Demographics of Taiwan

This article is about the demographic features of the population in Taiwan (officially known by its constitutional name, the Republic of China), includes population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The population in Taiwan is approximately 23.57 million[1], spread across a total land area of about 36,000 km2; it is the seventeenth most densely populated country in the world with a population density of about 650 inhabitants per square kilometer.

The original population of the island of Taiwan and its associated islands, i.e. not including Kinmen and the Matsu Islands, consisted of Taiwanese aborigines, speaking Austronesian languages and sharing mitochondrial DNA contribution with island peoples of Southeast Asia and the Pacific.[2] Immigration of Han Chinese to the Penghu islands started as early as the 13th century, while settlement of the main island occurred from the 16th century, stimulated by the import of workers from Fujian by the Dutch in the 17th century. According to governmental statistics, over 95% of the Republic of China's population is now made up of Han Chinese, while 2.3% are Taiwanese aborigines.[3] Half the population are followers of one or a mixture of 25 recognized religions. Around 93% of the religious population are followers of a mixture of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism, while a minority 4.5% are followers of Christianity (include Catholics and Protestants).

During the 20th century the population of Taiwan rose more than sevenfold, from about 3 million in 1905 to more than 22 million by 2001. This high growth was caused by a combination of factors, very high fertility rates up to the 1960s, and low mortality rates, and a surge in population as the Chinese Civil War ended, and the Kuomintang (KMT) forces retreated, bringing an influx of 1.2 to 2 million soldiers and civilians to Taiwan in 1948–1949.[4][5] Consequently, the natural growth rate was very rapid, especially in the late 1940s and 1950s, with an effective annual growth rate as high as 3.68% during 1951–1956. Including the Kuomintang forces, which accounted in 1950 for about 25% of all persons on Taiwan, immigration of mainland Chinese (now approximately 13% of the present population) at the end of the 1940s was a major factor in the high population growth of Taiwan.[6]

Fertility rates decreased gradually thereafter, and in 1984 the rate reached the replacement level (2.1 children per woman, which is needed to replace the existing population). Fertility rates have continued to decline and in 2010 Taiwan was experiencing a population growth of less than 0.2% and a fertility rate of only 0.9, which is the lowest rate ever recorded in Taiwan. The population of Taiwan is projected to peak at about 23.7 million in 2024 and decrease thereafter.[7]

The official national language is Standard Chinese, although around 70% also speak Taiwanese Hokkien and 10% speak Hakka. Japanese speakers are becoming rare as the elderly generation who lived under Japanese rule are dying out but many young Taiwanese use English or Japanese as second language. Aboriginal languages are gradually becoming extinct as the aborigines have become acculturated despite a program by the ROC government to preserve the languages.

Population density of Taiwan by district
Population density of Taiwan by district

Population

Population of Taiwan since 1978
Population growth since 1978

According to May 2006 statistics from the Ministry of the Interior, the population of Taiwan was 22,805,547, 99.6% of which live on island of Taiwan. The remaining 0.4% (82,618) live on offshore islands (Penghu, Lanyu, Green, Kinmen and Matsu).

Taiwan is ranked the 50th most populous nation in the world.

Historical

The number of Chinese in the island in 1624, prior to Dutch rule, was about 25,000.[8] It is estimated that prior to Kingdom of Tungning (1661) the population of Taiwan was no greater than 100,000 people, and the initial Zheng army with family and retainers that settled in Taiwan is estimated to be 30,000 at minimum.[9] By 1682 there were only 7,000 Chinese left on Taiwan as they had intermarried with aboriginal women and had property in Taiwan. During Qing rule (1683–1895), the population of Han Chinese in Taiwan grew rapidly from 100,000 to ~2.5 million, while the aboriginal population was estimated to be at least 200,000 by 1895.[10] (The plains aboriginal population is estimated to have decreased by 90% over the hundred years from 1800 to 1900.[11]

The Japanese Colonial Government performed detailed censuses every five years starting in 1905. Statistics showed a population growth rate of about 1% to 3% per year throughout Japanese rule. In 1905, the population of Taiwan was roughly 3 million; by 1940 the population had grown to 5.87 million, and by the end of World War II in 1946 it numbered 6.09 million.

Population census

Year Males (thousands) Females (thousands) Total population (thousands) Average annual growth rate (%)
1905 1,611 1,429 3,040
1915 1,813 1,669 3,480 1.4
1920 1,894 1,762 3,655 1.0
1925 2,053 1,941 3,993 1.8
1930 2,459 2,239 4,593 2.8
1935 2,660 2,553 5,212 2.6
1940 2,971 2,901 5,872 2.4
1956 4,772 4,596 9,368 3.0
1966 7,153 6,352 13,505 3.7
1970 (sampling) 7,723 7,047 14,770 2.3
1975 (sampling) 8,439 7,840 16,279 2.0
1980 9,405 8,624 18,030 2.1
1990 10,618 9,775 20,394 1.2
2000 11,386 10,915 22,301 0.9
2010 23,052 0.4
Population of Taiwan(1981-2017)[12]
Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Population 18,193,955 18,515,754 18,790,538 19,069,194 19,313,825 19,509,082 19,725,010 19,954,397 20,156,587 20,401,305
±% + 1.768% + 1.484% + 1.483% + 1.283% + 1.011% + 1.107% + 1.163% + 1.013% + 1.214%
Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Population 20,605,831 20,802,622 20,995,416 21,177,874 21,357,431 21,525,433 21,742,815 21,928,591 22,092,387 22,276,672
±% + 1.003% + 0.955% + 0.927% + 0.869% + 0.848% + 0.787% + 1.010% + 0.854% + 0.747% + 0.834%
Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Population 22,405,568 22,520,776 22,604,550 22,689,122 22,770,383 22,876,527 22,958,360 23,037,031 23,119,772 23,162,123
±% + 0.579% + 0.514% + 0.372% + 0.374% + 0.358% + 0.466% + 0.358% + 0.343% + 0.359% + 0.183%
Year 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Population 23,224,912 23,315,822 23,373,517 23,433,753 23,492,074 23,539,816 23,562,318
±% + 0.271% + 0.391% + 0.247% + 0.258% + 0.249% + 0.203% + 0.115%

Net migration rate

During 2004-2010 Taiwan's migration rate was positive. On average the annual net migration amounted to 22,000 people during that period, which is equivalent to a rate of 1.0 per 1000 inhabitants per year.

