Demographics of Quebec

The demographics of Quebec constitutes a complex and sensitive issue, especially as it relates to the National question. Quebec is the only province in Canada to feature a francophone (French-speaking) majority, and where anglophones (English-speakers) constitute an officially recognized minority group. According to the 2011 census, French is spoken by more than 85.5% of the population while this number rises to 88% for children under 15 years old.[1] According to the 2011 census, 95% of Quebec is francophone, with less than 5% of the population not able to speak French.

Quebec is also home to "one of the world's most valuable founder populations", the Quebec Founder Population.[2] Founder populations are very valuable to medical genetic research as they are pockets of low genetic variability which provide a useful research context for discovering gene-disease linkages. The Quebec Founder Population arose through the influx of people into Quebec from France in the 17th century to mid-18th century; though this influx was large, a high proportion of the immigrants either died or returned to France, leaving a founder population of approximately 2,600 people.[2][3] About seven million Canadians (along with several million French Americans in the United States) are descendants of these original 2,600 colonists.[2]

Quebec Population (1971-2017)
1971 to 2017


Population since 1851:

Year Population Five-year
% change
% change
1851 892,061 n/a n/a 36.5
1861 1,111,566 n/a 24.6 34.4
1871 1,491,816 n/a 7.2 32.3
1881 1,359,027 n/a 14.1 31.4
1891 1,488,535 n/a 9.5 30.8
1901 1,648,898 n/a 10.8 30.7
1911 2,005,776 n/a 21.6 27.8
1921 2,360,665 n/a 17.8 26.9
1931 2,874,255 n/a 21.8 27.7
1941 3,331,882 n/a 15.9 29.0
1951 4,055,681 n/a 21.8 28.9
1956 4,628,378 14.1 n/a 28.8
1961 5,259,211 13.6 29.7 28.8
1966 5,780,845 9.9 24.9 28.8
1971 6,027,765 4.3 14.6 27.9
1976 6,234,445 3.4 7.8 27.1
1981 6,438,403 3.3 6.8 26.4
1986 6,532,460 1.5 4.8 25.8
1991 6,895,963 5.6 7.1 25.2
1996 7,138,795 3.5 9.3 24.5
2001 7,237,479 1.4 5.0 23.8
2006 7,546,131 4.3 5.7 23.4
2011 7,903,001 4.7 9.2 23.1
2012 8,085,900 n/a n/a 23.3
2013 8,155,500 n/a n/a 23.2
2014 8,214,500 n/a n/a 23.1
2015 8,259,500 n/a n/a 23.0
2016 8,326,100 5.3 16.6 23.0
2017 8,398,200 3.8 n/a 22.0

Source: Statistics Canada [2][3][4]

Vital statistics

Age structure: (2001 census)

Age groups Total Male Female
0–4 years 375,770 192,280 183,490
5–9 years 457,225 232,650 224,575
10–14 years 458,585 234,140 224,445
15–24 years 949,475 481,990 467,485
25–34 years 921,770 459,960 461,810
35–44 years 1,243,970 617,510 626,460
45–54 years 1,109,945 548,080 561,865
55–64 years 760,905 370,960 389,945
65–74 years 547,185 248,740 298,445
75–84 years 318,185 120,940 197,245
85 years and over 94,450 25,580 68,870
Total 7,237,480 3,532,845 3,704,635

Source : Statistics Canada[4]

Quebec's fertility rate is now higher than the Canadian average. At 1.74 children per woman in 2008,[5] it is above the Canada-wide rate of 1.59, and has increased for five consecutive years, reaching its highest level since 1976.[5] However, it is still below the replacement fertility rate of 2.1 children per woman. This contrasts with its fertility rates before 1960, which were among the highest of any industrialized society. For example, between 1951 and 1961, the population grew nearly 30% with minimal immigration, a natural growth rate matched today only by some African countries.

Although Quebec is home to only 23.0% of the population of Canada, the number of international adoptions in Quebec is the highest of all provinces of Canada. In 2001, 42% of international adoptions in Canada were carried out in Quebec.

Population growth rate: 0.7% (2006)

Birth rate: 9.9% (2005)

Synthetic fertility index: 1.61 (2006)

Death rate: 7.4% (2003)

Net migration rate: 4.1% (2003)

Infant mortality rate: 0.46% (2004)

Stillbirth rate: 3.8% -- 3.5% notwithstanding requested abortions (2002)

Life expectancy: In 2002, life expectancy was 76.3 years for males and 81.9 years for females.

