This article is about the demographic features of the population of Serbia; including vital statistics, ethnicity, religious affiliations, education level, health of the populace, and other aspects of the population.
|Demographics of Serbia|
|Population||7,020,858 (30 June 2017)|
|Growth rate||−5.5 per 1,000 pop. (2017)|
|Birth rate||9.2 per 1,000 pop. (2017)|
|Death rate||14.8 per 1,000 pop. (2017)|
|Life expectancy||75.1 years (2016)|
|• male||72.6 years|
|• female||77.7 years|
|Fertility rate||1,48 children born/woman (2016)|
|Infant mortality rate||5.4 deaths/1,000 infants (2016)|
|Net migration rate||-1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 pop. (2011)|
|0–14 years||14.4% (2016)|
|15–64 years||66.4% (2016)|
|65 and over||19.2% (2016)|
|At birth||1.06 male(s)/female|
|Under 15||1.06 male(s)/female|
|15–64 years||0.99 male(s)/female|
|65 and over||0.72 male(s)/female|
|Nationality||noun: Serbian(s) adjective: Serbian|
|Major ethnic||Serbs (83.3%)|
|Minor ethnic||Hungarians (3.5%)|
other minorities less than 1% respectively
|Official||Serbian at national level; |
Hungarian, Bosnian, Croatian, Slovakian, Albanian, Romanian and Rusyn are in official use in individual municipalities
|Spoken||Serbian (88%) |
other minority languages less than 1% respectively
Censuses in Serbia ordinarily take place every 10 years, organized by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. The Principality of Serbia had conducted the first population census in 1834; the subsequent censuses were conducted in 1841, 1843, 1846, 1850, 1854, 1859, 1863 and 1866 and 1874. During the era Kingdom of Serbia, six censuses were conducted in 1884, 1890, 1895, 1900, 1905 and the last one being in 1910. During the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, censuses were conducted in 1931 and 1921; the census in 1941 was never conducted due to the outbreak of World War II. Socialist Yugoslavia conducted censuses in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, and 1991. The two most recent censuses were held in 2002 and 2011.
The years since the first 1834 Census saw frequent border changes of Serbia, first amidst the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary, then subsequent formation and later disintegration of Yugoslavia and, finally, recent self-proclaimed independence of Kosovo which affected territorial scope in which all these censuses have been conducted.
|Total fertility rate||5.51||5.47||5.43||5.7||5.96||5.97||5.98||5.98||5.99||6||6|
|Total fertility rate||5.95||5.89||5.84||5.78||5.73||5.67||5.62||5.56||5.51||5.45|
|Total fertility rate||5.45||5.44||5.44||5.43||5.43||5.42||5.42||5.41||5.41||5.4|
|Total fertility rate||5.43||5.46||5.48||5.51||5.54||5.57||5.6||5.63||5.65||5.68|
|Total fertility rate||5.54||5.41||5.48||5.27||5.13||5||5.04||5.13||5.18||5.23|
|Total fertility rate||5.18||5.14||5.1||5.05||5.01||4.96||4.92||4.88||4.83||4.79|
|Total fertility rate||4.75||4.7||4.76||4.62||4.57||4.53||4.49||4.44||4.4||4.36|
|Total fertility rate||4.31||4.27||4.22||4.18||4.14||4.09||4.05||4.01||3.96||3.92|
|Total fertility rate||3.88||3.83||3.79||3.75||3.7||3.66||3.61||3.57||3.53|
Data for Serbia excluding Kosovo.
