This article is about the demographic features of the population in Taiwan (officially known by its constitutional name, the Republic of China), includes population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
The population in Taiwan is approximately 23.57 million, spread across a total land area of about 36,000 km2; it is the seventeenth most densely populated country in the world with a population density of about 650 inhabitants per square kilometer.
The original population of the island of Taiwan and its associated islands, i.e. not including Kinmen and the Matsu Islands, consisted of Taiwanese aborigines, speaking Austronesian languages and sharing mitochondrial DNA contribution with island peoples of Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Immigration of Han Chinese to the Penghu islands started as early as the 13th century, while settlement of the main island occurred from the 16th century, stimulated by the import of workers from Fujian by the Dutch in the 17th century. According to governmental statistics, over 95% of the Republic of China's population is now made up of Han Chinese, while 2.3% are Taiwanese aborigines. Half the population are followers of one or a mixture of 25 recognized religions. Around 93% of the religious population are followers of a mixture of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism, while a minority 4.5% are followers of Christianity (include Catholics and Protestants).
During the 20th century the population of Taiwan rose more than sevenfold, from about 3 million in 1905 to more than 22 million by 2001. This high growth was caused by a combination of factors, very high fertility rates up to the 1960s, and low mortality rates, and a surge in population as the Chinese Civil War ended, and the Kuomintang (KMT) forces retreated, bringing an influx of 1.2 to 2 million soldiers and civilians to Taiwan in 1948–1949. Consequently, the natural growth rate was very rapid, especially in the late 1940s and 1950s, with an effective annual growth rate as high as 3.68% during 1951–1956. Including the Kuomintang forces, which accounted in 1950 for about 25% of all persons on Taiwan, immigration of mainland Chinese (now approximately 13% of the present population) at the end of the 1940s was a major factor in the high population growth of Taiwan.
Fertility rates decreased gradually thereafter, and in 1984 the rate reached the replacement level (2.1 children per woman, which is needed to replace the existing population). Fertility rates have continued to decline and in 2010 Taiwan was experiencing a population growth of less than 0.2% and a fertility rate of only 0.9, which is the lowest rate ever recorded in Taiwan. The population of Taiwan is projected to peak at about 23.7 million in 2024 and decrease thereafter.
The official national language is Standard Chinese, although around 70% also speak Taiwanese Hokkien and 10% speak Hakka. Japanese speakers are becoming rare as the elderly generation who lived under Japanese rule are dying out but many young Taiwanese use English or Japanese as second language. Aboriginal languages are gradually becoming extinct as the aborigines have become acculturated despite a program by the ROC government to preserve the languages.
According to May 2006 statistics from the Ministry of the Interior, the population of Taiwan was 22,805,547, 99.6% of which live on island of Taiwan. The remaining 0.4% (82,618) live on offshore islands (Penghu, Lanyu, Green, Kinmen and Matsu).
Taiwan is ranked the 50th most populous nation in the world.
The number of Chinese in the island in 1624, prior to Dutch rule, was about 25,000. It is estimated that prior to Kingdom of Tungning (1661) the population of Taiwan was no greater than 100,000 people, and the initial Zheng army with family and retainers that settled in Taiwan is estimated to be 30,000 at minimum. By 1682 there were only 7,000 Chinese left on Taiwan as they had intermarried with aboriginal women and had property in Taiwan. During Qing rule (1683–1895), the population of Han Chinese in Taiwan grew rapidly from 100,000 to ~2.5 million, while the aboriginal population was estimated to be at least 200,000 by 1895. (The plains aboriginal population is estimated to have decreased by 90% over the hundred years from 1800 to 1900.
The Japanese Colonial Government performed detailed censuses every five years starting in 1905. Statistics showed a population growth rate of about 1% to 3% per year throughout Japanese rule. In 1905, the population of Taiwan was roughly 3 million; by 1940 the population had grown to 5.87 million, and by the end of World War II in 1946 it numbered 6.09 million.
|Year||Males (thousands)||Females (thousands)||Total population (thousands)||Average annual growth rate (%)|
|±%||—||+ 1.768%||+ 1.484%||+ 1.483%||+ 1.283%||+ 1.011%||+ 1.107%||+ 1.163%||+ 1.013%||+ 1.214%|
|±%||+ 1.003%||+ 0.955%||+ 0.927%||+ 0.869%||+ 0.848%||+ 0.787%||+ 1.010%||+ 0.854%||+ 0.747%||+ 0.834%|
|±%||+ 0.579%||+ 0.514%||+ 0.372%||+ 0.374%||+ 0.358%||+ 0.466%||+ 0.358%||+ 0.343%||+ 0.359%||+ 0.183%|
|±%||+ 0.271%||+ 0.391%||+ 0.247%||+ 0.258%||+ 0.249%||+ 0.203%||+ 0.115%|
During 2004-2010 Taiwan's migration rate was positive. On average the annual net migration amounted to 22,000 people during that period, which is equivalent to a rate of 1.0 per 1000 inhabitants per year.
|Age range||1980||census 1990||census 2000||2010||2015|
|65 years and over||4.3%||6.1%||8.6%||10.74%||12.5%|
We can see how population pyramids change shape according to the country’s specific stage by using the demographic transition model (DTM). By looking at Taiwan’s population pyramid, the country is in stage 4 of the DTM and its shape contracts but it will soon enter stage 5. In stage 5 of the DTM, death rate gradually exceed fertility rate and a country starts to experience overall population loss. Access to great medical care increase the lifespan of people. Knowledge and access to contraception along with the fact most women are in work force cause the sharp decline of the fertility rate.
The National Statistics of Taiwan in 2018 indicate that there are approximately 140,000 more females than males in Taiwan. The birth rate (8.3 births/1,000 population) is slightly higher than the death rate (7.4 deaths/1,000 population). The total dependency ratio in Taiwan is 35.2% which is relatively low. The low dependency ratio indicate that the dependent part of the population is less than a half of the working part. But expert estimated the dependency ratio will rise to 92.9% in 2060. The rising dependency ratio and longer life expectancy will most likely require the government to support part of the elderly population because the working-age population is shrinking and less able to support directly.