Urbanisation: In 2001, 80.4% of Quebecers lived in urban areas.

Literacy: International Adult Literacy Survey 47% Prose, 42% Document, 40% Quantitative (1996) Note: This is not the official literacy rate, and should not be used in comparisons with rates calculated using different procedures.


Mother tongue language

Mother tongue language (Statistics Canada: 2006,[6] 2001,[7] 1996[8])
Language(s) 2011 2006 2001 1996
Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%)
French 6,102,210 78 5,877,660 79 5,761,765 80.8 5,742,575 80.4
English 599,225 7.6 575,555 7.7 557,040 7.8 568,405 8.0
Both English and French 64,800 0.8 43,335 0.6 50,060 0.7 97,225 1.4
Total population 7,815,950 100 7,435,905 100 7,125,580 100 7,138,795 100

Language spoken at home

Language spoken most often at home (Statistics Canada: 2006[6])
Language Population Percentage (%)
French 6,027,735 81.1
English 744,430 10.0
Both English and French 52,325 0.7
Non-official languages 518,320 7.0
Both French and a non-official language 54,490 0.7
Both English and a non-official language 26,560 0.4
French, English and a non-official language 12,035 0.2
Total population 7,435,905 100

Knowledge of official languages

Knowledge of official languages (Statistics Canada: 2006[6])
Language Population Percentage (%)
French only 4,010,880 53.9
English only 336,785 4.5
Both English and French 3,017,860 40.6
Neither English or French 70,375 0.9
Total population 7,435,905 100

Ethnic origin

Ethnic origin Population Percent
Canadien/Canadian 4,474,115 60.1%
French 2,151,655 28.8%
Irish 406,085 5.5%
Italian 299,655 4.0%
English 245,155 3.3%
First Nations 219,815 3.0%
Scottish 202,515 2.7%
Quebecer 140,075 1.9%
German 131,795 1.8%
Chinese 91,900 1.24%
Haitian 91,435 1.23%
Spanish 72,090 0.97%
Jewish 71,380 0.96%
Greek 65,985 0.89%
Polish 62,800 0.84%
Lebanese 60,950 0.83%
Portuguese 57,445 0.77%
Belgian 43,275 0.58%
East Indian 41,600 0.56%
Romanian 40,320 0.54%
Russian 40,155 0.54%
Algerian 36,700 0.49%
American (USA) 36,695 0.49%
Métis 36,280 0.49%
Vietnamese 33,815 0.45%
Acadian 32,950 0.44%
Ukrainian 31,955 0.43%
African (Black) 30,170 0.41%
Filipino 25,680 0.35%
Morrocan 25,150 0.34%
British Isles 23,445 0.32%
Armenian 23,230 0.31%
Dutch 23,015 0.31%
Hungarian 22,585 0.30%
Swiss 20,280 0.27%
Egyptian 17,950 0.24%
Salvadoran 15,770 0.21%
Syrian 14,925 0.20%
Ethnic origin Population Percent
Colombian 14,845 0.20%
Mexican 14,215 0.19%
Berbers 13,415 0.18%
Inuit 12,915 0.17%
Iranian 12,370 0.17%
Peruvian 12,335 0.17%
Jamaican 11,935 0.16%
Pakistani 11,710 0.16%
Chilean 11,585 0.16%
Turk 11,385 0.15%
Austrian 11,295 0.15%
Sri Lankan 10,750 0.14%
Congolese 10,190 0.14%
Cambodian 10,175 0.14%
Welsh 9,815 0.13%
Black 9,520 0.13%
Tunisian 7,870 0.11%
Bulgarian 6,955 0.09%
Guatemalan 6,880 0.09%
Laotian 6,425 0.09%
Norwegian 6,350 0.09%
Bangladeshi 6,095 0.08%
Yugoslav 6,090 0.08%
Swedish 5,975 0.08%
Afghan 5,855 0.08%
Lithuanians 5,665 0.08%
Korean 5,555 0.07%
Czech 5,540 0.07%
West Indian 5,420 0.07%
Barbadian 5,340 0.07%
Croatian 5,330 0.07%
Latin/Central/South American 5,270 0.07%
European 5,130 0.07%
Danish 5,130 0.07%
Palestinian 4,940 0.07%
Trinidadian/Tobagan 4,810 0.06%
Japanese 4,560 0.06%
Slovak 4,560 0.06%

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905) and may total more than 100 percent due to dual responses.
Only groups with 0.06 percent or more of respondents are shown.