|Average population (x 1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Total fertility rate|
|1950||5 970||163 297||76 851||86 446||27.4||12.9||14.5||3,51|
|1951||6 043||145 197||80 034||65 163||24.0||13.2||10.8||3,07|
|1952||6 112||161 306||67 870||93 436||26.4||11.1||15.3||3,33|
|1953||6 188||151 672||68 168||83 504||24.5||11.0||13.5||3,03|
|1954||6 274||152 569||62 610||89 959||24.3||10.0||14.3||3,05|
|1955||6 358||140 396||65 179||75 217||22.1||10.3||11.8||2,81|
|1956||6 425||132 078||67 055||65 023||20.6||10.4||10.1||2,66|
|1957||6 481||118 535||64 885||53 650||18.3||10.0||8.3||2,38|
|1958||6 535||118 425||55 564||62 861||18.1||8.5||9.6||2,45|
|1959||6 585||114 872||60 850||54 022||17.4||9.2||8.2||2,40|
|1960||6 635||119 298||61 872||57 426||18.0||9.3||8.7||2,56|
|1961||6 693||115 222||57 990||57 232||17.2||8.7||8.6||2,51|
|1962||6 752||110 008||62 830||47 178||16.3||9.3||7.0||2,47|
|1963||6 809||108 324||57 778||50 546||15.9||8.5||7.4||2,46|
|1964||6 863||103 847||62 100||41 747||15.1||9.0||6.1||2,51|
|1965||6 916||106 699||58 856||47 843||15.4||8.5||6.9||2,43|
|1966||6 974||103 775||55 471||48 304||14.9||8.0||6.9||2,45|
|1967||7 027||103 491||62 915||40 576||14.7||9.0||5.8||2,40|
|1968||7 078||103 621||60 932||42 689||14.6||8.6||6.0||2,41|
|1969||7 127||105 478||68 152||37 326||14.8||9.6||5.2||2,27|
|1970||7 171||102 453||67 211||35 242||14.3||9.4||4.9||2,40|
|1971||7 214||104 070||65 872||38 198||14.4||9.1||5.3||2,30|
|1972||7 258||106 859||70 822||36 037||14.7||9.8||5.0||2,28|
|1973||7 303||108 361||67 152||41 209||14.8||9.2||5.6||2,31|
|1974||7 351||110 458||66 457||44 001||15.0||9.0||6.0||2,32|
|1975||7 401||112 945||69 590||43 355||15.3||9.4||5.9||2,35|
|1976||7 452||114 035||68 565||45 470||15.3||9.2||6.1||2,28|
|1977||7 503||111 510||68 924||42 586||14.9||9.2||5.7||2,26|
|1978||7 550||110 622||71 986||38 636||14.7||9.5||5.1||2,23|
|1979||7 611||109 953||72 306||37 647||14.4||9.5||4.9||2,14|
|1980||7 688||109 597||76 180||33 417||14.3||9.9||4.3||2,26|
|1981||7 729||103 407||78 086||25 321||13.4||10.1||3.3||2,24|
|1982||7 738||106 575||78 473||28 102||13.8||10.1||3.6||2,31|
|1983||7 747||108 003||83 506||24 497||13.9||10.8||3.2||2,23|
|1984||7 754||107 036||82 742||24 294||13.8||10.7||3.1||2,21|
|1985||7 759||101 938||81 836||20 102||13.1||10.5||2.6||2,22|
|1986||7 759||99 419||83 977||15 442||12.8||10.8||2.0||2,21|
|1987||7 757||98 279||83 426||14 853||12.7||10.8||1.9||2,24|
|1988||7 755||97 471||83 616||13 855||12.6||10.8||1.8||2,22|
|1989||7 773||91 270||85 256||6 014||11.7||11.0||0.8||2,09|
|1990||7 806||90 590||85 932||4 658||11.6||11.0||0.6||2,11|
|1991||7 836||90 378||89 072||1 306||11.5||11.4||0.2||1,80|
|1992||7 852||86 877||93 475||-6 598||11.1||11.9||-0.8||1,77|
|1993||7 848||87 931||95 121||-7 190||11.2||12.1||-0.9||1,90|
|1994||7 843||85 292||93 011||-7 719||10.9||11.9||-1.0||1,87|
|1995||7 837||86 236||93 933||-7 697||11.0||12.0||-1.0||1,70|
|1996||7 828||82 548||98 370||-15 822||10.5||12.6||-2.0||1,85|
|1997||7 831||79 716||98 068||-18 352||10.2||12.5||-2.3||1,76|
|1998||7 568||76 330||99 376||-23 046||10.1||13.1||-3.0||1,68|
|1999||7 540||72 222||101 444||-29 222||9.6||13.5||-3.9||1,62|
|2000||7 516||73 764||104 042||-30 278||9.8||13.8||-4.0||1,48|
