Denizli Province

Denizli Province (Turkish: Denizli ili) is a province of Turkey in Western Anatolia, on high ground above the Aegean coast. Neighbouring provinces are Uşak to the north, Burdur, Isparta, Afyon to the east, Aydın, Manisa to the west and Muğla to the south. It is located between the coordinates 28° 30’ and 29° 30’ E and 37° 12’ and 38° 12’ N. It covers an area of 11,868 km2, and the population is 931,823. The population was 750,882 in 1990. The provincial capital is the city of Denizli.

Denizli Province

Denizli ili
Location of Denizli Province in Turkey
Location of Denizli Province in Turkey
CountryTurkey
RegionAegean
SubregionAydın
Government
 • Electoral districtDenizli
Area
 • Total12,321 km2 (4,757 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)[1]
 • Total1,027,782
 • Density83/km2 (220/sq mi)
Area code(s)0258
Vehicle registration20

Districts

Geography

Denizli 6600
Limestone terraces in Karahayıt, Denizli

Approximately 28-30% of the land is plain, 25% is high plateau and tableland, and 47% is mountainous. At 2571m Mount Honaz is the highest in the province, and indeed in Western Anatolia. Babadag in the Mentes range has a height of 2308 meters. The biggest lake in Denizli is Acıgöl, which means bitter lake and indeed industrial salts (sodium sulphate) are extracted from this lake which is highly alkaline. There is a thermal spring to the west of Sarayköy, at the source of the Great Menderes River, which contains bicarbonates and sulfates. There is another hot spring in Kızıldere which reaches 200˚C.

A geothermal steam source was first found in the region in 1965 during drilling work. Today there is a power plant producing electricity from the geothermal steam. Only 11% of the geothermal energy source is used to produce electricity and 89% of it, which flows into the Great Menderes, is 150˚C at source (it is contains energy equal to 35,000 to 40,000 tonnes of fuel oil).

Climate

In general the Aegean region has a mild climate. However, it becomes harsher at altitude . Temperatures can rise to 55 °C during summer and fall to -5 °C in winter. There are about 80 days with precipitation, mainly during winter.

History

Antiquity

Pamukkale3
Pamukkale below the ruins of Hierapolis

There are traces of prehistoric cultures throughout the province, including evidence of pre-Hittite cultures and the Hittites themselves. The Hittites were followed by Phrygians, Lydians and Persians, and then cities founded by the ancient Greeks and Alexander the Great. The first real settlement was the city of Laodicea on the Lycus which was established by King Antiochus II for his wife Laodice. Laodicea is located 6 km north of the city of Denizli.

The city of Hierapolis was established around 190 BC by the Pergamene Kingdom, one of the Hellenistic states of Anatolia. The calcified terraces and pools of Pamukkale (Cotton Castle) now stand below the ruins of Hierapolis. The two cities, Laodicea and Hierapolis later came under Roman rule, and with the division of the Empire in 395 were left within the boundaries of the East Roman Empire.

Christian era

The province has strong biblical connections: in the Book of Revelation, John the Evangelist hears a loud voice which sounded like a trumpet when he was on the island of Patmos. The voice says: "Write down what you see and send the book to the Churches in these seven cities: Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea". The Church of Laodicea was a sacred place even in pre-Christian times, and is still visited by Christians today, although it lost its importance to a great extent during Byzantine rule.

Turkish era

Turks were first seen in Denizli in 1070 when Afşın Bey, under the control of the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan, raided the area. The second and third Crusades fought here against Kazıkbeli, who managed to flee with a small force to Antalya. Later, after the Turks had established control of the ancient cities, they moved south to the site of the present city of Denizli, where drinking water was brought through stone pipes. The name Laodicea slowly changed into “Ladik” then since the 17th century other names were given “Tonguzlu”, ”Tonuzlu”, ”Tenguzlug”, ”Donuzlu” and finally “Denizli”.

After World War I, when the Greek army arrived in İzmir on May 15, 1919, one of the first centres of Turkish resistance formed at an open-air meeting in Denizli. A Turkish militia formed lines on the Menderes organized by Yörük Ali and Demirci Efe, involving large numbers of volunteers from the local peasantry. Stiffened by the Turkish regular army, Greek forces were repelled, and Denizli remained in Turkish hands throughout the Greco-Turkish War.

Places of interest

Tripolis in Phrygia Buldan Denizli1
Ruins of Tripolis of Phrygia near Yenicekent

see the article on Denizli and other districts for more details.... near Denizli...

  • Laodicea ad Lycum - Ruins of the ancient city located north of Denizli, about 1km north of the village of Eskihisar.
  • Hierapolis and Pamukkale -20 km north of Denizli. The ruins of the ancient city and the hillside covered in minerals from the thermal waters.
  • The Seljuk caravanserai Akhan, 6 km from Denizli on the Ankara highway.

and near the other districts in the province....