The process of population ageing is primarily determined by fertility and mortality rate. The proportions of elderly people are different across countries. For example, developing countries with limited access to healthcare and contraceptive and where the population with high fertility tend to have low proportion of older people. Medical advancement, industrial revolution and better knowledge of sanitation that stated in the eighteenth century in many developed countries caused the decline in mortality rates and increase in fertility rates which promotes an increasing number of older people worldwide. According to United Nations, many developed countries are in more advanced stage (4 or 5) of the demographic transition model and their number of elderly will remain higher compare to the less developed countries. Demographers consider the phenomenon of increasing in elderly population as a population ageing.
According to World Health Organization (WHO), since 1993, Taiwan had reached the threshold of an ageing society. It was estimated the percentage of people over 65 years old was 8%. The Council for Economic Planning and Development (CEPD) estimated that Taiwan will become an aged society in as soon as 2017. The percentage of people 65 years or older will surpass 14%. CEPD further estimated the percentage of 65 years or older will be over 20% in 2025, which means Taiwan will soon become the super aged society. The critical factors that accelerate the speed of ageing in Taiwan are high life expectancy and low fertility rate. The average life expectancy in 2014 was 80 years. The total fertility rate in 2014 was 1.1 (per 1000 women) and dropped to 0.9 in 2017.
The ethnic groups of Taiwan may be roughly divided among Taiwanese (84%), mainland Chinese (14%), and indigenous peoples (2%). The ROC government reports that over 95% of the population is Han Chinese, which includes Hoklo, Hakka and other groups from mainland China.
The total population of recognized aborigines on Taiwan is approximately 533,600, or approximately 2.28% of Taiwan's population. The aborigines primarily inhabit the eastern half of Taiwan which consists mostly of mountainous terrain.
|Living in the Eastern plains||111,372||109,141||220,513||47.1%|
|Living in the mountains||122,016||126,073||248,089||52.9%|
Taiwanese government officially recognizes sixteen(16) ethnic groups of Taiwanese indigenous peoples (Chinese: 原住民; pinyin: yuánzhùmín; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Gôan-chū-bîn). In the early 1910s, researches in Japanese era recognized nine(9) ethnic groups: Amis, Atayal, Bunun, Paiwan, Puyuma, Rukai, Saisiyat, Tsou, Yami. These recognition were not changes in the post-World War II era until 1990s. After year 2000s, the indigenous culture revitalization movements forced the government to change its aptitude towards the indigenous peoples. Yami was rename to Tao. New ethnic groups were also recognized by the government, including Thao in 2001, Kavalan in 2002, Truku (Taroko) in 2004, Sakizaya in 2007, Seediq in 2008, Kanakanavu in 2014, and Saaroa in 2014. There are at least another dozen groups that are not recognized by the government.
at census 2000
|Amis||Pangcah, 'Amis||阿美族||148,992||203,740||Recognized since Japanese era. Amis name means "north"|
|Atayal||Tayal, Tayan||泰雅族||91,883||87,156||Recognized since Japanese era. Atayal name means "brave person"|
|Bunun||Bunun||布農族||41,038||56,844||Recognized since Japanese era.|
|Kanakanavu||Kanakanavu||卡那卡那富族||—||267||Classified as Tsou, recognized since 2014|
|Kavalan||Kebalan, Kbaran||噶瑪蘭族||—||1,416||Some Kavalan were classified as Amis, recognized since 2002|
|Paiwan||Payuan||排灣族||70,331||97,788||Recognized since Japanese era.|
|Puyuma||Pinuyumayan||卑南族||9,606||13,651||Recognized since Japanese era.|
|Rukai||Drekay||魯凱族||12,084||12,996||Recognized since Japanese era.|
|Saaroa||Hla'alua||拉阿魯哇族||—||294||Classified as Tsou, recognized since 2014|
|Saisiyat||Say-Siyat||賽夏族||5,311||6,495||Recognized since Japanese era.|
|Sakizaya||Sakizaya||撒奇萊雅族||—||863||Classified as Amis, recognized since 2007|
|Seediq||Seediq||賽德克族||—||9,451||Classified as Atayal, recognized since 2008|
|Taroko||Truku||太魯閣族||—||30,382||Classified as Atayal, recognized since 2004|
|Thao||Thao, Ngan||邵族||—||768||Classified as Tsou, recognized since 2001|
|Tsou||Cou||鄒族||6,169||6,647||Recognized since Japanese era.|
|Yami||Tao||達悟族、雅美族||3,872||4,494||Recognized since Japanese era. Yami name means "person"|
Unrecognized Taiwanese aboriginal peoples may include extinct peoples (mostly Plains indigenous peoples) or communities currently classified with other groups. There are also 25,943 indigenous people who are currently not classified in any group.
|Arikun||Arikun||阿立昆族||Sometimes classified as Hoanya|
|Basay||Basay, Basai||巴賽族、馬塞族||Sometimes classified as Ketagalan|
|Hoanya||Hoanya||洪雅族、和安雅族||Sometimes split into Lloa and Arikun|
|Kaxabu||Kaxabu, Kahapu||噶哈巫族||Sometimes classified as Pazeh. In revitalization.|
|Lloa||Lloa||羅亞族||Sometimes classified Hoanya|
|Luilang||Luilang||雷朗族||Sometimes classified as Ketagalan|
|Makatao||Makatao, Tao||馬卡道族||Sometimes classified as Siraya. Recognized in Pingtung. In revitalization.|
|Pazeh||Pazéh, Pazih||巴宰族、巴則海族||In revitalization.|
|Siraya||Siraya||西拉雅族、希萊耶族||Recognized in Tainan and Fuli. In revitalization.|
|Taivoan||Taivoan, Taivuan||大武壠族||Sometimes classified as Siraya. Recognized in Fuli. In revitalization.|
The majority of the Han Chinese descends from immigrants who arrived to the island prior to Japanese rule (1895–1945) and can be classified as the Hoklos and Hakkas, on the basis of language and customs. As the majority of the early immigrants were Hokkien speakers from Fujian who arrived starting in the 17th century, the Hoklos account for about 70% of the total population today. During Qing rule, a large number of Hoklo men took aboriginal brides. Some of the plains aboriginals also adopted Chinese customs and language so as to be indistinguishable from the Han. Thus, many who categorize themselves as Han have some degree of indigenous ancestry.