Age structure

Taiwan-population-pyramid-2014
Population pyramid for Taiwan in 2014, showing number of male and female inhabitants per year of age
Age range 1980 census 1990 census 2000 2010 2015
0–14 years 32.1% 26.9% 21.2% 15.65% 13.6%
15–64 years 63.6% 67.0% 70.2% 73.61% 73.9%
65 years and over 4.3% 6.1% 8.6% 10.74% 12.5%

Sex ratio

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.00 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est)

Population growth and age structure

We can see how population pyramids change shape according to the country’s specific stage by using the demographic transition model (DTM).[13] By looking at Taiwan’s population pyramid, the country is in stage 4 of the DTM and its shape contracts but it will soon enter stage 5.[14] In stage 5 of the DTM, death rate gradually exceed fertility rate and a country starts to experience overall population loss.[15] Access to great medical care increase the lifespan of people. Knowledge and access to contraception along with the fact most women are in work force cause the sharp decline of the fertility rate.[15]

The National Statistics of Taiwan in 2018 indicate that there are approximately 140,000 more females than males in Taiwan. The birth rate (8.3 births/1,000 population) is slightly higher than the death rate (7.4 deaths/1,000 population).[16] The total dependency ratio in Taiwan is 35.2% which is relatively low.[17] The low dependency ratio indicate that the dependent part of the population is less than a half of the working part. But expert estimated the dependency ratio will rise to 92.9% in 2060.[18] The rising dependency ratio and longer life expectancy will most likely require the government to support part of the elderly population because the working-age population is shrinking and less able to support directly.

Demographic transition and population ageing

The process of population ageing is primarily determined by fertility and mortality rate.[19] The proportions of elderly people are different across countries. For example, developing countries with limited access to healthcare and contraceptive and where the population with high fertility tend to have low proportion of older people.[20] Medical advancement, industrial revolution and better knowledge of sanitation that stated in the eighteenth century in many developed countries caused the decline in mortality rates and increase in fertility rates which promotes an increasing number of older people worldwide.[21] According to United Nations, many developed countries are in more advanced stage (4 or 5) of the demographic transition model and their number of elderly will remain higher compare to the less developed countries.[22] Demographers consider the phenomenon of increasing in elderly population as a population ageing.

According to World Health Organization (WHO), since 1993, Taiwan had reached the threshold of an ageing society. It was estimated the percentage of people over 65 years old was 8%.[23] The Council for Economic Planning and Development (CEPD) estimated that Taiwan will become an aged society in as soon as 2017.[24] The percentage of people 65 years or older will surpass 14%. CEPD further estimated the percentage of 65 years or older will be over 20% in 2025, which means Taiwan will soon become the super aged society.[24] The critical factors that accelerate the speed of ageing in Taiwan are high life expectancy and low fertility rate. The average life expectancy in 2014 was 80 years. The total fertility rate in 2014 was 1.1 (per 1000 women) and dropped to 0.9 in 2017.[25]

Ethnicity

The ethnic groups of Taiwan may be roughly divided among Taiwanese (84%), mainland Chinese (14%), and indigenous peoples (2%).[5] The ROC government reports that over 95% of the population is Han Chinese, which includes Hoklo, Hakka and other groups from mainland China.[26]

Aboriginal

Formosan Distribution 01
Original geographic distributions of Taiwanese aboriginal peoples

The total population of recognized aborigines on Taiwan is approximately 533,600, or approximately 2.28% of Taiwan's population.[27] The aborigines primarily inhabit the eastern half of Taiwan which consists mostly of mountainous terrain.

Place Male Female Total Percentage
Living in the Eastern plains 111,372 109,141 220,513 47.1%
Living in the mountains 122,016 126,073 248,089 52.9%
Total 233,388 235,214 468,602 100%
Note: Source data obtained from the Ministry of the Interior website (Spreadsheet data: m1-04.xls)

Taiwanese government officially recognizes sixteen(16) ethnic groups of Taiwanese indigenous peoples (Chinese: 原住民; pinyin: yuánzhùmín; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Gôan-chū-bîn).[28] In the early 1910s, researches in Japanese era recognized nine(9) ethnic groups: Amis, Atayal, Bunun, Paiwan, Puyuma, Rukai, Saisiyat, Tsou, Yami. These recognition were not changes in the post-World War II era until 1990s. After year 2000s, the indigenous culture revitalization movements forced the government to change its aptitude towards the indigenous peoples. Yami was rename to Tao. New ethnic groups were also recognized by the government, including Thao in 2001, Kavalan in 2002, Truku (Taroko) in 2004, Sakizaya in 2007, Seediq in 2008, Kanakanavu in 2014, and Saaroa in 2014. There are at least another dozen groups that are not recognized by the government.

Officially Recognized Taiwanese Indigenous Peoples
Name Formosan
native name
Chinese Population
at census 2000[29]
Population
(02/2016)[30]
Notes
Amis Pangcah, 'Amis 阿美族 148,992 203,740 Recognized since Japanese era. Amis name means "north"
Atayal Tayal, Tayan 泰雅族 91,883 87,156 Recognized since Japanese era. Atayal name means "brave person"
Bunun Bunun 布農族 41,038 56,844 Recognized since Japanese era.
Kanakanavu Kanakanavu 卡那卡那富族 267 Classified as Tsou, recognized since 2014
Kavalan Kebalan, Kbaran 噶瑪蘭族 1,416 Some Kavalan were classified as Amis, recognized since 2002
Paiwan Payuan 排灣族 70,331 97,788 Recognized since Japanese era.
Puyuma Pinuyumayan 卑南族 9,606 13,651 Recognized since Japanese era.
Rukai Drekay 魯凱族 12,084 12,996 Recognized since Japanese era.
Saaroa Hla'alua 拉阿魯哇族 294 Classified as Tsou, recognized since 2014
Saisiyat Say-Siyat 賽夏族 5,311 6,495 Recognized since Japanese era.
Sakizaya Sakizaya 撒奇萊雅族 863 Classified as Amis, recognized since 2007
Seediq Seediq 賽德克族 9,451 Classified as Atayal, recognized since 2008
Taroko Truku 太魯閣族 30,382 Classified as Atayal, recognized since 2004
Thao Thao, Ngan 邵族 768 Classified as Tsou, recognized since 2001
Tsou Cou 鄒族 6,169 6,647 Recognized since Japanese era.
Yami Tao 達悟族、雅美族 3,872 4,494 Recognized since Japanese era. Yami name means "person"
Unspecified 尚未申報 8,249 14,206
Total 397,535 547,465

Unrecognized Taiwanese aboriginal peoples may include extinct peoples (mostly Plains indigenous peoples) or communities currently classified with other groups. There are also 25,943 indigenous people who are currently not classified in any group.

Unrecognized Taiwanese indigenous Peoples
Name Formosan
native name
Chinese Notes
Arikun Arikun 阿立昆族 Sometimes classified as Hoanya
Babuza Babuza, Poavasa 貓霧拺族
Basay Basay, Basai 巴賽族、馬塞族 Sometimes classified as Ketagalan
Hoanya Hoanya 洪雅族、和安雅族 Sometimes split into Lloa and Arikun
Kaxabu Kaxabu, Kahapu 噶哈巫族 Sometimes classified as Pazeh. In revitalization.
Ketagalan Ketagalan 凱達格蘭族
Kulon Kulon 龜崙族
Lloa Lloa 羅亞族 Sometimes classified Hoanya
Luilang Luilang 雷朗族 Sometimes classified as Ketagalan
Makatao Makatao, Tao 馬卡道族 Sometimes classified as Siraya. Recognized in Pingtung. In revitalization.
Papora Papora, Vupuran 拍瀑拉族、巴布拉族
Pazeh Pazéh, Pazih 巴宰族、巴則海族 In revitalization.
Qauqaut Qauqaut 猴猴族
Siraya Siraya 西拉雅族、希萊耶族 Recognized in Tainan and Fuli. In revitalization.
Taivoan Taivoan, Taivuan 大武壠族 Sometimes classified as Siraya. Recognized in Fuli. In revitalization.
Taokas Taokas 道卡斯族 In revitalization.