|2001||7 503||78 435||99 008||-20 573||10.5||13.2||-2.7||1,58|
|2002||7 500||78 101||102 785||-24 684||10.4||13.7||-3.3||1,57|
|2003||7 481||79 025||103 946||-24 921||10.6||13.9||-3.3||1,59|
|2004||7 463||78 186||104 320||-26 134||10.5||14.0||-3.5||1,57|
|2005||7 441||72 180||106 771||-34 591||9.7||14.3||-4.6||1,45|
|2006||7 412||70 997||102 884||-31 887||9.6||13.9||-4.3||1,43|
|2007||7 382||68 102||102 805||-34 703||9.2||13.9||-4.7||1,38|
|2008||7 350||69 083||102 711||-33 628||9.4||14.0||-4.6||1,42|
|2009||7 321||70 299||104 000||-33 701||9.6||14.2||-4.6||1,45|
|2010||7 291||68 304||103 211||-34 907||9.4||14.2||-4.8||1,42|
|2011||7 234||65 598||102 935||-37 337||9.0||14.2||-5.2||1,41|
|2012||7 195||67 257||102 400||-35 143||9.3||14.1||-4.8||1,45|
|2013||7 163||65 554||100 300||-34 746||9.1||14.0||-4.9||1,44|
|2014||7 132||66 461||101 247||-34 786||9.3||14.1||-4.8||1,47|
|2015||7 095||65 657||103 678||-38 021||9.3||14.6||-5.3||1,47|
|2016||7 058||64 734||100 834||-36 100||9.2||14.3||-5.1||1,46|
|2017||7 020||64 894||103 722||-38 828||9.2||14.8||-5.6||1,48|
|2018 (p)||6 981||63 646||102 089||-38 443||9.1||14.6||-5.5||1,46|
|District||Population||Live births||Crude birth rate (‰)|
|City of Belgrade||1,687,132||18,000||10.7‰|
|Central Banat District||177,308||1,561||8.8‰|
|North Bačka District||180,349||1,709||9.5‰|
|North Banat District||138,371||1,158||8.4‰|
|South Bačka District||617,949||6,529||10.6‰|
|South Banat District||281,203||2,500||8.9‰|
|West Bačka District||175,347||1,392||7.9‰|
|Birth rates between 1961 and 2017 by municipalities (‰)|
|City of Novi Sad||18.4||15.1||15.5||11.9||10.8||12.2||11.7|
|City of Belgrade||15.8||15.3||14.7||10.6||9.8||10.7||10.7|
|City of Niš||17.1||15.3||13.7||11.8||10.1||9.5||9.7|
|City of Vranje||23.7||18.2||15.0||13.8||12.4||10.3||9.6|
|City of Požarevac||14.5||13.4||12.4||12.5||12.1||9.7||9.3|
|City of Užice||20.0||17.0||13.9||12.0||9.3||8.5||8.4|
Situated in the middle of the Balkans, Serbia is home to many different ethnic groups. According to the 2011 census, Serbs are the largest ethnic group in the country and constitute 83.3% of population. Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority in Serbia, concentrated predominately in northern Vojvodina and representing 3.5% of the country's population (13% in Vojvodina). Roma people constitute 2% of the total population but unofficial estimates put their actual number to be twice or three as high. Bosniaks are third largest ethnic minority mainly inhabiting Raška region in southwestern part of the country. Other minority groups include Croats (0.9%), Slovaks (0.8%), Albanians, Montenegrins (0.5%), Romanians (0.4%), Macedonians (0.3%), and Bulgarians (0.3%). The Chinese and Arabs, are the only two significant immigrant minorities.
|census 1948||census 1953||census 1961||census 1971||census 1981||census 1991||census 2002||census 2011|
Orthodox Christians number 6,079,396 or 84.5% of country's population. The Serbian Orthodox Church is the largest and traditional church of the country, adherents of which are overwhelmingly Serbs. Other Orthodox Christian communities in Serbia include Montenegrins, Romanians, Vlachs, Macedonians and Bulgarians.