A significant minority of the Han Chinese are the Hakkas, who comprise about 15% of the total population. The Hakkas emigrated chiefly from eastern Guangdong, speak the Hakka Chinese, and originally took up residence in the hills of the aboriginal border districts.
|Nationality / Origin||Total|
|50||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||105|
|59||Saint Kitts and Nevis||77|
|75||Papua New Guinea||28|
|87||Republic of the Congo||11|
|91||Democratic Republic of the Congo||7|
|93||São Tomé and Príncipe||5|
|94||Trinidad and Tobago||4|
|97||United Arab Emirates||1|
|97||Federated States of Micronesia||1|
During the Japanese rule (between 1895-1945), Japanese was the medium of instruction and could be fluently spoken by many of those educated during that period. Almost everyone in Taiwan born after the early 1950s can speak Standard Chinese, which has been the official language and the medium of instruction in the schools for more than four decades. Note that the Chinese spoken in Taiwan (called Taiwanese Mandarin) has minor differences from that spoken in mainland China (called Putonghua). For Chinese spoken in other regions, see Language and overseas Chinese communities.
Hanyu Pinyin, the official romanization system in mainland China, has also been the standard of Taiwan since 2009. A number of romanization systems are still seen in Taiwan, including Tongyong, the official romanization in Taiwan between 2002 and 2008, Wade–Giles, often found on passports, and Postal.
Other varieties of Chinese can also be seen in Taiwan. The majority speak Taiwanese Hokkien, a branch of Southern Min, which had formerly been the most commonly spoken language. On Matsu Islands, the Fuzhou dialect belonging to the Eastern Min is prevalent. Although people on Kinmen (Quemoy) also speak Southern Min, it is not the case in Wuqiu Islands, for they speak a dialect of the Pu-Xian Min. The ethnic Hakka speak various Taiwanese Hakka dialects, including Sixian, Hailu, Dabu, Raoping, and Zhao'an.
The most widely spoken Formosan languages today are Amis, Atayal, Bunun, and Paiwan. The other aboriginal languages that have gained official recognition are Kanakanabu, Kavalan, Puyuma, Rukai, Hla’alua, Saisiyat, Sakizaya, Seediq (closely related to Truku), Thao, Tsou, Yami (also known as Tao).
Cantonese is spoken by many recent and early immigrants from southeastern China, Hong Kong, and Macau. Furthermore, Taiwan was one of the largest consumers of Hong Kong cinema, cantopop, and pop culture in the late 1900s. As a result, many educated Taiwanese still continue to learn it as a second or third language.
Article 13 of the Constitution of the Republic of China guarantees freedom of religion as a right of all its citizens. As of 2013, the Republic of China government recognizes 27 religions which are registered with the Civil Affairs Department of the Ministry of the Interior (MOI).
About 81.3% of the population can be considered religious believers, most of whom identify themselves as Buddhists (35%) or Taoists (33%). Chinese folk religion is generally practised under the aegis of Taoism, while more than 10% of the population adheres to popular movements of salvation. Confucianism also is an honored school of thought and ethical codes. Christian churches have been active in Taiwan for centuries; a majority of them are Protestant, with Presbyterians playing a particularly significant role. The Republic of China's government has diplomatic relations with the Holy See, which is the only European nation to formally recognize the Republic of China and is its longest lasting diplomatic ally, having established relations in 1942. Islam has seen a surge in recent years as a result of foreign Muslims seeking work in Taiwan, most notably from Indonesia. There is also a small group of Shinto followers under the Tenriist sect which was introduced in the 1970s.
The table below shows official statistics on religion issued by the Department of Civil Affairs, Ministry of the Interior ("MOI"), in 2005. The Taiwanese government recognises 26 religions in Taiwan. The statistics are reported by the various religious organisations to the MOI:
|Religion||Members||% of total population||Temples & churches|
|Buddhism (佛教) (including Tantric Buddhism)||8,086,000||35.1%||4,006|
|Roman Catholic Church (羅馬天主教)||298,000||1.3%||1,151|
|Lord of Universe Church—Tiandiism (天帝教)||298,000||1.3%||50|
|Holy Church of the Heavenly Virtue—Tiandiism (天德教)||200,000||0.9%||14|
|Church of Maitreya the King of the Universe (宇宙彌勒皇教)||35,000||0.2%||12|
|Church of Scientology (山達基教會)||20,000||< 0.1%||7|
|Bahá'í Faith (巴哈伊教)||16,000||< 0.1%||13|
|Jehovah's Witnesses (耶和華見證人)||9,256||< 0.1%||85|
|True School of the Mysterious Gate (玄門真宗)||5,000||< 0.1%||5|
|Holy Church of the Middle Flower (中華聖教)||3,200||< 0.1%||7|
|Mahikari (真光教團)||1,000||< 0.1%||9|
|Precosmic Salvationism (先天救教)||1,000||< 0.1%||6|
|Yellow Middle (黃中)||1,000||< 0.1%||1|
|Dayiism (大易教)||1,000||< 0.1%||1|
|Total religious population||18,724,823||81.3%||33,223|
The figures for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints were not from the MOI, rather they were based on self-reported data from LDS Newsroom. The figures for Jehovah's Witnesses were not from the MOI and they were based on the Witnesses own 2007 Service Year Report. In the original report both of them were counted as part of Protestantism.
