MON/MON198904040.shtml
  18. ^ http://lastwordonsports.com/2013/03/30/nos–amours–the–greatest–expos–1990–2004–part–3–the–pitchers/
  19. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/SLN/SLN199004090.shtml
  20. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/allstar/1990–allstar–game.shtml
  21. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/PIT/PIT199104080.shtml
  22. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/allstar/1991–allstar–game.shtml
  23. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/LAN/LAN199107280.shtml
  24. ^ "Baseball's Perfect Games: Dennis Martinez, Montreal Expos". The BASEBALL Page.com. Archived from the original on 2006-11-13. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
  25. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/players/gl.fcgi?id=martide01&t=p&year=1991
  26. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/players/gl.fcgi?id=martide01&t=p&year=1992
  27. ^ https://www.baseball-reference.com/boxes/MON/MON199306180.shtml
  28. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1993/08/29/sports/notebook–baseball–confidential–piercing–waiver–wire–s–code–of–silence.html?pagewanted=all
  29. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/FLO/FLO199309280.shtml
  30. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/CLE/CLE199404040.shtml
  31. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/TEX/TEX199504270.shtml
  32. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/CLE/CLE199604020.shtml
  33. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/DET/DET199608270.shtml
  34. ^ https://www.baseball–reference.com/boxes/ATL/ATL199810140.shtml
  35. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1999/02/08/sports/baseball–roundup–atlanta–dennis–martinez–retires–from–game.html
  36. ^ baltimore.orioles.mlb.com Martinez sharing his knowledge
  37. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-08. Retrieved 2009-11-10.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  38. ^ Astros make changes to Porter's staff
  39. ^ "Hall of Famer Jim Thome, four-time All-Star Dennis Martinez to manage SiriusXM All-Star Futures teams". MLB.com. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
  40. ^ "Most Popular". CNN.

External links

Preceded by
Tom Browning
Perfect game pitcher
July 28, 1991
Succeeded by
Kenny Rogers
Preceded by
Bob Milacki, Mike Flanagan, Mark Williamson, & Gregg Olson
No-hitter pitcher
July 28, 1991 (perfect game)
Succeeded by
Wilson Álvarez
Preceded by
Rick Honeycutt
Oldest Player in the
National League

1998
Succeeded by
Gary Gaetti
1983 Baltimore Orioles season

The 1983 Baltimore Orioles season was a season in American baseball. It involved the Orioles finishing 1st in the American League East with a record of 98 wins and 64 losses. The season culminated with the winning of the 1983 World Series over the Philadelphia Phillies.

1986 Baltimore Orioles season

The 1986 Baltimore Orioles season was a season in American baseball. It involved the Orioles finishing 7th in the American League East with a record of 73 wins and 89 losses. On August 5th, the Orioles were in second place with a record of 59-47, just 2.5 games out of first place, but the Orioles would lose 42 of their final 56 games to finish in last place in the AL East.

1987 Montreal Expos season

The 1987 Montreal Expos season was the 19th season in franchise history.

1988 Montreal Expos season

The 1988 Montreal Expos season was the 20th season in franchise history.

1989 Montreal Expos season

The 1989 Montreal Expos season was the 21st season of the baseball franchise. With owner Charles Bronfman thinking of selling the team he founded, he contemplated taking one last shot at a playoff berth. Bronfman gave young general manager Dave Dombrowski a clear mandate to win now, reportedly telling him he would provided all the money needed in the quest to bring a championship to Montreal in 1989. Dombrowski pulled off a massive trade on May 25, acquiring star left-handed pitcher – and pending free agent – Mark Langston from the Seattle Mariners. While the move was viewed as a coup at the time, it came at a heavy cost as a young, very tall and very raw Randy Johnson was the key part of the package going to the Pacific Northwest. Johnson would eventually harness his fantastic stuff and became one of the game's most dominant left-handed pitchers for well over a decade. Langston pitched 4 months for the club and left as a free agent. Still, it seemed like a worthy gamble at the time for the Expos. That year, there was no dominant team in the National League. The team seemed poised to compete for the NL East crown with a loaded starting pitching staff that featured Langston, Dennis Martínez, Bryn Smith, Pascual Perez and Kevin Gross.