Han Chinese

The majority of the Han Chinese descends from immigrants who arrived to the island prior to Japanese rule (1895–1945) and can be classified as the Hoklos and Hakkas, on the basis of language and customs.[31] As the majority of the early immigrants were Hokkien speakers from Fujian[32] who arrived starting in the 17th century, the Hoklos account for about 70% of the total population today. During Qing rule, a large number of Hoklo men took aboriginal brides.[4] Some of the plains aboriginals also adopted Chinese customs and language so as to be indistinguishable from the Han.[33] Thus, many who categorize themselves as Han have some degree of indigenous ancestry.

A significant minority of the Han Chinese are the Hakkas, who comprise about 15% of the total population. The Hakkas emigrated chiefly from eastern Guangdong, speak the Hakka Chinese, and originally took up residence in the hills of the aboriginal border districts.[34][4]

About 14% of the total population are mainland Chinese,[5] relating to immigrants who followed the ROC relocation from mainland China to Taiwan in 1949.[4] While some were other ethnicities.

Foreign residents

COB data Taiwan vers3
Foreign residents in Taiwan
Nationality / Origin Total
1  Indonesia 250,192 32.5%
2  Vietnam 223,079 29.0%
3  Philippines 154,306 20.0%
4  Thailand 66,008 8.57%
5  Malaysia 21,571 2.80%
6  Japan 14,195 1.84%
7  United States 9,784 1.27%
8  South Korea 4,445 0.58%
9  India 3,515 0.46%
10  Canada 2,096 0.27%
11  United Kingdom 2,020 0.26%
12  Myanmar 1,728 0.22%
13  France 1,505 0.20%
14  Singapore 1,453 0.18%
15  South Africa 1,175 0.15%
16  Mongolia 1,145 0.15%
17  Germany 941 0.12%
18  Australia 833 0.11%
19  Russia 570 0.07%
20  Italy 481 0.06%
21  Spain 400 0.05%
22  Swaziland 348 0.05%
23  Brazil 311 0.04%
24  Netherlands 309 0.04%
25  Honduras 303 0.04%
26  New Zealand 298 0.04%
27  Turkey 263 0.03%
28  Ukraine 220 0.03%
29  Poland 208 0.03%
30  Portugal 203 0.03%
31  Mexico 190 0.03%
32  Belize 186 0.02%
33  Belgium 185 0.02%
34  Paraguay 180 0.02%
35  Ethiopia 178 0.02%
36  Nicaragua 175 0.02%
37   Switzerland 172 0.02%
38  Cambodia 162 0.02%
39  Ireland 153 0.02%
40  Pakistan 152 0.02%
41  Haiti 149 0.02%
41    Nepal 149 0.02%
42  Guatemala 139 0.02%
43  Denmark 137 0.02%
44  Gambia 133 0.02%
45  Sweden 127 0.02%
46  Iran 115 0.02%
47  El Salvador 113 0.02%
48  Austria 107
48  Sri Lanka 107
49  Israel 106
50  Saint Lucia 105
50  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 105
51  Czech Republic 103
52  Colombia 99
52  Solomon Islands 99
53  Peru 86
54  Jordan 85
55  Kiribati 84
56  Egypt 83
57  Venezuela 81
58  Hungary 78
58  Nigeria 78
59  Panama 77
59  Saint Kitts and Nevis 77
60  Burkina Faso 72
61  Argentina 60
62  Bangladesh 59
62  Belarus 59
62  Malawi 59
63  Ecuador 54
64  Chile 53
65  Laos 47
65  Palau 47
66  Marshall Islands 39
67  Finland 38
67  Kyrgyzstan 38
67  Uzbekistan 38
68  Dominican Republic 37
69  Slovakia 36
70  Kazakhstan 35
71  Norway 32
71  Tuvalu 32
72  Kenya 31
73  Morocco 30
73  Romania 30
74  Croatia 29
75  Ghana 28
75  Greece 28
75  Papua New Guinea 28
76  Nauru 27
77  Mauritius 24
77  Tanzania 24
78  Costa Rica 22
79  Serbia 21
80  Latvia 20
80  Slovenia 20
81  Lithuania 19
81  Zimbabwe 19
82  Iraq 18
83  Armenia 17
83  Bolivia 17
83  Uganda 17
84  Bulgaria 16
85  Burundi 15
86  Brunei 12
86  Estonia 12
86  Macedonia 12
86  Uruguay 12
87  Republic of the Congo 11
87  Syria 11
88  Bhutan 10
88  Tunisia 10
88  Turkmenistan 10
88  Yemen 10
89  Fiji 9
89  Georgia 9
90  Algeria 8
90  Lebanon 8
90  Moldova 8
90  Saudi Arabia 8
91  Democratic Republic of the Congo 7
91  Namibia 7
92  Chad 6
92  Mozambique 6
92  Niger 6
92  Tonga 6
93  Botswana 5
93  Cameroon 5
93  Ivory Coast 5
93  Jamaica 5
93  Palestine 5
93  São Tomé and Príncipe 5
93  Sierra Leone 5
93  Sudan 5
93  Zambia 5
94  Iceland 4
94  Macau 4
94  Oman 4
94  Senegal 4
94  Tajikistan 4
94  Timor-Leste 4
94  Trinidad and Tobago 4
95  Azerbaijan 3
95  Cuba 3
95  Guinea 3
95  Lesotho 3
95  Madagascar 3
95  Somalia 3
96  Bahrain 2
96  Benin 2
96  Cyprus 2
96  Maldives 2
96  Mali 2
96  Suriname 2
97  Afghanistan 1
97  Albania 1
97  Angola 1
97  Bermuda 1
97  Cape Verde 1
97  Dominica 1
97  United Arab Emirates 1
97  Gabon 1
97  Guinea-Bissau 1
97  Liberia 1
97  Libya 1
97  Malta 1
97  Federated States of Micronesia 1
97  Rwanda 1
97  Seychelles 1
97  Togo 1
97  Vanuatu 1
- Other (stateless) 109 <0.02%
Total 769,913 100.0%

Languages

During the Japanese rule (between 1895-1945), Japanese was the medium of instruction and could be fluently spoken by many of those educated during that period. Almost everyone in Taiwan born after the early 1950s can speak Standard Chinese, which has been the official language and the medium of instruction in the schools for more than four decades. Note that the Chinese spoken in Taiwan (called Taiwanese Mandarin) has minor differences from that spoken in mainland China (called Putonghua). For Chinese spoken in other regions, see Language and overseas Chinese communities.