Ethnicity according to the older more general system of classification is shown below:

Origins 2001 %
North American 4,989,230 70.02%
French 2,123,185 29.80%
British Isles 547,790 7.69%
Southern European 409,095 5.74%
Aboriginal 159,900 2.24%
Western European 153,750 2.16%
Arab 135,750 1.91%
East and Southeast Asian 132,280 1.86%
Origins 2001 %
Eastern European 130,410 1.83%
Caribbean 108,475 1.52%
Other European 86,450 1.21%
Latin, Central and South American 65,150 0.91%
South Asian 62,585 0.88%
African 48,715 0.68%
West Asian 40,960 0.57%
Northern European 15,295 0.21%

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580) and may total more than 100% due to dual responses
Only groups of more than 0.02% are shown

Visible minorities and Aboriginals

The 2006 census counted a total aboriginal population of 108,425 (1.5%) including 65,085 North American Indians (0.9%), 27,985 Métis (0.4%), and 10,950 Inuit (0.15%). There is a significant undercount, as many of the biggest Indian bands regularly refuse to participate in Canadian censuses for political reasons regarding the question of aboriginal sovereignty. In particular, the largest Mohawk Iroquois reserves (Kahnawake, Akwesasne and Kanesatake) were not counted.{Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905)}[11]

Visible minority and Aboriginal population (Canada 2011 Census)
Population group Population % of total population
European 6,740,370 87.2%
Visible minority group
South Asian 83,320 1.1%
Chinese 82,845 1.1%
Black 243,625 3.2%
Filipino 31,495 0.4%
Latin American 116,380 1.5%
Arab 166,260 2.2%
Southeast Asian 65,855 0.9%
West Asian 23,445 0.3%
Korean 6,665 0.1%
Japanese 4,025 0.1%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 8,895 0.1%
Multiple visible minority 17,420 0.2%
Total visible minority population 850,235 11%
Aboriginal group
First Nations 82,425 1.1%
Métis 40,960 0.5%
Inuit 12,570 0.2%
Aboriginal, n.i.e. 4,415 0.1%
Multiple Aboriginal identity 1,545 0%
Total Aboriginal population 141,915 1.8%
Total population 7,732,520 100%



Quebec welcomes about 50,000 immigration per year. The 2016 Canadian census counted a total of 1,091,305 immigrants living in Quebec. The most commonly reported countries of birth for all immigrants living in Quebec were:[13]

1. France 81,225
2. Haiti 80,965
3. Morocco 60,695
4. Algeria 59,460
5. Italy 51,025
6. China 49,555
7. Lebanon 39,140
8. Romania 28,690
9. United States 25,960
10. Colombia 25,575
11. Vietnam 25,440
12. Philippines 24,410
13. Egypt 19,490
14. Portugal 18,985
15. Greece 18,420
16. India 17,865
17. Syria 17,775
18. Iran 17,760
19. Mexico 15,820
20. Tunisia 14,775

Interprovincial migration

Net cumulative interprovincial migration, 1997 to 2017, as a share of population, 2016
Net cumulative interprovincial migration per Province from 1997 to 2017, as a share of population of each Provinces

Since it started being recorded in 1971, Quebec has had negative interprovincial migration every year, and Quebec has seen the largest net loss of people due to interprovincial migration during this time (without adjusting for population).[14] Between 1981 and 2017, Quebec lost 229,700 people below the age of 45 to interprovincial migration.[15] However, if we adjust for population, Quebec has lost significantly fewer people as a share of their population than other provinces. This is due to the very low migration rate of francophone quebeckers, and anglophone quebeckers are much more likely to leaver Quebec than francophones.[16] However, Quebec receives much fewer in-migrants from other provinces than average.[17]

In Quebec, Allophones are more likely to migrate out of the province than average: between 1996 and 2001, over 19,170 migrated to other provinces; 18,810 of whom migrated to Ontario.[18]