The team peaked on August 2 with an NL best record of 63-44, holding a 3-game lead in the NL East and everything running along smoothly. What followed would go down as the greatest collapse in franchise history. The next night, a Benny Distefano pinch hit single in the 12th inning dealt the Expos a 1-0 loss in Pittsburgh. It was the start of a 7-game losing streak. The club limped through the rest of August but remained in the race in early September, with the team being only 2 games back of 1st place on September 6. Regardless, the downward spiral continued as the Expos inexplicably ended up losing 37 of their final 55 games to finish the season a disappointing 81-81, well out of the playoff picture. The easiest analysis of what caused the collapse is to point to the offence, which struggled after August 2, scoring an MLB worst 3.23 runs per game. For long-time Expos fans, the collapse is viewed as the beginning of the end of the franchise. If the club had won the NL East title that year and then beaten the Giants in the NLCS, clinching a World Series berth in the process, Bronfman may have changed his mind about selling the team. Instead, the late season collapse after such a big win now move only added to the owner's frustration.

1991 Major League Baseball All-Star Game

The 1991 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the 62nd playing of the midsummer classic between the all-stars of the American League (AL) and National League (NL), the two leagues comprising Major League Baseball. The game was held on July 9, 1991, at SkyDome in Toronto, the home of the Toronto Blue Jays of the American League. It was only the second time that the game was played outside the United States, as the National League's Montreal Expos hosted the 1982 Midsummer Classic at Olympic Stadium in Montreal, Quebec. The game resulted in the American League defeating the National League 4-2. Both the winning and losing pitchers represented the Canadian teams; the Blue Jays' Jimmy Key earned the win while the Expos' Dennis Martínez was given the loss. This was also the only All-Star Game to be awarded by Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti, who awarded the game to the Blue Jays on Canada Day 1989.

1991 Montreal Expos season

The 1991 Montreal Expos season was the 23rd season in franchise history. After several winning seasons, the Expos faltered in 1991, winning only 20 of its first 49 games. Manager Buck Rodgers was replaced as manager by Tom Runnells. The team ultimately finished 71-90.

1995 American League Championship Series

The 1995 American League Championship Series (ALCS), the second round of the 1995 American League playoffs, matched the Central Division champion Cleveland Indians against the West Division champion Seattle Mariners. The Mariners had the home field advantage, which was predetermined and assigned to either the West Division champion or their opponents in the Division Series.

The two teams were victorious in the AL Division Series (ALDS), with the Indians defeating the East Division champion Boston Red Sox three games to none, and the Mariners defeating the wild card qualifier New York Yankees three games to two. The Indians won the series four games to two to become the American League champions, and lost to the National League champion Atlanta Braves in the 1995 World Series.

2018 Latin American Series

The 2018 Latin American Series was the sixth edition of the Latin American Series, a baseball sporting event played by the champions of the professional winter leagues that make up the Latin American Professional Baseball Association (ALBP) and the first series containing representatives from outside the ALBP's founding nations. The competition took place at the Dennis Martínez National Stadium in Managua, Nicaragua from January 26 to January 31, 2018.

Craig Bjornson

Craig Michael Bjornson (born February 14, 1969) is an American former professional baseball player and current coach. He played in minor league baseball, and has coached in Major League Baseball for the Houston Astros and Boston Red Sox.

Dennis Martínez's perfect game

On July 28, 1991, Dennis Martínez of the Montreal Expos pitched the 13th perfect game in Major League Baseball history, blanking the Los Angeles Dodgers 2-0 at Dodger Stadium. A native of Granada, Nicaragua, Martínez became the first pitcher born outside of the United States to pitch a perfect game. (He has since been joined by Venezuela native Félix Hernández, who pitched a perfect game in 2012.) The perfect game also made the Dodgers, the losing team in Tom Browning's perfect game in 1988, the first team to be on the losing end of consecutive perfect games; they have since been joined by the Tampa Bay Rays, who were the losing team in Mark Buehrle's perfect game in 2009 and Dallas Braden's perfect game the following year. After completing the perfect game, Martínez slowly walked into the Dodger Stadium dugout, sat down by himself and cried.

The perfect game is the last of four no-hitters in Montreal Expos history, Bill Stoneman having pitched two, in 1969 (the franchise's inaugural season, and only nine games into its history) and 1972, and Charlie Lea in 1981. After the 2004 season, the franchise moved to Washington, D.C., where it became the Washington Nationals, and would not record the first no-hitter in its Washington history until Jordan Zimmermann no-hit the Miami Marlins on September 28, 2014.

Dennis Martínez National Stadium

Dennis Martínez National Stadium (Spanish: Estadio Nacional Dennis Martínez) is located in Managua, Nicaragua. It has a capacity of 15,000 and it was named after former MLB player Dennis Martínez.

The original stadium was built in 1948 and is Nicaragua's national stadium. It is used mainly for baseball but also serves as a venue for concerts, boxing, football, religious events and had a capacity of 30,100 people. It is the home stadium of Indios del Bóer baseball team and Deportivo Walter Ferretti football team. Inside the stadium is a hall of fame near the entrance showing medals, cups, photos and memories of Nicaraguan players. There is also a gym located inside.