Hanyu Pinyin, the official romanization system in mainland China, has also been the standard of Taiwan since 2009. A number of romanization systems are still seen in Taiwan, including Tongyong, the official romanization in Taiwan between 2002 and 2008, Wade–Giles, often found on passports, and Postal.

Other varieties of Chinese can also be seen in Taiwan. The majority speak Taiwanese Hokkien, a branch of Southern Min, which had formerly been the most commonly spoken language. On Matsu Islands, the Fuzhou dialect belonging to the Eastern Min is prevalent. Although people on Kinmen (Quemoy) also speak Southern Min, it is not the case in Wuqiu Islands, for they speak a dialect of the Pu-Xian Min. The ethnic Hakka speak various Taiwanese Hakka dialects, including Sixian, Hailu, Dabu, Raoping, and Zhao'an.

The most widely spoken Formosan languages today are Amis, Atayal, Bunun, and Paiwan. The other aboriginal languages that have gained official recognition are Kanakanabu, Kavalan, Puyuma, Rukai, Hla’alua, Saisiyat, Sakizaya, Seediq (closely related to Truku), Thao, Tsou, Yami (also known as Tao).

Cantonese is spoken by many recent and early immigrants from southeastern China, Hong Kong, and Macau.[36] Furthermore, Taiwan was one of the largest consumers of Hong Kong cinema, cantopop, and pop culture in the late 1900s. As a result, many educated Taiwanese still continue to learn it as a second or third language.

Religion

Article 13 of the Constitution of the Republic of China guarantees freedom of religion as a right of all its citizens. As of 2013, the Republic of China government recognizes 27 religions which are registered with the Civil Affairs Department of the Ministry of the Interior (MOI).[37]

Statistics on registered religions (2005)

About 81.3% of the population can be considered religious believers, most of whom identify themselves as Buddhists (35%) or Taoists (33%). Chinese folk religion is generally practised under the aegis of Taoism, while more than 10% of the population adheres to popular movements of salvation. Confucianism also is an honored school of thought and ethical codes. Christian churches have been active in Taiwan for centuries; a majority of them are Protestant, with Presbyterians playing a particularly significant role. The Republic of China's government has diplomatic relations with the Holy See, which is the only European nation to formally recognize the Republic of China and is its longest lasting diplomatic ally, having established relations in 1942. Islam has seen a surge in recent years as a result of foreign Muslims seeking work in Taiwan, most notably from Indonesia. There is also a small group of Shinto followers under the Tenriist sect which was introduced in the 1970s.

The table below shows official statistics on religion issued by the Department of Civil Affairs, Ministry of the Interior ("MOI"), in 2005. The Taiwanese government recognises 26 religions in Taiwan.[38] The statistics are reported by the various religious organisations to the MOI:[38][39]

Religion Members % of total population Temples & churches
Buddhism (佛教) (including Tantric Buddhism) 8,086,000 35.1% 4,006
Taoism (道教) 7,600,000 33.0% 18,274
Yiguandao (一貫道) 810,000 3.5% 3,260
Protestantism (基督新教) 605,000 2.6% 3,609
Roman Catholic Church (羅馬天主教) 298,000 1.3% 1,151
Lord of Universe Church—Tiandiism (天帝教) 298,000 1.3% 50
Miledadao (彌勒大道) 250,000 1.1% 2,200
Holy Church of the Heavenly Virtue—Tiandiism (天德教) 200,000 0.9% 14
Zailiism/Liism (理教) 186,000 0.8% 138
Xuanyuanism (軒轅教) 152,700 0.7% 22
Islam (伊斯蘭教) 58,000 0.3% 7
Mormonism (耶穌基督後期聖徒教會) 51,090 0.2% 54
Tenriism (天理教) 35,000 0.2% 153
Church of Maitreya the King of the Universe (宇宙彌勒皇教) 35,000 0.2% 12
Haizidao (亥子道) 30,000 0.1% 55
Church of Scientology (山達基教會) 20,000 < 0.1% 7
Bahá'í Faith (巴哈伊教) 16,000 < 0.1% 13
Jehovah's Witnesses (耶和華見證人) 9,256 < 0.1% 85
True School of the Mysterious Gate (玄門真宗) 5,000 < 0.1% 5
Holy Church of the Middle Flower (中華聖教) 3,200 < 0.1% 7
Mahikari (真光教團) 1,000 < 0.1% 9
Precosmic Salvationism (先天救教) 1,000 < 0.1% 6
Yellow Middle (黃中) 1,000 < 0.1% 1
Dayiism (大易教) 1,000 < 0.1% 1
Total religious population 18,724,823 81.3% 33,223
Total population 23,036,087 100% -

The figures for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints were not from the MOI, rather they were based on self-reported data from LDS Newsroom.[40] The figures for Jehovah's Witnesses were not from the MOI and they were based on the Witnesses own 2007 Service Year Report.[41] In the original report both of them were counted as part of Protestantism.[38]