Interprovincial Migration Between Quebec and Other Provinces and Territories by Mother Tongue[19]
Mother Tongue / Year 1971–1976 1976–1981 1981–1986 1986–1991 1991–1996 1996–2001 2001-2006 2006-2011 Total
French -4,100 -18,000 -12,900 5,200 1,200 -8,900 5,000 -2,610 -35,110
English -52,200 -106,300 -41,600 -22,200 -24,500 -29,200 -8,000 -5,930 -289,630
Other -5,700 -17,400 -8,700 -8,600 -14,100 -19,100 -8,700 -12,711 -95,011
Interprovincial migration in Quebec[17]
In-migrants Out-migrants Net migration
2007 / 2008 20,102 31,784 -11,682
2008 / 2009 20,307 27,726 -7,419
2009 / 2010 21,048 24,306 -3,258
2010 / 2011 19,884 24,647 -4,763
2011 / 2012 20,179 27,094 -6,915
2012 / 2013 16,879 27,310 -10,431
2013 / 2014 16,536 30,848 -14,312
2014 / 2015 16,611 32,753 -16,142
2015 / 2016 19,259 30,377 -11,118
2016 / 2017 22,007 32,766 -10,759


Quebec is unique among the provinces in its overwhelmingly Roman Catholic population, though now has a low church attendance. This is a legacy of colonial times when only Roman Catholics were permitted to settle in New France.

Religion (2001) Denomination (2001) Congregation (2001) Proportion (2001)
Catholic Christian 5,939,795 83.6%
Roman Catholic 5,930,385 83.23%
Ukrainian Catholic 3,430 0.05%
Protestant Christian 335,595 4.71%
Anglican 85,475 1.20%
United Church of Canada 52,950 0.74%
Baptist 35,455 0.50%
Pentecostal 22,670 0.32%
Lutheran 9,640 0.14%
Presbyterian 8,770 0.12%
Methodist 8,725 0.12%
Adventist 6,690 0.09%
Mission de l'Esprit Saint 765 0.01%
Orthodox Christian 100,375 1.41%
Greek Orthodox 50,020 0.70%
Armenian Orthodox 4,935 0.07%
Russian Orthodox 2,185 0.03%
Coptic Orthodox 2,010 0.03%
Antiochian Orthodox 1,050 0.01%
Ukrainian Orthodox 985 0.01%
Serbian Orthodox 920 0.01%
Other Christian 56,755 0.80%
Muslim 108,620 1.52%
Jewish 89,920 1.26%
Buddhist 41,375 0.58%
Hindu 24,530 0.34%
Sikh 8,220 0.12%
Other eastern religions 3,425 0.05%
Bahá'í 1,155 0.02%
Pagan 1,330 0.02%
Aboriginal spirituality 740 0.01%
No religious affiliation 413,185 5.80%
No religion 400,325 5.62%
Atheist 4,335 0.02%
Agnostic 12,600 0.06%

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580 in 2001). Only groups of more than 0.01% are shown. [20]

See also

Canadian Provinces and Territories
Demographics of Canada's provinces and territories


  1. ^ "Census 2011 FOLS". Statistics Canada.
  2. ^ a b c Amber LePage-Monette. "Powerful Population". Promotive Communications. Archived from the original on 2007-03-28. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  3. ^ Flanagan, Nina (August 2005). "Bioresearch Highlights Significance of SNPs". Genetic Engineering News. 25 (14). Mary Ann Liebert. pp. 1, 27–29. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  4. ^ Statistics profile for Quebec
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ a b c Statistics Canada. "2006 Community Profiles". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
  7. ^ Statistics Canada. "2001 Community Profiles". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
  8. ^ Statistics Canada. "1996 Community Profiles". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
  9. ^ Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data.
  10. ^ Ethnic Origin (232), Sex (3) and Single and Multiple Responses (3) (2001 Census)
  11. ^ Aboriginal Population Profile (2006 Census)
  12. ^ a b [1], NHS Profile, Quebec, 2011, Statistics Canada
  13. ^ Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (11), Place of Birth (272), Age (7A) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data
  14. ^ "Interprovincial Migration in Canada: Quebeckers Vote with Their Feet" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-12-26.
  15. ^ Serebrin, Jacob; July 26, Montreal Gazette Updated:; 2018 (2018-07-26). "Quebec losing young people to interprovincial migration, report shows | Montreal Gazette". Retrieved 2018-12-28.
  16. ^ Finnie, Ross (2004). School of Policy Studies at Queen’s University and Business and Labour Market Analysis Division, Statistics Canada. "Who moves? A logit model analysis of inter-provincial migration in Canada". Applied Economics. 36: 1759–1779.
  17. ^ a b Statistics Canada, table 051-0012: Interprovincial migrants, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual.
  18. ^ Net population gains or losses from interprovincial migration by language group, provinces and territories, 1991-1996 and 1996-2001
  19. ^ "Factors Affecting the Evolution of Language Groups". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  20. ^ Religion (95) and Immigrant Status (Census 2001)