List of Baltimore Orioles Opening Day starting pitchers

The Baltimore Orioles are a Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise based in Baltimore, Maryland. They play in the American League East division. The Orioles started playing in Baltimore in 1954, after moving from St. Louis, where they were known as the St. Louis Browns. The first game of the new baseball season for a team is played on Opening Day, and being named the Opening Day starter is an honor, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. The Orioles have used 33 different Opening Day starting pitchers in their 60 seasons since moving to Baltimore. The 33 starters have a combined Opening Day record of 22 wins, 18 losses and 17 no decisions. No decisions are only awarded to the starting pitcher if the game is won or lost after the starting pitcher has left the game.The first Opening Day for the Orioles was played in Detroit against the Detroit Tigers on April 13, 1954. Don Larsen was the Orioles' Opening Day starting pitcher that day, in a game the Orioles lost 3–0. Jim Palmer and Mike Mussina have made the most Opening Day starts for the Baltimore Orioles, with six apiece. Palmer has a record of five wins and one loss in his Opening Day starts, and Mussina has a record of three wins, two losses and one no decision. Dave McNally made five Opening Day starts for the Orioles, with a record of three wins and no losses. Other Oriole pitchers who have made multiple Opening Day starts are Steve Barber, Rodrigo López, and Jeremy Guthrie, with three apiece, and Milt Pappas, Dennis Martínez, Mike Flanagan, Mike Boddicker, and Rick Sutcliffe, with two apiece. Flanagan's two Opening Day starts occurred eight years apart, in 1978 and 1986.Palmer has the most Opening Day wins for the Orioles, with five. McNally's record of three wins and no losses in Opening Day starts gave him a 1.000 winning percentage, the highest in Orioles history. Flanagan's record of no wins and two losses is the lowest winning percentage of any Orioles' Opening Day starting pitcher. Flanagan and Mussina are the only pitchers to have two losses for the Orioles in Opening Day starts.The Orioles have played in two home ballparks. Memorial Stadium was their home park until 1991, and Camden Yards has been their home park since 1992. Orioles' Opening Day starting pitchers had a record of eight wins, eight losses and eight no decisions in 24 Opening Day starts in Memorial Stadium. They have a record of ten wins, four losses and two no decisions in 15 Opening Day starts at Camden Yards. This makes their aggregate record in Opening Day starts at home 18 wins, 12 losses and 10 no decisions. Their record in Opening Day starts on the road is four wins, six losses and seven no decisions, for an aggregate Opening Day record of 22 wins, 18 losses and 16 no decisions. The Orioles played in the World Series in 1966, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1979 and 1983, winning in 1966, 1970 and 1983. Their Opening Day starting pitchers in those years were Steve Barber (1966), Dave McNally (1969, 1970 and 1971), Jim Palmer (1979) and Dennis Martínez (1983).

List of Cleveland Indians Opening Day starting pitchers

The Cleveland Indians are a Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise based in Cleveland, Ohio. They play in the American League Central division. The first game of the new baseball season is played on Opening Day, and being named the starter that day is an honor, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. Since joining the league in 1901, the Indians have used 58 different Opening Day starting pitchers which includes the Opening Day starting pitchers from the Bluebirds and the Naps. They have a record of 58 wins and 54 losses in their Opening Day games.The Indians have played in three different home ball parks, League Park from 1901 through 1946, Cleveland Stadium from 1932 to 1993, and Progressive Field since 1994. From 1934 through 1946 some games were played at League Park and some at Cleveland Stadium. They had a record of 11 wins and 4 losses in Opening Day games at League Park, 9 wins and 13 losses at Cleveland Stadium and 2 wins and 4 losses at Progressive Field, for a total home record in Opening Day games of 22 wins and 21 losses. Their record in Opening Day away games is 35 wins and 35 losses.Bob Feller has the most Opening Day starts for the Indians, with seven. Stan Coveleski had six Opening Day starts for the Indians, Bob Lemon and CC Sabathia each had five Opening Day starts, and Addie Joss, Willie Mitchell, Gaylord Perry and Charles Nagy each had four. Several Baseball Hall of Famers have made Opening Day starts for the Indians, including Feller, Coveleski, Lemon, Joss, Gaylord Perry, Dennis Eckersley and Early Wynn. Brothers Jim Perry and Gaylord Perry each made Opening Day starts for the Indians. Jim Perry started on Opening Day in 1961 and Gaylord Perry made Opening Day starts in 1972, 1973, 1974 and 1975.The Indians have played in the World Series six times. They won in 1920 and 1948, and lost in 1954, 1995, 1997, and 2016. Coveleski was the Opening Day starting pitcher in 1920, Feller in 1948, Wynn in 1954, Dennis Martínez in 1995, Nagy in 1997, and Corey Kluber. The Indians are five and one in Opening Day games in those seasons, with the only loss coming in 2016. The Indians and the Toronto Blue Jays currently hold the record for the longest Opening Day game in Major League history. They set that record on Opening Day 2012, when the game lasted 16 innings. This broke the previous record of 15 innings between the Indians and the Detroit Tigers in 1960.