Vital statistics

Births and deaths

[42][43]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change CBR* CDR* NC* TFR*
1906 3 060 119 107 102 000 16 000 38.6 33.4 5.2 6.13
1907 3 090 121 756 100 000 21 000 39.1 32.4 6.7 6.16
1908 3 120 119 800 100 000 19 000 38.2 31.9 6.3 6.14
1909 3 160 127 286 98 000 29 000 40.2 31.1 9.1 6.29
1910 3 210 132 141 88 000 45 000 41.3 27.5 13.8 6.37
1911 3 270 135 658 86 000 51 000 41.8 26.2 15.6 6.42
1912 3 330 136 622 83 000 55 000 41.3 25.0 16.3 6.46
1913 3 390 136 967 85 000 53 000 40.8 25.0 15.8 6.45
1914 3 440 141 450 95 000 47 000 41.4 27.6 13.8 6.62
1915 3 480 137 669 110 000 29 000 40.0 31.5 8.5 6.45
1916 3 510 128 605 100 000 31 000 37.3 28.6 8.7
1917 3 560 142 414 96 000 50 000 40.9 27.0 13.9
1918 3 590 139 465 122 000 21 000 39.7 34.1 5.6
1919 3 630 136 707 97 000 43 000 38.5 26.8 11.7
1920 3 655 141 313 117 000 27 000 39.5 32.1 7.4 6.48
1921 3 720 155 159 90 000 69 000 42.8 24.2 18.6
1922 3 790 154 531 93 000 65 000 41.8 24.6 17.2
1923 3 860 146 984 82 000 69 000 39.1 21.3 17.8
1924 3 930 158 688 96 000 67 000 41.4 24.5 16.9
1925 3 993 159 423 95 000 68 000 40.8 23.9 16.9
1926 4 100 175 802 92 000 87 000 43.7 22.4 21.3
1927 4 210 177 422 93 000 89 000 43.2 22.1 21.1
1928 4 330 183 699 95 000 94 000 43.7 22.0 21.7
1929 4 460 190 031 96 000 100 000 44.0 21.6 22.4
1930 4 593 198 186 89 000 117 000 44.8 19.4 25.4 7.02
1931 4 710 208 137 100 000 116 000 45.8 21.3 24.5
1932 4 867 204 913 99 000 115 000 44.0 20.4 23.6
1933 4 995 211 737 98 000 123 000 44.3 19.7 24.6
1934 5 128 219 189 105 166 123 510 44.6 20.5 24.1
1935 5 255 225 980 106 905 129 040 44.9 20.3 24.6
1936 5 384 223 961 106 332 127 725 43.5 19.8 23.7
1937 5 530 237 090 109 096 138 570 44.8 19.7 25.1
1938 5 678 235 821 111 723 133 117 43.1 19.7 23.4
1939 5 821 244 707 115 044 139 119 43.7 19.8 23.9
1940 5 987 246 691 116 239 141 232 43.0 19.4 23.6 6.11
1941 6 163 241 894 99 858 153 447 41.1 16.2 24.9 5.98
1942 6 339 242 796 112 161 143 243 40.3 17.7 22.6 5.93
1943 6 507 247 427 122 001 138 662 40.0 18.8 21.2
1944
1945
1946
1947 6 294 241 071 114 000 127 000 38.3 18.1 20.2
1948 6 648 264 000 95 000 169 000 39.7 14.3 25.4 5.98
1949 7 099 300 843 93 000 208 000 42.4 13.1 29.3 6.49
1950 7 468 323 643 86 000 238 000 43.4 11.5 31.9 7.14
1951 7 695 385 383 89 000 296 000 50.0 11.6 38.5 7.59
1952 8 000 372 905 79 000 294 000 46.6 9.9 36.8 7.56
1953 8 297 374 536 78 000 297 000 45.2 9.4 35.8 7.54
1954 8 617 383 574 71 000 313 000 44.6 8.2 36.3 7.25
1955 8 924 403 683 77 000 327 000 45.3 8.6 36.6 7.32
1956 9 242 414 036 74 000 340 000 44.8 8.0 36.8 7.27
1957 9 539 394 870 81 000 314 000 41.4 8.5 32.9 6.83
1958 9 858 410 885 75 000 336 000 41.7 7.6 34.1 6.48
1959 10 227 421 458 74 000 347 000 41.2 7.2 33.9 5.98
1960 10 602 419 442 74 000 345 000 39.5 7.0 32.5 5.75
1961 10 983 420 254 74 000 346 254 38.3 6.7 31.5 5.58
1962 11 312 423 469 72 000 351 469 37.4 6.4 31.1 5.46
1963 11 680 424 250 71 000 353 250 36.3 6.1 30.2 5.35
1964 12 088 416 926 69 000 347 926 34.5 5.7 28.8 5.10
1965 12 442 406 604 67 887 338 717 32.7 5.5 27.2 4.82
1966 12 812 415 108 69 778 345 330 32.4 5.4 27.0 4.95
1967 13 147 374 282 71 861 302 421 28.5 5.5 23.0 4.22
1968 13 474 394 260 73 650 320 610 29.3 5.5 23.8 4.36
1969 13 995 390 728 70 549 320 179 27.9 5.0 22.9 4.14
1970 14 507 394 015 71 135 322 883 27.2 4.9 22.3 4.00
1971 14 837 380 424 70 954 309 470 25.6 4.8 20.9 3.70
1972 15 145 365 749 71 486 294 263 24.1 4.7 19.4 3.36
1973 15 424 366 942 73 477 293 465 23.8 4.8 19.0 3.21
1974 15 699 355 933 74 760 293 063 23.4 4.8 18.7 2.94
1975 15 999 357 653 75 061 292 586 23.0 4.7 18.3 2.76
1976 16 298 424 075 77 000 347 075 26.0 4.7 21.3 3.08
1977 16 601 393 633 79 000 316 796 23.7 4.8 19.1 2.64
1978 16 951 411 637 79 000 330 203 24.3 4.7 19.5 2.71
1979 17 337 421 720 82 000 340 518 24.3 4.7 19.6 2.67
1980 17 608 413 881 84 333 329 548 23.5 4.8 18.7 2.51
1981 17 972 414 069 87 192 326 877 23.0 4.9 18.2 2.45
1982 18 261 405 263 87 578 317 685 22.2 4.8 17.4 2.32
1983 18 538 383 439 90 951 292 488 20.7 4.9 15.8 2.17
1984 18 873 371 008 89 915 281 093 19.7 4.8 14.9 2.05
1985 19 135 346 208 92 348 253 860 18.1 4.8 13.3 1.88
1986 19 356 309 230 95 057 214 173 16.0 4.9 11.1 1.68
1987 19 564 314 024 96 319 217 705 16.1 4.9 11.1 1.70
1988 19 788 342 031 102 113 239 918 17.3 5.2 12.1 1.86
1989 20 004 315 299 103 288 212 011 15.8 5.2 10.6 1.68
1990 20 230 335 618 105 669 229 949 16.6 5.2 11.4 1.81
1991 20 455 321 932 106 284 215 648 15.7 5.2 10.5 1.72
1992 20 655 321 632 110 516 211 116 15.6 5.4 10.2 1.73
1993 20 848 325 613 110 901 214 712 15.6 5.3 10.3 1.76
1994 21 087 322 938 113 866 209 072 15.3 5.4 9.9 1.76
1995 21 268 329 581 119 112 210 469 15.5 5.6 9.9 1.78
1996 21 441 325 545 122 489 203 056 15.2 5.7 9.5 1.76
1997 21 634 326 002 121 000 205 002 15.1 5.6 9.5 1.77
1998 21 836 271 450 123 180 148 270 12.4 5.6 6.8 1.47
1999 22 011 283 661 126 113 157 548 12.9 5.7 7.2 1.56
2000 22 185 305 312 125 957 179 355 13.8 5.7 8.1 1.68
2001 22 342 260 354 127 647 132 707 11.7 5.7 5.9 1.40
2002 22 464 247 530 128 636 118 894 11.0 5.7 5.3 1.34
2003 22 554 227 070 130 801 96 269 10.1 5.8 4.3 1.24
2004 22 647 216 419 135 092 81 327 9.6 6.0 3.6 1.18
2005 22 730 205 854 139 398 66 456 9.1 6.1 2.9 1.12
2006 22 824 204 459 135 839 68 620 9.0 6.0 3.0 1.12
2007 22 918 204 414 141 111 63 303 8.9 6.2 2.8 1.10
2008 22 998 198 733 143 624 55 109 8.6 6.2 2.4 1.05
2009 23 079 191 310 143 582 47 728 8.3 6.2 2.1 1.03
2010 23 141 166 886 145 772 21 114 7.2 6.3 0.9 0.90
2011 23 194 196 627 152 915 43 712 8.5 6.6 1.9 1.07
2012 23 271 229 481 154 251 75 230 9.9 6.6 3.2 1.27
2013 23 345 199 113 155 908 43 205 8.5 6.7 1.8 1.07
2014 23 434 210 383 163 929 46 454 9.0 7.0 2.0 1.17
2015 23 472 213 598 163 858 49 740 9.1 7.0 2.1 1.18
2016 23 540 208 440 172 405 36 035 8.8 7.3 1.5 1.17
2017 23 571 193 844 171 242 22 602 8.2 7.3 0.9 1.11
2018 23 589 181 601 7.6
* CBR=crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR=crude deathrate (per 1000); NC=natural change (per 1000); TFR=total fertility rate

Fertility rate

The fertility rate[44][45] of Taiwan is one of the lowest fertility rates ever recorded in the world in historical times. It reached its lowest level in 2010: 0.90 children per female. In 1980, the rate was still well above replacement level (2.515), but it dropped to 1.88 in 1985, 1.81 in 1990, 1.78 in 1995, 1.68 in 2000, 1.12 in 2005.