  • Tripolis (Phrygia) near the village of Yenicekent in Buldan - ruins of a city dating back to the Hellenistic period.
  • a few remains of the ancient city of Colossae, in Honaz.
  • Beycehöyük in Çivril, where several antiquities of the Copper Age dating back to 3000 BC were found.
  • The Hanabat Caravanserai in Çardak is a typical Seljuk caravaserai.
  • The Ahmetli Bridge over the Great Menderes river, 15 km from Sarayköy dates back to the Roman era.

Denizli rooster

Denizli is renowned in Turkey for having a famous breed of cock, renowned for its appearance and colour, along with its prolonged and melodious crows. Great effort is taken by the state and local farmers to preserve the breed. In appearance the Denizli cock has black eyes, dark grey legs, a long neck, and a red crown. It weighs 3-3.5 kg, and has a distinctive crow.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Population of provinces by years - 2000-2018". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.

External links

Media related to Denizli Province at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 37°44′36″N 29°17′29″E / 37.74333°N 29.29139°E

Acıpayam

Acıpayam is a town and a rural district of Denizli Province in high country between the Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. A plain, watered by two reservoirs, known for growing melons and watermelons, on the road between the city of Denizli and Antalya. It covers an area of 1700 km², and the altitude is 895 m. The district has a population of 57,533 of which 13,700 live in the city of Acipayam.

Adıgüzel Dam

Adıgüzel Dam is an embankment dam on the Büyük Menderes River in Denizli Province, Turkey, built between 1976 and 1989. The dam creates a lake which is 25.9 km ² and irrigates 94,825 hectares.

Apollonos Hieron

Apollonos Hieron (Greek: Ἀπόλλωνος ἱερόν, "Temple of Apollo") was an ancient city of Lydia.

Beycesultan

Beycesultan (pronounced [ˈbejdʒe sulˈtan]) is an archaeological site in western Anatolia, located about 5 km southwest of the modern-day city of Çivril in the Denizli Province of Turkey. It lies in a bend of an old tributary of Büyük Menderes River (Maeander River).

Buldan Dam

Buldan Dam is a dam in Denizli Province, Turkey. It was built between 1962 and 1967.

Cindere Dam

Cindere Dam is a gravity dam on the Büyük Menderes River in Denizli Province, Turkey. The development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works.

Denizli

Denizli is an industrial city in the southwestern part of Turkey and the eastern end of the alluvial valley formed by the river Büyük Menderes, where the plain reaches an elevation of about three hundred and fifty metres (1,148 ft). Denizli is located in the country's Aegean Region.

The city has a population of about 577,000 (2013 census). This is a jump from 389,000 in 2007, due to the merger of 13 municipalities and 10 villages when the area under Denizli Municipality jurisdiction increased almost fivefold and the population around 50 percent. Denizli (Municipality) is the capital city of Denizli Province.

Denizli has seen economic development in the last few decades, mostly due to textile production and exports.Denizli also attracts visitors to the nearby mineral-coated hillside hot spring of Pamukkale, and with red color thermal water spa hotels Karahayıt, just 5 kilometres (3 miles) north of Pamukkale. Recently, Denizli became a major domestic tourism destination due to the various types of thermal waters in Sarayköy, Central/Denizli (where Karahayıt and Pamukkale towns are located), Akköy (Gölemezli), Buldan (Yenicekent), and Çardak districts.

The ancient ruined city of Hierapolis, as well as ruins of the city of Laodicea on the Lycus, the ancient metropolis of Phrygia. Also in the depending of Honaz, about 10 mi (16 km) west of Denizli is, what was, in the 1st century AD, the city of Colossae.

The weather is hot in Denizli in summers, whereas in winters, it may occasionally be very cold with snow on the mountains that surround the city. Some years, snow can be observed in the urban areas. Springs and autumns are rainy, mild climate, warm.

Denizli Museum

Denizli Museum, also known as Denizli Atatürk and Ethnography Museum, (Turkish: Denizli Atatürk ve Etnoğrafya Müzesi) is a national museum in Denizli, Turkey. Established in 1984, it is a historic house museum dedicated to Atatürk, and also exhibits ethnographical items.

The museum at 37°46′59″N 29°05′06″E, is a 19th-century two-story house in the 459th Street of Saraylar neighborhood of Denizli.

Denizli Çardak Airport

Denizli Çardak Airport (IATA: DNZ, ICAO: LTAY) is an airport located in Çardak, Denizli Province, Turkey.

Dionysiopolis

Dionysiopolis (Ancient Greek: Διονυσιόπολις, "city of Dionysus") or Dionysopolis (Διονύσου πόλις), was a city of Phrygia in Asia Minor. The demonym Dionysopolitae (Διονυσοπολείτης) occurs on medals, and in a letter of M. Cicero to his brother Quintus, in which he speaks of the people of Dionysopolis being very hostile to Quintus, which must have been for something that Quintus did during his praetorship of Asia. Pliny places the Dionysopolitae in the conventus of Apamea, which is all the ancient writers note of their position. We may infer from the coin that the place was on the Maeander, or near it. Stephanus of Byzantium says that it was founded by Attalus and Eumenes. Stephanus mentions another Dionysopolis in Pontus, originally called Cruni, and he quotes two verses of Scymnus about it; however, the town of Dionysupolis in Thrace but on the Pontus, rather than in Pontus could be meant.