List of Major League Baseball perfect games

Over the 150 years of Major League Baseball history, and over 218,400 games played, there have been 23 official perfect games by the current definition. No pitcher has ever thrown more than one. The perfect game thrown by Don Larsen in game 5 of the 1956 World Series is the only postseason perfect game in major league history and one of only two postseason no-hitters. The first two major league perfect games, and the only two of the premodern era, were thrown in 1880, five days apart. The most recent perfect game was thrown on August 15, 2012, by Félix Hernández of the Seattle Mariners. There were three perfect games in 2012; the only other year of the modern era in which as many as two were thrown was 2010. By contrast, there have been spans of 23 and 33 consecutive seasons in which not a single perfect game was thrown. Though two perfect-game bids have gone into extra innings, no extra-inning game has ever been completed to perfection.

The first two pitchers to accomplish the feat did so under rules that differed in many important respects from those of today's game: in 1880, for example, only underhand pitching—from a flat, marked-out box 45 feet from home plate—was allowed, it took eight balls to draw a walk, and a batter was not awarded first base if hit by a pitch. Lee Richmond, a left-handed pitcher for the Worcester Ruby Legs, threw the first perfect game. He played professional baseball for six years and pitched full-time for only three, finishing with a losing record. The second perfect game was thrown by John Montgomery Ward for the Providence Grays. Ward, a decent pitcher who became an excellent position player, went on to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

Though convention has it that the modern era of Major League Baseball begins in 1900, the essential rules of the modern game were in place by the 1893 season. That year the pitching distance was moved back to 60 feet, 6 inches, where it remains, and the pitcher's box was replaced by a rubber slab against which the pitcher was required to place his rear foot. Two other crucial rules changes had been made in recent years: In 1887, the rule awarding a hit batsman first base was instituted in the National League (this had been the rule in the American Association since 1884: first by the umpire's judgment of the impact; as of the following year, virtually automatically). In 1889, the number of balls required for a walk was reduced to four. Thus, from 1893 on, pitchers sought perfection in a game whose most important rules are the same as today, with two significant exceptions: counting a foul ball as a first or second strike, enforced by the National League as of 1901 and by the American League two years later, and the use of the designated hitter in American League games since the 1973 season.During baseball's modern era, 21 pitchers have thrown perfect games. Most were accomplished major leaguers. Seven have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame: Cy Young, Addie Joss, Jim Bunning, Sandy Koufax, Catfish Hunter, Roy Halladay, and Randy Johnson. David Cone won the Cy Young once and was named to five All-Star teams. Félix Hernández is likewise a one-time Cy Young winner, as well as a six-time All-Star. Four other perfect-game throwers, Dennis Martínez, Kenny Rogers, David Wells and Mark Buehrle, each won over 200 major league games. Matt Cain, though he ended with a 104–118 record, was a three-time All-Star, played a pivotal role on two World Series–winning teams, and twice finished top ten in Cy Young voting. For a few, the perfect game was the highlight of an otherwise unremarkable career. Mike Witt and Tom Browning were solid major league pitchers; Browning was a one-time All-Star with a career record of 123–90, while Witt was a two-time All-Star, going 117–116. Larsen, Charlie Robertson, and Len Barker were journeyman pitchers—each finished his major-league career with a losing record; Barker made one All-Star team, Larsen and Robertson none. (Robertson, it should be noted, played his entire career before the establishment of the MLB All-Star Game.) Dallas Braden retired with a 26–36 record after five seasons due to a shoulder injury. Philip Humber's perfect game was the only complete game he ever recorded, and his major league career, in which he went 16–23, ended the year after he threw it.

List of Montreal Expos Opening Day starting pitchers

The Montreal Expos were a former Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise based in Montreal, Quebec from 1969 to 2004. The team relocated to Washington, D.C. after the 2004 season and became the Washington Nationals. The first game of the new baseball season for a team is played on Opening Day, and being named the Opening Day starter is an honour, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. The Expos used 19 different Opening Day starting pitchers in their 36 seasons. The 19 starters had a combined Opening Day record of 9 wins, 15 losses (9–15) and 12 no decisions. No decisions are awarded to the starting pitcher if the game is won or lost after the starting pitcher has left the game, or if the starting pitcher does not pitch at least five innings with the lead. The overall Opening Day franchise record is 12–24.