External links

Cahiers québécois de démographie

The Cahiers québécois de démographie (English: Quebec Notebooks of Demography) is a peer-reviewed academic journal publishing original research in areas of demography, demographic analysis, and the demographics of Quebec and other populations.The journal was established in 1971 and is published biannually by the Association des démographes du Québec (Quebec Association of Demographers), with support from the Demography Department at the Université de Montréal. Articles are published in French, with abstracts in French and English.

The journal is indexed in Revue des revues démographiques, Repère, Sociological Abstracts, and MEDLINE. Articles are freely available online through the Érudit publishing consortium.

Canadian French

Canadian French (French: français canadien) is the French language spoken in Canada. It includes the varieties of French used in Canada such as Quebec French. Formerly Canadian French referred solely to Quebec French and the closely related varieties of Ontario (Franco-Ontarian) and Western Canada—in contrast with Acadian French, which is spoken in some areas of eastern Quebec, New Brunswick (including the Chiac dialect), and some areas of Nova Scotia (including the dialect St. Marys Bay French). PEI and Newfoundland & Labrador have Newfoundland French.

In 2011, the total number of native French speakers in Canada was around 7.3 million (22% of the entire population), while another 2 million spoke it as a second language. At the federal level, it has official status alongside English. At the provincial level, French is the sole official language of Quebec as well as one of two official languages of New Brunswick, and jointly official (derived from its federal legal status) in Nunavut, Yukon, and the Northwest Territories. Government services are offered in French at select localities in Manitoba and Ontario (through the French Language Services Act) and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the country, depending largely on the proximity to Quebec and/or French Canadian influence on any given region.

New England French (a dialect spoken in northern New England) is essentially a variety of Canadian French and exhibits no particular differences from the Canadian dialects, unlike Louisiana French and Louisiana Creole.

Charter of the French Language

The Charter of the French Language (French: La charte de la langue française), also known as Bill 101 (Law 101 or French: Loi 101), is a 1977 law in the province of Quebec in Canada defining French, the language of the majority of the population, as the official language of the provincial government. It is the central legislative piece in Quebec's language policy.

Proposed by Camille Laurin, the Minister of Cultural Development under the first Parti Québécois government of Premier René Lévesque, it was passed by the National Assembly, and granted Royal Assent by Lieutenant Governor Hugues Lapointe on August 26, 1977. The Charter's provisions expanded upon the 1974 Official Language Act (Bill 22), which was enacted by the Lieutenant Governor-in-Parliament during the tenure of Premier Robert Bourassa's Liberal government to make French the official language of Quebec. Prior to 1974, Quebec had no official language and was subject only to the requirements on the use of English and French contained in Article 133 of the British North America Act, 1867.Bill 101 has been amended more than six times since 1977. Each amendment has aroused controversy over such provisions as the use of French on commercial signs or restrictions on enrollment into anglophone schools.

Demographic history of Quebec

This is a demographic history of Quebec chronicling the evolution of the non-indigenous population in Quebec.

Demographics of Montreal

The Demographics of Montreal concern population growth and structure for Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The information is analyzed by Statistics Canada and compiled every five years, with the most recent census having taken place in 2016.

Indigenous peoples in Quebec

Indigenous peoples in Quebec (French: Peuples autochtones du Québec) total 11 distinct ethnic groups. The 10 First Nations and the Inuit communities number 141,915 people and account for approximately 2% of the population of Quebec, Canada.


Joual (French pronunciation: ​[ʒwal]) is an accepted name for the linguistic features of basilectal Quebec French that are associated with the French-speaking working class in Montreal which has become a symbol of national identity for some. Joual is stigmatized by some and celebrated by others. While joual is often considered a sociolect of the Québécois working class, many feel that perception is outdated.