There are 356,957 Roman Catholics in Serbia, roughly 5% of the population, mostly in Vojvodina (especially its northern part) which is home to minority ethnic groups such as Hungarians, Croats, Bunjevci, Albanians, as well as to some Slovaks and Czechs. Protestantism accounts for about 1% of the country's population, chiefly among Slovaks in Vojvodina as well as among Reformist Hungarians.
Muslims, with 222,282 or 3% of population, form third largest religious group. Islam has a strong historic following in the southern regions of Serbia, primarily in southern Raška. Bosniaks are the largest Islamic community in Serbia; estimates are that some third of country's Roma people are Muslim.
The official language is Serbian, member of the South Slavic group of languages, and is native to 6,330,919 or 88% of the population. Recognized minority languages are: Hungarian (mother tongue to 243,146 people or 3.4% of population), Slovak, Romanian, Bulgarian and Rusyn as well as Bosnian and Croatian which are completely mutual intelligible with Serbian. All these languages are in official use in municipalities or cities where more than a 15% of population consists of national minority. In Vojvodina, provincial administration uses, besides Serbian, five other languages (Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian and Rusyn).
Foreign citizens in Serbia in 2016.
|Temporary residence||Permanent residence|
According to 2011 census, literacy in Serbia stands at 98% of population while computer literacy is at 49% (complete computer literacy is at 34.2%). Same census showed the following levels of education: 16.2% of inhabitants have higher education (10.6% have bachelors or master's degrees, 5.6% have an associate degree), 49% have a secondary education, 20.7% have an elementary education, and 13.7% have not completed elementary education.
The life expectancy in Serbia at birth is 74.8 years, 71.9 for males and 77.7 for females. Serbia has a comparatively old overall population (among the 10 oldest in the world), with the average age of 42.9 years.
|Period||Life expectancy in|
The Catholic Church in Serbia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome. There are 356,957 Catholics in Serbia according to the 2011 census, which is roughly 5% of the population. Catholics are mostly concentrated in several municipalities in northern Vojvodina, and are mostly members of ethnic minorities, such as Hungarians and Croats.Demographic history of Serbia
This article presents the demographic history of Serbia through census results. See Demographics of Serbia for a more detailed overview of the current demographics from 2011 census.Demographics of Belgrade
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia.Demographics of Kosovo
The Kosovo Agency of Statistics monitors various demographic features of the population of Kosovo, such as population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Censuses, normally conducted at ten-year intervals, record the demographic characteristics of the population. According to the first census conducted after the 2008 declaration of independence in 2011, the permanent population of Kosovo had reached 1,739,825, excluding North Kosovo.Albanians form the majority in Kosovo, with over 93% of the total population; significant minorities include Serbs and others. A 2015 estimate put Kosovo's population at 1,870,981.Kosovo has the youngest population in Europe. Half of its roughly 2-million-strong population is under the age of 25, according to a recent report of the UN Development Programme, UNDP. According to the government data, it is estimated that more than 65 percent of the population are younger than 30. While Kosovo's birth rate remains the highest in Europe, the only municipalities with population growth are Albanian minority enclaves in the south next to Kosovo.Demographics of Serbia and Montenegro
Demographics of Serbia and Montenegro refers to demographics of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (2003-2006), previously known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992-2003). In 1992, after the dissolution of former Yugoslavia, two remaining Yugoslav federal units, the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro, formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, that was transformed in 2003 into the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, lasting until its dissolution in 2006, when Serbia and Montenegro became independent states.