|Average population (x 1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||CBR*||CDR*||NC*||TFR*|
|1906||3 060||119 107||102 000||16 000||38.6||33.4||5.2||6.13|
|1907||3 090||121 756||100 000||21 000||39.1||32.4||6.7||6.16|
|1908||3 120||119 800||100 000||19 000||38.2||31.9||6.3||6.14|
|1909||3 160||127 286||98 000||29 000||40.2||31.1||9.1||6.29|
|1910||3 210||132 141||88 000||45 000||41.3||27.5||13.8||6.37|
|1911||3 270||135 658||86 000||51 000||41.8||26.2||15.6||6.42|
|1912||3 330||136 622||83 000||55 000||41.3||25.0||16.3||6.46|
|1913||3 390||136 967||85 000||53 000||40.8||25.0||15.8||6.45|
|1914||3 440||141 450||95 000||47 000||41.4||27.6||13.8||6.62|
|1915||3 480||137 669||110 000||29 000||40.0||31.5||8.5||6.45|
|1916||3 510||128 605||100 000||31 000||37.3||28.6||8.7|
|1917||3 560||142 414||96 000||50 000||40.9||27.0||13.9|
|1918||3 590||139 465||122 000||21 000||39.7||34.1||5.6|
|1919||3 630||136 707||97 000||43 000||38.5||26.8||11.7|
|1920||3 655||141 313||117 000||27 000||39.5||32.1||7.4||6.48|
|1921||3 720||155 159||90 000||69 000||42.8||24.2||18.6|
|1922||3 790||154 531||93 000||65 000||41.8||24.6||17.2|
|1923||3 860||146 984||82 000||69 000||39.1||21.3||17.8|
|1924||3 930||158 688||96 000||67 000||41.4||24.5||16.9|
|1925||3 993||159 423||95 000||68 000||40.8||23.9||16.9|
|1926||4 100||175 802||92 000||87 000||43.7||22.4||21.3|
|1927||4 210||177 422||93 000||89 000||43.2||22.1||21.1|
|1928||4 330||183 699||95 000||94 000||43.7||22.0||21.7|
|1929||4 460||190 031||96 000||100 000||44.0||21.6||22.4|
|1930||4 593||198 186||89 000||117 000||44.8||19.4||25.4||7.02|
|1931||4 710||208 137||100 000||116 000||45.8||21.3||24.5|
|1932||4 867||204 913||99 000||115 000||44.0||20.4||23.6|
|1933||4 995||211 737||98 000||123 000||44.3||19.7||24.6|
|1934||5 128||219 189||105 166||123 510||44.6||20.5||24.1|
|1935||5 255||225 980||106 905||129 040||44.9||20.3||24.6|
|1936||5 384||223 961||106 332||127 725||43.5||19.8||23.7|
|1937||5 530||237 090||109 096||138 570||44.8||19.7||25.1|
|1938||5 678||235 821||111 723||133 117||43.1||19.7||23.4|
|1939||5 821||244 707||115 044||139 119||43.7||19.8||23.9|
|1940||5 987||246 691||116 239||141 232||43.0||19.4||23.6||6.11|
|1941||6 163||241 894||99 858||153 447||41.1||16.2||24.9||5.98|
|1942||6 339||242 796||112 161||143 243||40.3||17.7||22.6||5.93|
|1943||6 507||247 427||122 001||138 662||40.0||18.8||21.2|
|1947||6 294||241 071||114 000||127 000||38.3||18.1||20.2|
|1948||6 648||264 000||95 000||169 000||39.7||14.3||25.4||5.98|
|1949||7 099||300 843||93 000||208 000||42.4||13.1||29.3||6.49|
|1950||7 468||323 643||86 000||238 000||43.4||11.5||31.9||7.14|
|1951||7 695||385 383||89 000||296 000||50.0||11.6||38.5||7.59|
|1952||8 000||372 905||79 000||294 000||46.6||9.9||36.8||7.56|
|1953||8 297||374 536||78 000||297 000||45.2||9.4||35.8||7.54|
|1954||8 617||383 574||71 000||313 000||44.6||8.2||36.3||7.25|
|1955||8 924||403 683||77 000||327 000||45.3||8.6||36.6||7.32|
|1956||9 242||414 036||74 000||340 000||44.8||8.0||36.8||7.27|
|1957||9 539||394 870||81 000||314 000||41.4||8.5||32.9||6.83|
|1958||9 858||410 885||75 000||336 000||41.7||7.6||34.1||6.48|
|1959||10 227||421 458||74 000||347 000||41.2||7.2||33.9||5.98|
|1960||10 602||419 442||74 000||345 000||39.5||7.0||32.5||5.75|
|1961||10 983||420 254||74 000||346 254||38.3||6.7||31.5||5.58|
|1962||11 312||423 469||72 000||351 469||37.4||6.4||31.1||5.46|
|1963||11 680||424 250||71 000||353 250||36.3||6.1||30.2||5.35|
|1964||12 088||416 926||69 000||347 926||34.5||5.7||28.8||5.10|
|1965||12 442||406 604||67 887||338 717||32.7||5.5||27.2||4.82|
|1966||12 812||415 108||69 778||345 330||32.4||5.4||27.0||4.95|
|1967||13 147||374 282||71 861||302 421||28.5||5.5||23.0||4.22|
|1968||13 474||394 260||73 650||320 610||29.3||5.5||23.8||4.36|
|1969||13 995||390 728||70 549||320 179||27.9||5.0||22.9||4.14|
|1970||14 507||394 015||71 135||322 883||27.2||4.9||22.3||4.00|
|1971||14 837||380 424||70 954||309 470||25.6||4.8||20.9||3.70|
|1972||15 145||365 749||71 486||294 263||24.1||4.7||19.4||3.36|
|1973||15 424||366 942||73 477||293 465||23.8||4.8||19.0||3.21|
|1974||15 699||355 933||74 760||293 063||23.4||4.8||18.7||2.94|
|1975||15 999||357 653||75 061||292 586||23.0||4.7||18.3||2.76|
|1976||16 298||424 075||77 000||347 075||26.0||4.7||21.3||3.08|
|1977||16 601||393 633||79 000||316 796||23.7||4.8||19.1||2.64|
|1978||16 951||411 637||79 000||330 203||24.3||4.7||19.5||2.71|
|1979||17 337||421 720||82 000||340 518||24.3||4.7||19.6||2.67|
|1980||17 608||413 881||84 333||329 548||23.5||4.8||18.7||2.51|
|1981||17 972||414 069||87 192||326 877||23.0||4.9||18.2||2.45|
|1982||18 261||405 263||87 578||317 685||22.2||4.8||17.4||2.32|
|1983||18 538||383 439||90 951||292 488||20.7||4.9||15.8||2.17|