Speakers of Quebec French from outside Montreal usually have other names to identify their speech, such as Magoua in Trois-Rivières, and Chaouin south of Trois-Rivières. Linguists tend to eschew this term, but historically some have reserved the term joual for the variant of Quebec French spoken in Montreal.Both the upward socio-economic mobility among the Québécois, and a cultural renaissance around joual connected to the Quiet Revolution in the Montreal East-End have resulted in joual being spoken by people across the educational and economic spectrum. Today, many Québécois who were raised in Quebec during the 20th century (command of English notwithstanding) can understand and speak at least some joual.

Language demographics of Quebec

This article presents the current language demographics of the Canadian province of Quebec.

Linguistic demography

Linguistic demography is the statistical study of languages among all populations. Estimating the number of speakers of a given language is not straightforward, and various estimates may diverge considerably. This is first of all due to the question of defining "language" vs. "dialect". Identification of varieties as a single language or as distinct languages is often based on ethnic, cultural, or political considerations rather than mutual intelligibility. The second difficulty is multilingualism, complicating the definition of "native language". Finally, in many countries, insufficient census data add to the difficulties.

Demolinguistics is a branch of Sociology of language observing linguistic trends as affected by population distribution and redistribution and by the status of societies.

Outline of Canada

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Canada:

Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area, and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest, and marine borders with France and Greenland on the east and northeast, respectively.

The lands have been inhabited for millennia by various groups of aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War.

In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of additional provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom, highlighted by the Statute of Westminster in 1931 and culminating in the Canada Act in 1982 which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. Technologically advanced and industrialized, Canada maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has a long and complex relationship.

Outline of Quebec

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Quebec:

Quebec – province in the eastern part of Canada situated between Hudson Bay and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level. Sovereignty plays a large role in the politics of Quebec, and the official opposition social democratic Parti Québécois advocates national sovereignty for the province and secession from Canada. Sovereigntist governments have held referendums on independence in 1980 and 1995; both were voted down by voters, the latter defeated by a very narrow margin. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada."

Province of Quebec (1763–1791)

The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War. During the war, Great Britain's forces conquered French Canada. As part of terms of the Treaty of Paris peace settlement, France gave up its claim to Canada and negotiated to keep the small but rich sugar island of Guadeloupe instead. By Britain's Royal Proclamation of 1763, Canada (part of New France) was renamed the Province of Quebec. The new British province extended from the coast of Labrador on the Atlantic Ocean, southwest through the Saint Lawrence River Valley to the Great Lakes and beyond to the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Portions of its southwest (below the Great Lakes) were later ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Paris (1783) at the conclusion of the American Revolution although the British maintained a military presence there until 1796. In 1791, the territory north of the Great Lakes was divided into Lower Canada and Upper Canada.


Quebec ( (listen); French: Québec [kebɛk] (listen)) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; and to the south by the province of New Brunswick and the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. It also shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division; only the territory of Nunavut is larger. It is historically and politically considered to be part of Central Canada (with Ontario).

Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario. It is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are also significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, and Gaspé regions. The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. Even in central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas.

Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, and only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada".While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace, information and communication technologies, biotechnology, and the pharmaceutical industry also play leading roles. These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output.

Quebec French

Quebec French (French: français québécois; also known as Québécois French or simply Québécois) is the predominant variety of the French language in Canada, in its formal and informal registers. Quebec French is used in everyday communication, as well as in education, the media, and government.

Canadian French is a frequently used umbrella term for the varieties of French used in Canada including Quebec French. Formerly it was used to refer solely to Quebec French and the closely related varieties of Ontario and Western Canada, in contrast with Acadian French, which is spoken in some areas of eastern Quebec (Gaspé Peninsula), New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland & Labrador.

The often derogatory term joual is commonly used to refer to Quebec French (when considered a basilect on the Post-creole continuum) associated with the working class, characterized by certain features perceived as incorrect or bad. The equivalent in Acadian French is called Chiac.

Quebec sovereignty movement

The Quebec sovereignty movement (French: Mouvement souverainiste du Québec) is a political movement as well as an ideology of values, concepts and ideas that advocates independence for the Canadian province of Quebec.