Steve Rogers holds the team record for most Opening Day starts with nine, and has an Opening Day record of 2–4, with three no-decisions. All of Rogers's Opening Day starts were on the road. Liván Hernández is the only pitcher to have made Opening Day starts for both the Expos (in 2004) and Nationals (2005, 2006, and 2011).For their first 19 Opening Day games, early season cold weather kept the Expos on the road. In 1988, the availability of Olympic Stadium and its retractable roof allowed the team to have its first Opening Day home game, in which Dennis Martínez was the starting pitcher. The Expos never played on Opening Day in Jarry Park Stadium, their home from 1969 to 1976. Olympic Stadium, their home from 1977 to 2004, hosted six Opening Day games; five Expos starters accumulated a record of 0–3 (and three no-decisions).

The franchise's only playoff experience was in the strike-shortened 1981 season. In a special format created for that season, the Expos were the second-half champion, with a 30–23 record. The team won the NL Division Series to become Eastern Division champions, winning three games to two over Philadelphia Phillies who had been the first-half champion with a 34–21 record. In 1981, Opening Day pitcher Steve Rogers faced Phillies ace Steve Carlton and won the first game of the series by a score of 3–1. The Expos then lost the NL Championship Series to the first-half Western Division champion Los Angeles Dodgers three games to two on a ninth-inning home run in Game 5 by Rick Monday.

List of Washington Nationals no-hitters

The Washington Nationals are a Major League Baseball franchise based in Washington, D.C.. They play in the National League East division. Formed as an expansion team in 1969 as the Montreal Expos, they were based in Montreal, Quebec, through the 2004 season. In 2005 they moved to Washington, D.C. and become known as the Washington Nationals. Seven no-hitters have been pitched in franchise history, four while the team was based in Montreal as the Expos, and three as the present-day Washington Nationals.

A no-hitter is officially recognized by Major League Baseball only "when a pitcher (or pitchers) allows no hits during the entire course of a game, which consists of at least nine innings". No-hitters of less than nine complete innings were previously recognized by the league as official; however, several rule alterations in 1991 changed the rule to its current form. Only one franchise in Major League Baseball has never had a pitcher throw a no-hitter.Dennis Martínez threw the first and thus far only perfect game, a special subcategory of no-hitter, in Expos/Nationals franchise history on July 28, 1991, during the Expos era. As defined by Major League Baseball, "in a perfect game, no batter reaches any base during the course of the game."The umpire is also an integral part of any no-hitter. The task of the umpire in a baseball game is to make any decision "which involves judgment, such as, but not limited to, whether a batted ball is fair or foul, whether a pitch is a strike or a ball, or whether a runner is safe or out… [the umpire's judgment on such matters] is final." Part of the duties of the umpire making calls at home plate includes defining the strike zone, which "is defined as that area over homeplate (sic) the upper limit of which is a horizontal line at the midpoint between the top of the shoulders and the top of the uniform pants, and the lower level is a line at the hollow beneath the kneecap." These calls define every baseball game and are therefore integral to the completion of any no-hitter.The manager is another integral part of any no-hitter. The tasks of the manager include determining the starting rotation as well as batting order and defensive lineup every game.

Randy Johnson's perfect game

On May 18, 2004, Randy Johnson, who was a pitcher for the Major League Baseball (MLB) Arizona Diamondbacks, pitched a perfect game against the Atlanta Braves. The game took place at Turner Field in Atlanta in front of a crowd of 23,381 people. Johnson, who was 40 at the time, was the oldest pitcher in MLB history to throw a perfect game, surpassing Cy Young who was 37 when he threw his perfect game in 1904. This perfect game was the 17th in baseball history, with the 16th perfect game being David Cone in 1999. Johnson's perfect game was also the seventh in National League history, the predecessor being Dennis Martínez in 1991.

Ron Hassey

Ronald William Hassey (born February 27, 1953) is an American former professional baseball player. He played in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a catcher for the Cleveland Indians (1978–1984), Chicago Cubs (1984), New York Yankees (1985–1986), Chicago White Sox (1986–1987), Oakland Athletics (1988–1990), and Montreal Expos (1991). Hassey is the only catcher in MLB history to have caught more than one perfect game (the first with Len Barker in 1981 and his second with Dennis Martínez in 1991). Hassey is also the second catcher in MLB history to have caught a no-hitter in both leagues.

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