|1984||18 873||371 008||89 915||281 093||19.7||4.8||14.9||2.05|
|1985||19 135||346 208||92 348||253 860||18.1||4.8||13.3||1.88|
|1986||19 356||309 230||95 057||214 173||16.0||4.9||11.1||1.68|
|1987||19 564||314 024||96 319||217 705||16.1||4.9||11.1||1.70|
|1988||19 788||342 031||102 113||239 918||17.3||5.2||12.1||1.86|
|1989||20 004||315 299||103 288||212 011||15.8||5.2||10.6||1.68|
|1990||20 230||335 618||105 669||229 949||16.6||5.2||11.4||1.81|
|1991||20 455||321 932||106 284||215 648||15.7||5.2||10.5||1.72|
|1992||20 655||321 632||110 516||211 116||15.6||5.4||10.2||1.73|
|1993||20 848||325 613||110 901||214 712||15.6||5.3||10.3||1.76|
|1994||21 087||322 938||113 866||209 072||15.3||5.4||9.9||1.76|
|1995||21 268||329 581||119 112||210 469||15.5||5.6||9.9||1.78|
|1996||21 441||325 545||122 489||203 056||15.2||5.7||9.5||1.76|
|1997||21 634||326 002||121 000||205 002||15.1||5.6||9.5||1.77|
|1998||21 836||271 450||123 180||148 270||12.4||5.6||6.8||1.47|
|1999||22 011||283 661||126 113||157 548||12.9||5.7||7.2||1.56|
|2000||22 185||305 312||125 957||179 355||13.8||5.7||8.1||1.68|
|2001||22 342||260 354||127 647||132 707||11.7||5.7||5.9||1.40|
|2002||22 464||247 530||128 636||118 894||11.0||5.7||5.3||1.34|
|2003||22 554||227 070||130 801||96 269||10.1||5.8||4.3||1.24|
|2004||22 647||216 419||135 092||81 327||9.6||6.0||3.6||1.18|
|2005||22 730||205 854||139 398||66 456||9.1||6.1||2.9||1.12|
|2006||22 824||204 459||135 839||68 620||9.0||6.0||3.0||1.12|
|2007||22 918||204 414||141 111||63 303||8.9||6.2||2.8||1.10|
|2008||22 998||198 733||143 624||55 109||8.6||6.2||2.4||1.05|
|2009||23 079||191 310||143 582||47 728||8.3||6.2||2.1||1.03|
|2010||23 141||166 886||145 772||21 114||7.2||6.3||0.9||0.90|
|2011||23 194||196 627||152 915||43 712||8.5||6.6||1.9||1.07|
|2012||23 271||229 481||154 251||75 230||9.9||6.6||3.2||1.27|
|2013||23 345||199 113||155 908||43 205||8.5||6.7||1.8||1.07|
|2014||23 434||210 383||163 929||46 454||9.0||7.0||2.0||1.17|
|2015||23 472||213 598||163 858||49 740||9.1||7.0||2.1||1.18|
|2016||23 540||208 440||172 405||36 035||8.8||7.3||1.5||1.17|
|2017||23 571||193 844||171 242||22 602||8.2||7.3||0.9||1.11|
|2018||23 589||181 601||7.6|
|* CBR=crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR=crude deathrate (per 1000); NC=natural change (per 1000); TFR=total fertility rate|
The fertility rate of Taiwan is one of the lowest fertility rates ever recorded in the world in historical times. It reached its lowest level in 2010: 0.90 children per female. In 1980, the rate was still well above replacement level (2.515), but it dropped to 1.88 in 1985, 1.81 in 1990, 1.78 in 1995, 1.68 in 2000, 1.12 in 2005.
Taiwan is ranked 39th in the world for highest life expectancy at birth.
|Gender||Life expectancy in 2009|
In developed countries, trends like late marriage, no marriage, and having fewer children are growing. Developed countries tend to have lower fertility rate because access to birth controls and contraceptives are easier and having children could become an economic burden caused by housing, education cost, and other cost for childcare. Most women in developed countries are in the work force and tend to have higher education and professional careers. As a result, many women tend to have children late in life or no children at all.
According to the BBC, the total fertility of Taiwan had decreased to 0.9 (per 1000 women) in 2011. This figure is much lower than the replacement level and one of the lowest in the world. This indicates the population is experiencing negative growth and the population ageing is happening fast in Taiwan. According to a Central News Agency Report, the total births in 2017 is below 200,000. Compared to previous decades, the total number of births since 2000 has been between 197,000 – 230,000. If the trend of low birth rate continues, the senior population will be almost 5 times more than the children by 2060.
The first reported case of HIV/AIDS was recorded in December 1984 and the first local infection recorded in February 1986. As of May 2006, there were 11,486 recorded cases of HIV of which 2,631 were confirmed with AIDS. There were 1,425 deaths leaving 10,029 people living with HIV/AIDS. This is less than 0.05% of the total population of Taiwan. Statistics by the Center for Disease Control show that the gender distribution of infected person was 90% male and 10% female.
|People living with HIV/AIDS||10,029|
The Republic of China has a compulsory military draft for males aged 19–35 years of age with a service obligation of 12 months in 2008.
Defined as 19–49 years of age.
Of the available manpower, the following are fit for military service. Defined as 19–49 years of age.