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.29 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.97 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Taiwan is ranked 39th in the world for highest life expectancy at birth.

Gender Life expectancy in 2009[46]
Male 75.88 years
Female 82.46 years

Fertility trend

In developed countries, trends like late marriage, no marriage, and having fewer children are growing. Developed countries tend to have lower fertility rate because access to birth controls and contraceptives are easier and having children could become an economic burden caused by housing, education cost, and other cost for childcare.[47] Most women in developed countries are in the work force and tend to have higher education and professional careers. As a result, many women tend to have children late in life or no children at all.[48]

According to the BBC, the total fertility of Taiwan had decreased to 0.9 (per 1000 women) in 2011.[49] This figure is much lower than the replacement level and one of the lowest in the world. This indicates the population is experiencing negative growth and the population ageing is happening fast in Taiwan.[24] According to a Central News Agency Report, the total births in 2017 is below 200,000. Compared to previous decades, the total number of births since 2000 has been between 197,000 – 230,000.[50] If the trend of low birth rate continues, the senior population will be almost 5 times more than the children by 2060.[51]

HIV/AIDS

The first reported case of HIV/AIDS was recorded in December 1984 and the first local infection recorded in February 1986. As of May 2006, there were 11,486 recorded cases of HIV of which 2,631 were confirmed with AIDS. There were 1,425 deaths leaving 10,029 people living with HIV/AIDS. This is less than 0.05% of the total population of Taiwan. Statistics by the Center for Disease Control show that the gender distribution of infected person was 90% male and 10% female.

Data Population
Adult prevalence 11,486
People living with HIV/AIDS 10,029
Deaths 1,425
Source: Center for Disease Control (CDC), Republic of China - May 2006 est.(PDF file) (in Chinese)

Military manpower

The Republic of China has a compulsory military draft for males aged 19–35 years of age with a service obligation of 12 months in 2008.

Available manpower

Defined as 19–49 years of age.

Gender Population
Male 5,883,828
Female 5,680,773
Total 11,564,601

Fit for military service

Of the available manpower, the following are fit for military service. Defined as 19–49 years of age.

Gender Population
Male 4,749,537
Female 4,644,607
Total 9,394,144

Education

Taiwan has a nine-year compulsory education program initiated by the Ministry of Education in 1968. This consists of six years in elementary education and three years in junior high education. About 94.7% of junior high graduates continue their studies in either a senior high or vocational school. Reflecting a strong commitment to education, in FY 2001 16% of the ROC budget was allocated for education. The enrollment rate was 96.77% for the school year 2004-2005.[52] For the school year 2005-2006, there were 5,283,855 students in both public and private schools, about a quarter of the entire population. The literacy rate is above 95%.

Taiwan has an extensive higher education system with more than 100 institutions of higher learning. Each year over 100,000 students take the joint college entrance exam; about 66.6% of the candidates are admitted to a college or university. Opportunities for graduate education are expanding in Taiwan, but many students travel abroad for advanced education, including 13,000 who study in the United States annually.

Since the mid-1990s, the government has introduced several education reforms in a bid to further improve education standards such as the replacement in 2002 of the 48-year-long Joint University Entrance Examination (JUEE; 大學聯考; Dàxué liánkǎo) which had been set up in 1954.

Distribution of students

Sector Education Years of study Typical Age range Students Distribution
Pre-school Kindergarten (2 years) 4–6 years old 224,220 4.2%
Compulsory Elementary 6 years 6–12 years old 1,831,913 34.7%
Junior High 3 years 12–15 years old 951,236 18%
Senior Secondary Senior High 3 years 15–18 years old 420,608 8%
Senior Vocation 3 years 15–18 years old 331,604 6.3%
Higher Education Junior College 2–5 years 15–20 years old 37,068 0.7%
University & College 4–7 years
(up to 13 years)
18–25 years old
(up to 31 years old)
1,259,490 23.8%
Other Special School up to 14 years 4–18 years old 6,361 0.1%
Supplementary School n/a n/a 200,573 3.8%
Open University n/a n/a 20,782 0.4%
Total 5,283,855 100%
Source: Number of students at each level (SY 2005-2006), Ministry of Education, Republic of China.

Literacy

Definition of literacy is those aged 15 and over who can read and write.

Gender Population
Male 99.6%
Female 96.8%
Total 98.2%

"International Comparison of Education Statistical Indicators - 2012 Edition", Ministry of Education, 2012. pp. 17. Retrieved on 2012-10-05. (Table 1-2-5. Literacy Rate for Age 15 Plus by Gender).

2.02 Population of 15 Years and Over by Educational Attainment, Statistical Yearbook of Interior, Ministry of the Interior, Republic of China (Taiwan). 2012. Retrieved on 10-05-2012.

References

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Bibliography

Amis people

The Amis (Chinese: 阿美族; pinyin: āměi-zú; also Ami or Pangcah) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to Taiwan. They speak Amis, an Austronesian language, and are one of the sixteen officially recognized groups of Taiwanese aborigines. The traditional territory of the Amis includes the long, narrow valley between the Central Mountains and the Coastal Mountains (Huatung Valley), the Pacific coastal plain eastern to the Coastal Mountains and the Hengchun Peninsula.

In 2014, the Amis numbered 200,604. This was approximately 37.1% of Taiwan's total indigenous population, making them the largest indigenous group. The Amis are primarily fishermen due to their coastal location. They are traditionally matrilineal. Traditional Amis villages were relatively large for indigenous groups, typically between 500 and 1,000. In today's Taiwan, the Amis also comprise the majority of "urban aboriginals" and have developed many urban communities all around the island. In recent decades, Amis have also married exogamously to Han as well as other indigenous people.

Council of Agriculture

The Council of Agriculture (COA, Chinese: 農業委員會; pinyin: Nóngyè Wěiyuánhuì; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lông-gia̍p Úi-oân-hōe) is the official government body in the Republic of China (Taiwan) under the Executive Yuan in charged with overseeing affairs related to agriculture, forestry, fishery, animal husbandry and food affairs.

Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan

The Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan (EPA, Chinese: 行政院環境保護署; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hêng-chèng Īⁿ Khoân-kéng Pó-hō͘ Sú) is a cabinet-level executive agency responsible for protecting and conserving the environment in the Republic of China. This also includes, air quality, noise control, monitoring and inspection of environment, solid waste, recycling, sustainable development and international cooperation.It is led by the Minister for Environment. He is supported by two deputy ministers.