The total population of Serbia and Montenegro was 10,600,000 (Serbia - 9,981,929; Montenegro - 620,000). In 2000, in Serbia, 19.95% of the population was 14 and under (male 1,028,355; female 963,366); in Montenegro, it was 22.05% (male 77,582; female 72,395). 65.22% of Serbians (male 3,187,746; female 3,322,425) and 66.16% of Montenegrins (male 222,095; female 227,923) were between 15 and 64. 14.83% of Serbians (male 638,204; female 841,833) and 11.79% of Montenegrins (male 32,400; female 47,763) were 65 and over.
Estimates in 2000 placed Serbia's population growth rate at 0.739% and Montenegro's at -12.22%. The respective birth rates were 12.20/1000 (Serbia) and 14.9/1000 (Montenegro); death rates were 11.08/1000 (Serbia) and 7.9/1000 (Montenegro). The net migration rate was 6.29/1000 in Serbia and -29.18/1,000 in Montenegro. Total fertility rates were 1.7 children/woman in Serbia and 2.0 children/woman in Montenegro.
In 2000, Serbia's infant mortality rate was 20.13 deaths/1,000 live births; Montenegro's was 10.97 deaths/1,000 live births. Total life expectancy at birth was 72.39 years in Serbia (69.31 for males, 75.72 for females) and 75.46 in Montenegro (71.45 for males, 79.82 for females).
Ethnic groups in the region were represented as follows: Serb 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Yugoslav 3.4%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 9.2% (as of 1001). In terms of religion, 65% of inhabitants were Eastern Orthodox, 19% Muslim, 4% Roman Catholic, 1% Protestant 1%, and 11% other. The main languages spoken in Serbia and Montenegro are Serbian, Albanian, Croatian, Bosnian and Hungarian.
In 2002, 96.4% of the population aged 15 and over could read and write (98.9% of males, 94.1% of females).Demographics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
This article is about the demographics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during its existence from 1945 until 1991. With the dissolution of the state, the following nations now have their own demographic studies:
Demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Demographics of Croatia
Demographics of Montenegro
Demographics of North Macedonia
Demographics of Serbia
Demographics of SloveniaFor the demography of the former Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918–1945), see Kingdom of Yugoslavia#Demographics.Eastern Orthodoxy in Serbia
Eastern Orthodoxy is the main Christian denomination in Serbia, with 6,079,396 followers or 84.6% of the population, followed traditionally by the majority of Serbs, and also Romanians, Vlachs, Montenegrins, Macedonians and Bulgarians living in Serbia. The dominant Eastern Orthodox church in Serbia is the Serbian Orthodox Church. Also, by ancient agreements with Serbian Orthodox Church, Romanian Orthodox Church has its own Diocese of Dacia Felix that operates among Orthodox Romanians in Serbian Banat.Outline of Serbia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Serbia:
Serbia – landlocked sovereign country located in Southeastern Europe and comprising the southern portion of the Pannonian Plain and a central portion of the Balkan Peninsula. Serbia is bordered by Hungary to the north; Romania and Bulgaria to the east; the Republic of Macedonia and constitutionally only, Albania (via Kosovo, a disputed territory over which Serbia has no control, thus no direct access to Albania) to the south; and Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to the west. The capital of Serbia is Belgrade.
For centuries, shaped at cultural boundaries between East and West, a powerful medieval kingdom – later renamed the Serbian Empire – occupied much of the Balkans. Torn by domestic feuds, Ottoman, Hungarian, and later, Austrian incursions, the Serbian state collapsed by the mid-16th century. The positive outcome of the Serbian revolution in 1817 marked the birth of modern Serbia. Within a century it reacquired Kosovo, Raška and Vardar Macedonia from the Ottoman Empire. Likewise, in 1918 the former autonomous Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina proclaimed its secession from Austria-Hungary to unite with Serbia, preceded by the Syrmia region.