Taiwan has a nine-year compulsory education program initiated by the Ministry of Education in 1968. This consists of six years in elementary education and three years in junior high education. About 94.7% of junior high graduates continue their studies in either a senior high or vocational school. Reflecting a strong commitment to education, in FY 2001 16% of the ROC budget was allocated for education. The enrollment rate was 96.77% for the school year 2004-2005. For the school year 2005-2006, there were 5,283,855 students in both public and private schools, about a quarter of the entire population. The literacy rate is above 95%.
Taiwan has an extensive higher education system with more than 100 institutions of higher learning. Each year over 100,000 students take the joint college entrance exam; about 66.6% of the candidates are admitted to a college or university. Opportunities for graduate education are expanding in Taiwan, but many students travel abroad for advanced education, including 13,000 who study in the United States annually.
Since the mid-1990s, the government has introduced several education reforms in a bid to further improve education standards such as the replacement in 2002 of the 48-year-long Joint University Entrance Examination (JUEE; 大學聯考; Dàxué liánkǎo) which had been set up in 1954.
|Sector||Education||Years of study||Typical Age range||Students||Distribution|
|Pre-school||Kindergarten||(2 years)||4–6 years old||224,220||4.2%|
|Compulsory||Elementary||6 years||6–12 years old||1,831,913||34.7%|
|Junior High||3 years||12–15 years old||951,236||18%|
|Senior Secondary||Senior High||3 years||15–18 years old||420,608||8%|
|Senior Vocation||3 years||15–18 years old||331,604||6.3%|
|Higher Education||Junior College||2–5 years||15–20 years old||37,068||0.7%|
|University & College||4–7 years
(up to 13 years)
|18–25 years old
(up to 31 years old)
|Other||Special School||up to 14 years||4–18 years old||6,361||0.1%|
Definition of literacy is those aged 15 and over who can read and write.
"International Comparison of Education Statistical Indicators - 2012 Edition", Ministry of Education, 2012. pp. 17. Retrieved on 2012-10-05. (Table 1-2-5. Literacy Rate for Age 15 Plus by Gender).
2.02 Population of 15 Years and Over by Educational Attainment, Statistical Yearbook of Interior, Ministry of the Interior, Republic of China (Taiwan). 2012. Retrieved on 10-05-2012.
The Amis (Chinese: 阿美族; pinyin: āměi-zú; also Ami or Pangcah) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to Taiwan. They speak Amis, an Austronesian language, and are one of the sixteen officially recognized groups of Taiwanese aborigines. The traditional territory of the Amis includes the long, narrow valley between the Central Mountains and the Coastal Mountains (Huatung Valley), the Pacific coastal plain eastern to the Coastal Mountains and the Hengchun Peninsula.
In 2014, the Amis numbered 200,604. This was approximately 37.1% of Taiwan's total indigenous population, making them the largest indigenous group. The Amis are primarily fishermen due to their coastal location. They are traditionally matrilineal. Traditional Amis villages were relatively large for indigenous groups, typically between 500 and 1,000. In today's Taiwan, the Amis also comprise the majority of "urban aboriginals" and have developed many urban communities all around the island. In recent decades, Amis have also married exogamously to Han as well as other indigenous people.Council of Agriculture
The Council of Agriculture (COA, Chinese: 農業委員會; pinyin: Nóngyè Wěiyuánhuì; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lông-gia̍p Úi-oân-hōe) is the official government body in the Republic of China (Taiwan) under the Executive Yuan in charged with overseeing affairs related to agriculture, forestry, fishery, animal husbandry and food affairs.Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan
The Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan (EPA, Chinese: 行政院環境保護署; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hêng-chèng Īⁿ Khoân-kéng Pó-hō͘ Sú) is a cabinet-level executive agency responsible for protecting and conserving the environment in the Republic of China. This also includes, air quality, noise control, monitoring and inspection of environment, solid waste, recycling, sustainable development and international cooperation.It is led by the Minister for Environment. He is supported by two deputy ministers.Hoklo people
The Hoklo people are Han Chinese people whose traditional ancestral homes are in Fujian, China. They are also known by various endonyms (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-ló-lâng/Hō-ló-lâng/Ho̍h-ló-lâng/Hô-ló-lâng), or other related terms such as Banlam (Minnan) people (閩南儂; Bân-lâm-lâng) or Hokkien people (福建儂; Hok-kiàn-lâng).
"Hoklo people" of this page refers to people whose native language is the Quanzhang Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese) spoken in Southern Fujian (China's province), Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and by many overseas Chinese throughout Southeast Asia.
There have been many famous Hoklo people throughout history, notably Koxinga, Shi Lang, Corazon Aquino and Su Song.Ketagalan people
Ketagalan or Ketangalan (Chinese: 凱達格蘭族; pinyin: Kǎidágélán Zú) are a Taiwanese aboriginal people originating in what is now the Taipei Basin. Their language has now become extinct.
On 21 March 1996, the road in front of the Presidential Building was renamed from "Long Live Chiang Kai-shek" Road (介壽路) to Ketagalan Boulevard (凱達格蘭大道) by then-mayor of Taipei City, Chen Shui-bian, to commemorate the people. Traffic signs banning motorcycles and bicycles from that road were abolished at the same time.
Beitou District in Taipei City houses the Ketagalan Culture Center, a cultural center about the Ketagalan people.List of Chinese administrative divisions by ethnic group
The list below outlines the distribution of the nationalities of China among provinces and province-level entities of the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.) according to the census of 2000. The provinces and province-level entities are listed by region. The classification of ethnic groups follows the official classification of the PRC.
Some ethnic groups, for instance, Mosuo people, although classified as Nakhi, do not regard themselves as part of any of the 56 groups identified by the PRC government. Some scholars made hypothesis that they are descendants of Mongols.
Taiwan is completely under the administration of the Republic of China, is excluded from this list. Please refer to Demographics of Taiwan for more information. The two special administrative regions (S.A.R.) of the P.R.C., namely Hong Kong and Macau, are not part of mainland China are also excluded. Please refer to Demographics of Hong Kong and Demographics of Macau.