Hoklo people

The Hoklo people are Han Chinese people whose traditional ancestral homes are in Fujian, China. They are also known by various endonyms (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-ló-lâng/Hō-ló-lâng/Ho̍h-ló-lâng/Hô-ló-lâng), or other related terms such as Banlam (Minnan) people (閩南儂; Bân-lâm-lâng) or Hokkien people (福建儂; Hok-kiàn-lâng).

"Hoklo people" of this page refers to people whose native language is the Quanzhang Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese) spoken in Southern Fujian (China's province), Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and by many overseas Chinese throughout Southeast Asia.

There have been many famous Hoklo people throughout history, notably Koxinga, Shi Lang, Corazon Aquino and Su Song.

Ketagalan people

Ketagalan or Ketangalan (Chinese: 凱達格蘭族; pinyin: Kǎidágélán Zú) are a Taiwanese aboriginal people originating in what is now the Taipei Basin. Their language has now become extinct.

On 21 March 1996, the road in front of the Presidential Building was renamed from "Long Live Chiang Kai-shek" Road (介壽路) to Ketagalan Boulevard (凱達格蘭大道) by then-mayor of Taipei City, Chen Shui-bian, to commemorate the people. Traffic signs banning motorcycles and bicycles from that road were abolished at the same time.

Beitou District in Taipei City houses the Ketagalan Culture Center, a cultural center about the Ketagalan people.

List of Chinese administrative divisions by ethnic group

The list below outlines the distribution of the nationalities of China among provinces and province-level entities of the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.) according to the census of 2000. The provinces and province-level entities are listed by region. The classification of ethnic groups follows the official classification of the PRC.

Some ethnic groups, for instance, Mosuo people, although classified as Nakhi, do not regard themselves as part of any of the 56 groups identified by the PRC government. Some scholars made hypothesis that they are descendants of Mongols.

Taiwan is completely under the administration of the Republic of China, is excluded from this list. Please refer to Demographics of Taiwan for more information. The two special administrative regions (S.A.R.) of the P.R.C., namely Hong Kong and Macau, are not part of mainland China are also excluded. Please refer to Demographics of Hong Kong and Demographics of Macau.

Autonomous regions are marked with an asterisk (*).

List of ethnic groups in China

Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and Republic of China (Taiwan).

The typical use of the English phrase Chinese people generally refers to the Han 漢 people, also known as Han Chinese; they are the largest ethnic group in mainland China, where (as of 2010) some 91.51% of the population was classified as Han (~1.2 billion). Han is the name the Chinese have used for themselves since the Han Dynasty BC 202, whereas the name "Chinese" (used in the West) is of uncertain origin, but possibly derives ultimately from Sanskrit Cina-s "the Chinese," which in turn perhaps comes from the Qin dynasty which preceded the Han dynasty. Besides the Han-Chinese majority of 92%, 55 other ethnic (minority) groups are categorized in present China, numbering approximately 105 million people (8%), mostly concentrated in the bordering northwest, north, northeast, south, and southwest but with some in central interior areas.

The major minority ethnic groups in China are Zhuang (16.9 million), Hui (10.5 million), Manchu (10.3 million), Uyghur (10 million), Miao (9.4 million), Yi (8.7 million), Tujia (8.3 million), Tibetan (6.2 million), Mongol (5.9 million), Dong (2.8 million), Buyei (2.8 million), Yao (2.7 million), Bai (1.9 million), Korean (1.8 million), Hani (1.6 million), Li (1.4 million), Kazakh (1.4 million), and Dai (1.2 million).

List of indigenous peoples of Taiwan

Traditionally, the Taiwanese indigenous peoples are usually classified into two groups by their places of residence. Languages and cultures of aboriginal tribes were recorded by the government of Dutch Formosa, Spanish Formosa and the Qing Empire.

Researches on ethnic groups of Taiwanese indigenous peoples started in late 19th century, when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. The Government of Taiwan (臺灣總督府, Taiwan Sōtokufu) conducted large amount of researches and further distinguished the ethnic groups of Taiwanese indigenous peoples by linguistics (see Formosan languages). After the research, the household registration records remarks of "mountains/plains indigenous peoples". The governmental statistics also listed 9 recognized subgroups under mountains indigenous peoples. However, after World War II, the government refused to recognize the plains indigenous peoples.

The following is a list of classifications through Japanese and post World War II. Note that the Japanese names in parentheses does not exist in pre-World War II Japanese demographic researches.

Mainland Chinese

Mainland Chinese or Mainlanders are Chinese people who live in a region considered a "mainland". It is frequently used in the context of areas ruled by the People's Republic of China, referring to people from mainland China as opposed to other areas controlled by the state such as Hong Kong or Macau. The word is also often used by Taiwan people to distinguish the Chinese from Mainland China from themselves, if not calling the mainlanders and themselves as Chinese and Taiwanese directly respectively.

Paiwan people

The Paiwan (Chinese: 排灣; pinyin: Páiwān) are an indigenous people of Taiwan. They speak the Paiwan language. In 2014, the Paiwan numbered 96,334. This was approximately 17.8% of Taiwan's total indigenous population, making them the second-largest indigenous group.The majority of Paiwan people live in the southern chain of the Central Mountain Range, from Damumu Mountain and the upper Wuluo River in the north of the southern chain to the Hengchun Peninsula in the south of it, and also in the hills and coastal plains of southeastern Taiwan. There are two subgroups under the Paiwan people: the Raval and the Butsul.The unique ceremonies in Paiwan are Masaru and Maleveq. The Masaru is a ceremony that celebrates the harvest of rice, whereas the Maleveq commemorates their ancestors or gods.

Puyuma people

The Puyuma (Chinese: 卑南族; pinyin: Bēinán-zú; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Puyuma-cho̍k, Pi-lâm-cho̍k), also known as the Pinuyumayan, Peinan or Beinan, are one of the indigenous groups of the Taiwanese aborigines. The people are generally divided into the Chihpen and Nanwang groups, both resident in Taitung County on the east coast of Taiwan.

In the year 2000 the Puyuma numbered 9,606. This was approximately 2.4% of Taiwan's total indigenous population, making them the sixth-largest indigenous group. The Puyuma speak the Puyuma language, as well as Mandarin and Taiwanese Hokkien.

The name "Puyuma" means "unity" or "concord," and was originally the autonym of the speakers of the Nanwang dialect. Zeitoun and Cauquelin (2006) also note that the word Puyuma can be analyzed as pu'-uma, which means "to send to the field."