Several diverse political groups coalesced in the late 1960s in the formation of the Parti Québécois, a provincial political party. Since 1968 the party has appealed for constitutional negotiations on the matter of provincial sovereignty, in addition to holding two provincial referendums on the matter. The first, which occurred in 1980, asked whether Quebecers wished to open constitutional negotiations with the federal government (and other provinces) for the intended purpose of establishing a "sovereignty-association" pact between the province of Quebec and the rest of Canada. Approximately 60% of Quebec's voting public rejected the idea put forth by Parti Québécois leader René Lévesque. The matter was dropped by the party for most of the 1980s, especially after the patriation of the Canadian constitution without the consent of the Parti Québécois government, and the creation of the federal Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which enshrined the protection of the French language and French-Canadian culture in Canada. In 1995, after two failed attempts by the Mulroney government to secure Quebec's ratification of amendments to the constitution, the Parti Québécois held a second referendum, though on this occasion the question was whether one wished for the independence of the province of Quebec from the rest of Canada. The response was again in the negative, though this time by a far closer margin, with 50.58% against the proposal.

Though the Parti Québécois has long spearheaded the sovereignty movement, they are not alone. Other minority provincial political parties, such as Option nationale and Québec Solidaire, also support sovereignty, but are not always supportive of the Parti Québécois. The Quebec Liberal Party, Quebec's other primary political party, is opposed to increasing political sovereignty for the province, but has also been historically at odds, on occasion, with various Canadian federal governments. Thus, Quebec politics is effectively divided into two camps, principally opposed over the sovereignty issue. Quebec sovereignty is politically opposed to the competing ideology of Canadian federalism.

Most groups within this movement seek to gain independence through peaceful means, using negotiation-based diplomatic intervention, although fringe groups have advocated and used violent means. The overwhelming number of casualties came from attacks by the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ), a militant organization which perpetrated a bombing and armed robbery campaign from 1963 to 1970, culminating in the October Crisis and the death of Deputy Premier Pierre Laporte. Since this time all mainstream sovereignist groups have sworn off violence, while extremist nationalist groups, though in the minority, support violent actions in the name of liberating Quebec from Canadian sovereignty.

The primary mainstream political vehicle for the movement is the Parti Québécois, which has governed Quebec on multiple occasions. In 2012 it was elected to a minority government, in which its leader, Pauline Marois, became the first female Premier of Quebec. However, only eighteen months later, the PQ was defeated by the Liberal Party of Quebec in the 2014 election.

Quebecer (disambiguation)

Québécer or Quebecker or variant may refer to:

any native or resident of the province of Québec, see Demographics of Quebec

Québécois people, a French-speaking native or inhabitant of Québec

A native or inhabitant of Quebec City

The Quebecers, a pro-wrestling team


Québécois(e) or Quebecois(e) may refer to:

Québécois (word)

Someone who lives primarily in the Canadian province of Quebec

Someone related to the Canadian province of Quebec

most often, Québécois people, a French-speaking native or inhabitant of Quebec

any native or resident of Quebec, see Demographics of Quebec

the French culture of Quebec

Quebec French, the variety of French spoken in Quebec

A native or inhabitant of the province's capital, Quebec City (rare in English)

Le Québécois, a newspaper based in Quebec City

Algoma Quebecois, a freighter launched in 1963

Groupe La Québécoise, a passenger transport company

Québécois people

Quebecers or Quebeckers (Québécois in French, and sometimes also in English) are people living in the province of Quebec in Canada. Quebecois tend to usually be French Canadians descendants of the first settlers of Canada and occasionally other non-Quebecois, non-French inhabitants of Quebec.A majority in the House of Commons of Canada in 2006 approved a motion tabled by Prime Minister Stephen Harper, which stated that the Québécois are a nation within a united Canada. Harper later elaborated that the motion's definition of Québécois relies on personal decisions to self-identify as Québécois, and therefore is a personal choice. However, Gilles Duceppe, the leader of the Bloc Québécois, a sovereigntist party which then held the majority of seats in Quebec, disputed this view, stating that the Bloc considered the term "Québécois" to include all inhabitants of Quebec and accusing the Conservatives of wishing to ascribe an ethnic meaning to it. Self-identification as Québécois became dominant in the 1960s; prior to this, the Francophone people of Quebec identified themselves as French Canadians.

Demographics of Canada (by province or territory)
and society
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