The current borders of the country were established following the end of World War II, when Serbia became a federal unit within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Serbia became an independent state again in 2006, after Montenegro left the union that formed after the dissolution of Yugoslavia in 1990s.
In February 2008, the parliament of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia. Serbia's government, as well as the UN Security Council, have not recognized Kosovo's independence. The response from the international community has been mixed.
Serbia is a member of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and the Council of Europe, and is an associate member of the European Union.Serbians
Serbians (Serbian: Србијанци / Srbijanci) is a demonym for the inhabitants of Serbia, most often used for the country's ethnic Serbs, though correctly used for citizens regardless of ethnicity. In Serbian, Srbijanci is used for Serbs from Serbia, or in a narrow sense, Serbs from Central Serbia. The term thus excludes ethnic Serbs in the neighboring countries, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Macedonia, for which the term Srbin (pl. Srbi) is used. In English, there has been confusion over the usage between the two, with the term "Serbians" sometimes erroneously applied to ethnic Serbs outside Serbia (such as "Bosnian Serbians" for Bosnian Serbs). Likewise, the term "Serbs" has been erroneously applied to citizens of Serbia regardless of their ethnicity.The term Srbijanci has been considered offensive by some, as it is mostly used in Croatia and province of Vojvodina. It has been noted that this type of demonym is only present in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia (notably, as opposed to neighbouring Albania and Croatia) — French people are French, whether living in France or in the diaspora, whether ethnic French or not, Italian people are Italian, etc.In the 1852 Serbian Dictionary, the entry includes the following:
Srbijanac – čovek iz Srbije (man from Serbia); Srbijanski – koji je iz Srbije (which is from Serbia)
A popular Serbian folk song has the refrain " ...jelek (vest), anterija (short vest), and opanci (traditional moccasins), is how you recognize a Srbijanac (Serbian)...", describing the Serbian folk costume.Variant terms like Old Serbians (Serbian: Старосрбијанци / Starosrbijanci) and Southern Serbians (Serbian: Јужносрбијанци / Južnosrbijanci) were used as designations for populations from historical regions of Old Serbia, and Vardar Macedonia respectively.Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
The Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Републички завод за статистику Србије) is a specialized, professional organization within the public administration of the Republic of Serbia.Yugoslavs
Yugoslavs or Yugoslavians (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslaveni/Југославени, Jugosloveni/Југословени; Macedonian: Југословени; Slovene: Jugoslovani) is a designation that was originally designed to refer to a united South Slavic people. It has been used in two connotations, the first in an ethnic or supra-ethnic connotation, and the second as a term for citizens of the former Yugoslavia. Cultural and political advocates of Yugoslav identity have historically ascribed the identity to be applicable to all people of South Slav heritage, including those of today's Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia. Attempts at uniting Bulgaria into Yugoslavia were however unsuccessful and therefore Bulgarians were not included in the panethnic identification.
Since the dissolution of SFR Yugoslavia and the establishment of South Slavic nation states, the term ethnic Yugoslavs has been used to refer to those who exclusively view themselves as Yugoslavs with no other ethnic self-identification, many of these being of mixed ancestry.In late 19th and early 20th century, influential public intellectuals Jovan Cvijić and Vladimir Dvorniković advocated that Yugoslavs, as a supra-ethnic nation, had "many tribal ethnicities, such as Croats, Serbs, and others within it".In the SFR Yugoslavia, the official designation for those who declared themselves simply as Yugoslav was with quotation marks, "Yugoslavs" (introduced in census 1971). The quotation marks were originally meant to distinguish Yugoslav ethnicity from Yugoslav citizenship – which was written without quotation marks. The majority of those who had once identified as ethnic "Yugoslavs" reverted to or adopted traditional ethnic and national identities. Some also decided to turn to sub-national regional identifications, especially in multi-ethnic historical regions like Istria, Vojvodina, or Bosnia (hence Bosnians). The Yugoslav designation, however, continues to be used by many, especially by the descendants of Yugoslav migrants in the United States, Canada and Australia while the country still existed.
|States with limited|