Autonomous regions are marked with an asterisk (*).List of ethnic groups in China
Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and Republic of China (Taiwan).
The typical use of the English phrase Chinese people generally refers to the Han 漢 people, also known as Han Chinese; they are the largest ethnic group in mainland China, where (as of 2010) some 91.51% of the population was classified as Han (~1.2 billion). Han is the name the Chinese have used for themselves since the Han Dynasty BC 202, whereas the name "Chinese" (used in the West) is of uncertain origin, but possibly derives ultimately from Sanskrit Cina-s "the Chinese," which in turn perhaps comes from the Qin dynasty which preceded the Han dynasty. Besides the Han-Chinese majority of 92%, 55 other ethnic (minority) groups are categorized in present China, numbering approximately 105 million people (8%), mostly concentrated in the bordering northwest, north, northeast, south, and southwest but with some in central interior areas.
The major minority ethnic groups in China are Zhuang (16.9 million), Hui (10.5 million), Manchu (10.3 million), Uyghur (10 million), Miao (9.4 million), Yi (8.7 million), Tujia (8.3 million), Tibetan (6.2 million), Mongol (5.9 million), Dong (2.8 million), Buyei (2.8 million), Yao (2.7 million), Bai (1.9 million), Korean (1.8 million), Hani (1.6 million), Li (1.4 million), Kazakh (1.4 million), and Dai (1.2 million).List of indigenous peoples of Taiwan
Traditionally, the Taiwanese indigenous peoples are usually classified into two groups by their places of residence. Languages and cultures of aboriginal tribes were recorded by the government of Dutch Formosa, Spanish Formosa and the Qing Empire.
Researches on ethnic groups of Taiwanese indigenous peoples started in late 19th century, when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. The Government of Taiwan (臺灣總督府, Taiwan Sōtokufu) conducted large amount of researches and further distinguished the ethnic groups of Taiwanese indigenous peoples by linguistics (see Formosan languages). After the research, the household registration records remarks of "mountains/plains indigenous peoples". The governmental statistics also listed 9 recognized subgroups under mountains indigenous peoples. However, after World War II, the government refused to recognize the plains indigenous peoples.
The following is a list of classifications through Japanese and post World War II. Note that the Japanese names in parentheses does not exist in pre-World War II Japanese demographic researches.Mainland Chinese
Mainland Chinese or Mainlanders are Chinese people who live in a region considered a "mainland". It is frequently used in the context of areas ruled by the People's Republic of China, referring to people from mainland China as opposed to other areas controlled by the state such as Hong Kong or Macau. The word is also often used by Taiwan people to distinguish the Chinese from Mainland China from themselves, if not calling the mainlanders and themselves as Chinese and Taiwanese directly respectively.Paiwan people
The Paiwan (Chinese: 排灣; pinyin: Páiwān) are an indigenous people of Taiwan. They speak the Paiwan language. In 2014, the Paiwan numbered 96,334. This was approximately 17.8% of Taiwan's total indigenous population, making them the second-largest indigenous group.The majority of Paiwan people live in the southern chain of the Central Mountain Range, from Damumu Mountain and the upper Wuluo River in the north of the southern chain to the Hengchun Peninsula in the south of it, and also in the hills and coastal plains of southeastern Taiwan. There are two subgroups under the Paiwan people: the Raval and the Butsul.The unique ceremonies in Paiwan are Masaru and Maleveq. The Masaru is a ceremony that celebrates the harvest of rice, whereas the Maleveq commemorates their ancestors or gods.Puyuma people
The Puyuma (Chinese: 卑南族; pinyin: Bēinán-zú; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Puyuma-cho̍k, Pi-lâm-cho̍k), also known as the Pinuyumayan, Peinan or Beinan, are one of the indigenous groups of the Taiwanese aborigines. The people are generally divided into the Chihpen and Nanwang groups, both resident in Taitung County on the east coast of Taiwan.
In the year 2000 the Puyuma numbered 9,606. This was approximately 2.4% of Taiwan's total indigenous population, making them the sixth-largest indigenous group. The Puyuma speak the Puyuma language, as well as Mandarin and Taiwanese Hokkien.
The name "Puyuma" means "unity" or "concord," and was originally the autonym of the speakers of the Nanwang dialect. Zeitoun and Cauquelin (2006) also note that the word Puyuma can be analyzed as pu'-uma, which means "to send to the field."Qauqaut people
The Qauqaut (Chinese: 猴猴族; pinyin: Hóuhóu Zú) are a Taiwanese aboriginal people who live primarily in the town of Su-ao in Yilan County. They spoke the Basay language, which is a Kavalanic language. According to Ino Kanori, the Qauqaut people have been assimilated by the Kavalan people. The Qauqaut people are not recognised by the government of Taiwan.According to oral tradition from various Atayal villages, the Qauqaut originally settled in the mid-stream of Takiri River (Chinese: Liwuhsi). Due to pressure from Atayals in the mid 1700s, the Qauqaut started to move down the Takiri to the east coast. Later, Qauqaut moved north to Langsu in Nan'ao County.Early modern Chinese documents for the Kavalan areas reported that the Qauqaut were linguistically and culturally distinct from all the other Formosan natives, and that there was no intermarriage between Qauqaut and other communities.Taiwanese historian Paul Jen-kuei Li hypothesised (1995) that in about 200 BCE, the Qauqaut migrated from Southeast Asia to the Marshall Islands and the Caroline Islands, and in around 1000 AD arrived on the east coast of Taiwan, based on his linguistic comparison with the nearby Taroko (Seediq) language of Taiwan, which he said varies greatly from the Qauqaut. This contrasts with the rest of the Taiwanese aborigines, who are said to have arrived on the island much earlier.The Qauqaut, like the Laulau and Kuliawan, bury the dead in a sitting position.Religion in Taiwan
Religion in Taiwan is characterised by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices, predominantly those pertaining to Chinese culture. Freedom of religion is inscribed in the constitution of the Republic of China. According to the census of 2005, 35% of the population adhered to Buddhism, 33% to Taoism (including local religion), 3.9% to Christianity, 18.7% identified themselves as not religious, and approximately 10% were adherents of folk religious movements of salvation (among them 3.5% adhered to Yiguandao).