Qauqaut people

The Qauqaut (Chinese: 猴猴族; pinyin: Hóuhóu Zú) are a Taiwanese aboriginal people who live primarily in the town of Su-ao in Yilan County. They spoke the Basay language, which is a Kavalanic language. According to Ino Kanori, the Qauqaut people have been assimilated by the Kavalan people. The Qauqaut people are not recognised by the government of Taiwan.According to oral tradition from various Atayal villages, the Qauqaut originally settled in the mid-stream of Takiri River (Chinese: Liwuhsi). Due to pressure from Atayals in the mid 1700s, the Qauqaut started to move down the Takiri to the east coast. Later, Qauqaut moved north to Langsu in Nan'ao County.Early modern Chinese documents for the Kavalan areas reported that the Qauqaut were linguistically and culturally distinct from all the other Formosan natives, and that there was no intermarriage between Qauqaut and other communities.Taiwanese historian Paul Jen-kuei Li hypothesised (1995) that in about 200 BCE, the Qauqaut migrated from Southeast Asia to the Marshall Islands and the Caroline Islands, and in around 1000 AD arrived on the east coast of Taiwan, based on his linguistic comparison with the nearby Taroko (Seediq) language of Taiwan, which he said varies greatly from the Qauqaut. This contrasts with the rest of the Taiwanese aborigines, who are said to have arrived on the island much earlier.The Qauqaut, like the Laulau and Kuliawan, bury the dead in a sitting position.

Religion in Taiwan

Religion in Taiwan is characterised by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices, predominantly those pertaining to Chinese culture. Freedom of religion is inscribed in the constitution of the Republic of China. According to the census of 2005, 35% of the population adhered to Buddhism, 33% to Taoism (including local religion), 3.9% to Christianity, 18.7% identified themselves as not religious, and approximately 10% were adherents of folk religious movements of salvation (among them 3.5% adhered to Yiguandao).

Many statistical analyses try to distinguish between Buddhism and Taoism in Taiwan, which, along with Confucianism, are rather aspects within broader "Chinese religion". It is hard to make such distinction because various Taoist deities are worshipped alongside deities which originated in Buddhism, for instance Guanyin, in many temples across the country.

Rukai people

The Rukai (Chinese: 魯凱族; pinyin: Lǔkǎi zú) are one of Taiwan's aboriginal peoples. They consist of six communities residing in southern Taiwan (Budai, Labuan, Tanan, Maga, Mantauran, and Tona), each of which has its own dialect of the Rukai language. As of the year 2014, the Rukai numbered 12,699, and is the seventh-largest of the 13 officially recognized indigenous groups in Taiwan. The Rukai were called Tsarisen, which means "people living in the mountain".

The Rukai people honor the clouded leopard and the hundred pacer, which they believe to be the spirit of their ancestor.

Seediq people

The Seediq (sometimes Sediq, or Seejiq, pronounced: [ˈsəədʑɪq] ; Chinese: 賽德克族) are a Taiwanese aboriginal people who live primarily in Nantou County and Hualien County. Their language is also known as Seediq.

They were officially recognized as Taiwan's 14th indigenous group on 23 April 2008. Previously, the Seediq, along with the closely related Truku people, were classified as Atayal.

Strawberry generation

Strawberry generation (Chinese: 草莓族; pinyin: Cǎoméi zú; or 草莓世代; cǎoméi shìdài) is a Chinese-language neologism for Taiwanese people born in 1982 and beyond who "bruise easily" like strawberries – meaning they cannot withstand social pressure or work hard like their parents' generation; the term refers to people who are insubordinate, spoiled, selfish, arrogant, and sluggish in work.The term arises from the perception that members of this generation have grown up being overprotected by their parents and in an environment of economic prosperity, in a similar manner to how strawberries are grown in protected greenhouses and command a higher price compared to other fruits.

The term is starting to gain prominence in the East Asian press, as it could be a way to designate a rising demographic or psychographic in terms of consumer behavior. The Strawberry Generation, like the Post-80s of China, could be the Asian counterpart of the Millennials or the so-called Snowflake generation in the Western world.

Taiwanese people

Taiwanese people (Chinese: 臺灣人 / 台灣人) are people from Taiwan who share a common Taiwanese culture and speak Mandarin Chinese, Hokkien, Hakka, or Aboriginal languages as a mother tongue. Taiwanese people may also refer to individuals who either claim or are imputed cultural identity focused on Taiwan or areas under the control of the Government of the Republic of China since 1945, including Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu islands (see Taiwan Area). At least three competing (occasionally overlapping) paradigms are used to identify someone as a Taiwanese person: nationalist criteria, self-identification (including the concept of "New Taiwanese") criteria, and socio-cultural criteria. These standards are fluid, and result from evolving social and political issues. The complexity resulting from competing and evolving standards is compounded by a larger dispute regarding Taiwan's identity, the political status of Taiwan, and its potential de jure Taiwan independence or Cross-Strait Unification.

According to government figures, over 95% of Taiwan's population of 23.4 million consists of Han Chinese, while 2.3% are Austronesian Taiwanese aborigines. The category of Han Chinese consists of the three main groups: Hoklo, Hakka, and mainland Chinese. However, acculturation, intermarriage and assimilation have resulted in some degree of mixing of the Han and Taiwanese Aborigine blood lines. Although the concept of the "four great ethnic groups" was alleged to be the deliberate attempt by the Hoklo-dominated Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) to defuse ethnic tensions, this conception has become a dominant frame of reference for dealing with Taiwanese ethnic and national issues.Despite the wide use of the "four great ethnic groups" in public discourse as essentialized identities, the relationships between the peoples of Taiwan have been in a constant state of convergence and negotiation for centuries. The continuing process of cross-ethnic mixing with ethnicities from within and outside Taiwan, combined with the disappearance of ethnic barriers due to a shared socio-political experience, has led to the emergence of "Taiwanese" as a larger ethnic group, except on the island of Kinmen whose populace consider themselves as Kinmenese or Chinese, and as well as inhabitant of Matsu Islands whereby they also consider themselves as Matsunese or Chinese.

Taokas people

Taokas (Chinese: 道卡斯族; pinyin: Dàokǎsī Zú) is one of a number of indigenous ethno-linguistic groups that inhabited the plains of western Taiwan. The Taokas were located in the areas around today's Hsinchu City/Hsinchu County, Miaoli County, and Taichung City region. Several Taokas groups have been historically linked to many revolts that plagued Taiwan during the Qing era (1683–1895). The Taokas were not always opposed to Han encroachment on their lands as several Taokas groups were involved in building the Ta-Chia Mazu Temple. Today, only a small number of people in the central city of Puli identify themselves as ethnic Taokas or even Taiwanese Aborigines.

Thao people

The Thao/Ngan (Chinese: 邵族; pinyin: Shào zú) are a small group of Taiwanese aborigines who have lived near Sun Moon Lake (Lake Candidius) in central Taiwan for at least a century, and probably since the time of the Qing dynasty. In the year 2000 the Thao/Ngan people numbered only 281, making them the smallest of all of the recognized aboriginals in Taiwan (a number of aboriginal peoples, both smaller and larger than the Thao in population, remain unrecognized by the Taiwanese governing authorities).They are the smallest of the Taiwanese aborigine group in terms of population and the smallest ethnic group in Taiwan. Despite their small group size, the Thao/Ngan have retained their customs, beliefs and traditional culture and language until now, though they have been assimilated into mainstream Chinese culture as well. Most of the members of this ethnic group work today as menial workers, cooks and vendors in the tourism industry at Sun Moon Lake. The Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999 damaged or destroyed 80% of the houses of the Thao/Ngan and made many of them lose employment.

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