Dionysiopolis was important enough in the Late Roman province of Phrygia Pacatiana to become a bishopric, suffragan of its Metropolitan Archbishopric Hierapolis in Phrygia, but was to fade. No longer a residential bishopric it is a titular see.

Its site is tentatively located near modern Bekilli, Turkey.

Gökpınar Dam

Gökpınar Dam is a dam in Denizli Province, Turkey, built between 1995 and 2002. The development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works.

Homadena

Homadena was a town of ancient Phrygia on the road from Apamea to Eumeneia, inhabited during Roman and Byzantine times. Its name does not occur in ancient authors but is inferred from epigraphic and other evidence.Its site is located near Gümüşsu (formerly, Homa) in Asiatic Turkey.

Işıklı Dam

Işıklı Dam is a dam in Denizli Province, Turkey, built between 1950 and 1953. The development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works.

Laodicea on the Lycus

Laodicea on the Lycus (Greek: Λαοδίκεια πρὸς τοῦ Λύκου; Latin: Laodicea ad Lycum, also transliterated as Laodiceia or Laodikeia) (modern Turkish: Laodikeia) was an ancient city built on the river Lycus (Çürüksu). It was located in the Hellenistic regions of Caria and Lydia, which later became the Roman Province of Phrygia Pacatiana. It is now situated near the modern city of Denizli, Turkey. In 2013 the archaeological site was inscribed in the Tentative list of World Heritage Sites in Turkey.It contained one of the Seven churches of Asia mentioned in the Book of Revelation.

Pamukkale

Pamukkale, meaning "cotton castle" in Turkish, is a natural site in Denizli in southwestern Turkey. The area is famous for a carbonate mineral left by the flowing water. It is located in Turkey's Inner Aegean region, in the River Menderes valley, which has a temperate climate for most of the year.

The ancient Greco-Roman city of Hierapolis was built on top of the white "castle" which is in total about 2,700 metres (8,860 ft) long, 600 m (1,970 ft) wide and 160 m (525 ft) high. It can be seen from the hills on the opposite side of the valley in the town of Denizli, 20 km away.

Known as Pamukkale (Cotton Castle) or ancient Hierapolis (Holy City), this area has been drawing the weary to its thermal springs since the time of Classical antiquity. The Turkish name refers to the surface of the shimmering, snow-white limestone, shaped over millennia by calcium-rich springs. Dripping slowly down the vast mountainside, mineral-rich waters foam and collect in terraces, spilling over cascades of stalactites into milky pools below. Legend has it that the formations are solidified cotton (the area's principal crop) that giants left out to dry.Tourism is and has been a major industry in the area for thousands of years, due to the attraction of the thermal pools. As recently as the mid-20th century, hotels were built over the ruins of Hierapolis, causing considerable damage. An approach road was built from the valley over the terraces, and motor bikes were allowed to go up and down the slopes. When the area was declared a World Heritage Site, the hotels were demolished and the road removed and replaced with artificial pools.Overshadowed by natural wonder, Pamukkale's well-preserved Roman ruins and museum have been remarkably underestimated and unadvertised; tourist brochures over the past 20 years have mainly featured photos of people bathing in the calcium pools. Aside from a small footpath running up the mountain face, the terraces are all currently off-limits, having suffered erosion and water pollution at the feet of tourists.

Tavas

Tavas is a town and a district of Denizli Province of Turkey, on a wide plain on the road to Muğla, near to the district of Kale (and often the two are linked in one breath Kale-Tavas). Population is around 12,720

Tripolis on the Meander

Tripolis on the Meander (Greek: Τρίπολις, Eth. Greek: Τριπολίτης, Latin: Tripolis ad Maeandrum) – also Neapolis (Greek: Νεάπολις), Apollonia (Greek: Απολλωνία), and Antoniopolis – was an ancient city on the borders of Phrygia, Caria and Lydia, on the northern bank of the upper course of the Maeander, and on the road leading from Sardes by Philadelphia to Laodicea ad Lycum. (It. Ant. p. 336; Tab. Peut.) It was situated 20 km to the northwest of Hierapolis.

Ruins of it still exist near Yenicekent (formerly Yeniji or Kash Yeniji), a township in the Buldan district of Denizli Province, Turkey. (Arundell, Seven Churches, p. 245; Hamilton, Researches, i. p. 525; Fellows, Asia Minor, p. 287.) The ruins mostly date from the Roman and Byzantine periods and include a theater, baths, city walls, and a necropolis. An ancient church, dating back 1,500 years, has been unearthed in 2013.

Yenidere Dam

Yenidere Dam is a dam in Denizli Province, Turkey, which began construction in 1995. The development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works.

Çalkarası

Çal Karası is a variety of red wine grape from the Çal district of the Denizli Province of western Turkey. It also gives its name to a wine produced from the grape, which is sweet with berry fruit flavours.

Denizli Province of Turkey
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