Many statistical analyses try to distinguish between Buddhism and Taoism in Taiwan, which, along with Confucianism, are rather aspects within broader "Chinese religion". It is hard to make such distinction because various Taoist deities are worshipped alongside deities which originated in Buddhism, for instance Guanyin, in many temples across the country.Rukai people
The Rukai (Chinese: 魯凱族; pinyin: Lǔkǎi zú) are one of Taiwan's aboriginal peoples. They consist of six communities residing in southern Taiwan (Budai, Labuan, Tanan, Maga, Mantauran, and Tona), each of which has its own dialect of the Rukai language. As of the year 2014, the Rukai numbered 12,699, and is the seventh-largest of the 13 officially recognized indigenous groups in Taiwan. The Rukai were called Tsarisen, which means "people living in the mountain".
The Rukai people honor the clouded leopard and the hundred pacer, which they believe to be the spirit of their ancestor.Seediq people
The Seediq (sometimes Sediq, or Seejiq, pronounced: [ˈsəədʑɪq] ; Chinese: 賽德克族) are a Taiwanese aboriginal people who live primarily in Nantou County and Hualien County. Their language is also known as Seediq.
They were officially recognized as Taiwan's 14th indigenous group on 23 April 2008. Previously, the Seediq, along with the closely related Truku people, were classified as Atayal.Strawberry generation
Strawberry generation (Chinese: 草莓族; pinyin: Cǎoméi zú; or 草莓世代; cǎoméi shìdài) is a Chinese-language neologism for Taiwanese people born in 1982 and beyond who "bruise easily" like strawberries – meaning they cannot withstand social pressure or work hard like their parents' generation; the term refers to people who are insubordinate, spoiled, selfish, arrogant, and sluggish in work.The term arises from the perception that members of this generation have grown up being overprotected by their parents and in an environment of economic prosperity, in a similar manner to how strawberries are grown in protected greenhouses and command a higher price compared to other fruits.
The term is starting to gain prominence in the East Asian press, as it could be a way to designate a rising demographic or psychographic in terms of consumer behavior. The Strawberry Generation, like the Post-80s of China, could be the Asian counterpart of the Millennials or the so-called Snowflake generation in the Western world.Taiwanese people
Taiwanese people (Chinese: 臺灣人 / 台灣人) are people from Taiwan who share a common Taiwanese culture and speak Mandarin Chinese, Hokkien, Hakka, or Aboriginal languages as a mother tongue. Taiwanese people may also refer to individuals who either claim or are imputed cultural identity focused on Taiwan or areas under the control of the Government of the Republic of China since 1945, including Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu islands (see Taiwan Area). At least three competing (occasionally overlapping) paradigms are used to identify someone as a Taiwanese person: nationalist criteria, self-identification (including the concept of "New Taiwanese") criteria, and socio-cultural criteria. These standards are fluid, and result from evolving social and political issues. The complexity resulting from competing and evolving standards is compounded by a larger dispute regarding Taiwan's identity, the political status of Taiwan, and its potential de jure Taiwan independence or Cross-Strait Unification.
According to government figures, over 95% of Taiwan's population of 23.4 million consists of Han Chinese, while 2.3% are Austronesian Taiwanese aborigines. The category of Han Chinese consists of the three main groups: Hoklo, Hakka, and mainland Chinese. However, acculturation, intermarriage and assimilation have resulted in some degree of mixing of the Han and Taiwanese Aborigine blood lines. Although the concept of the "four great ethnic groups" was alleged to be the deliberate attempt by the Hoklo-dominated Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) to defuse ethnic tensions, this conception has become a dominant frame of reference for dealing with Taiwanese ethnic and national issues.Despite the wide use of the "four great ethnic groups" in public discourse as essentialized identities, the relationships between the peoples of Taiwan have been in a constant state of convergence and negotiation for centuries. The continuing process of cross-ethnic mixing with ethnicities from within and outside Taiwan, combined with the disappearance of ethnic barriers due to a shared socio-political experience, has led to the emergence of "Taiwanese" as a larger ethnic group, except on the island of Kinmen whose populace consider themselves as Kinmenese or Chinese, and as well as inhabitant of Matsu Islands whereby they also consider themselves as Matsunese or Chinese.Taokas people
Taokas (Chinese: 道卡斯族; pinyin: Dàokǎsī Zú) is one of a number of indigenous ethno-linguistic groups that inhabited the plains of western Taiwan. The Taokas were located in the areas around today's Hsinchu City/Hsinchu County, Miaoli County, and Taichung City region. Several Taokas groups have been historically linked to many revolts that plagued Taiwan during the Qing era (1683–1895). The Taokas were not always opposed to Han encroachment on their lands as several Taokas groups were involved in building the Ta-Chia Mazu Temple. Today, only a small number of people in the central city of Puli identify themselves as ethnic Taokas or even Taiwanese Aborigines.Thao people
The Thao/Ngan (Chinese: 邵族; pinyin: Shào zú) are a small group of Taiwanese aborigines who have lived near Sun Moon Lake (Lake Candidius) in central Taiwan for at least a century, and probably since the time of the Qing dynasty. In the year 2000 the Thao/Ngan people numbered only 281, making them the smallest of all of the recognized aboriginals in Taiwan (a number of aboriginal peoples, both smaller and larger than the Thao in population, remain unrecognized by the Taiwanese governing authorities).They are the smallest of the Taiwanese aborigine group in terms of population and the smallest ethnic group in Taiwan. Despite their small group size, the Thao/Ngan have retained their customs, beliefs and traditional culture and language until now, though they have been assimilated into mainstream Chinese culture as well. Most of the members of this ethnic group work today as menial workers, cooks and vendors in the tourism industry at Sun Moon Lake. The Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999 damaged or destroyed 80% of the houses of the Thao/Ngan and made many of them lose employment.