New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces, and the only officially bilingual province (French and English) in the country. The provincial Department of Finance estimates that the province's population in 2006 was 729,997 of which the majority is English-speaking but with a substantial (32%) French-speaking minority of mostly Acadian origin.
First Nations in New Brunswick include the Mi'kmaq and Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet). The first European settlers, the Acadians are descendants of French colonists of Acadia, a French colony in what is today Nova Scotia. The Acadians were expelled by the British (1755) for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to King George II which drove several thousand French residents into exile in North America, the UK and France during the French and Indian War. American Acadians, who wound up in Louisiana and other parts of the American South, are often referred to as Cajuns.
Many of the English-Canadian population of New Brunswick are descended from Loyalists who fled the American Revolution. This is commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit ("hope was restored"). There is also a significant population with Irish ancestry, especially in Saint John and the Miramichi Valley. People of Scottish descent are scattered throughout the Province with higher concentrations in the Miramichi and in Campbellton. A small population of Danish origin may be found in New Denmark in the northwest of the province.
|City||2011||2006||Land Area km²||Density /km²|
|Greater Saint John||127,761||122,389||3,362.95||38.0|
|Town||Population (2011)||Population Ranking||Land Area km²||Area Ranking||Density /km²||Density Ranking|
|English Canadian / Canadien||415,810||57.78%|
The information at the left is from Statistics Canada  Percentages add to more than 100% because of dual responses e.g. "Danish-Canadian" generates an entry in both the category "Danish" and the category "Canadian". Groups with more than 3,000 responses are included.
|Visible minority and Aboriginal population (Canada 2006 Census)|
|Population group||Population||% of total population|
|Visible minority group
|Visible minority, n.i.e.||150||0%|
|Multiple visible minority||455||0.1%|
|Total visible minority population||13,345||1.9%|
|Multiple Aboriginal identity||100||0%|
|Total Aboriginal population||17,650||2.5%|
Compared to other provinces, New Brunswick has a relatively even split of French and English population. As a comparison, the minority language communities of Ontario and Quebec (Franco-Ontarians and English-speaking Quebecers respectively) make up less than 10% of those provinces' populations. With both official language communities so strongly represented, New Brunswick is home to both French and English language hospitals and healthcare networks, school systems, universities, and media. The province also has a relatively high proportion of people who state that they can speak both official languages, with about 246,000 people, or 33.2% of the population reporting the ability to speak both English and French (though Francophones make up two-thirds of those who are bilingual).
Language policy remains a perennial issue in New Brunswick society and politics. Recurring debates have arisen in regards to interpretation of the provincial bilingualism policy, duality (the system of parallel French and English speaking public services), and specifics of implementation. The extent of the provincial policy on bilingualism means that a new row is never far off in the New Brunswick news cycle. The French-speaking community continues to advocate for full funding of French-language public services and fair representation in public sector employment, while some Anglophones (and Francophones) fear that the system of duality is financially inefficient and its extent is not worthwhile, or that the provincial governments targets for bilingualism in public employment are hurting their chances to work for the government, as Anglophones are less likely than Francophones to be proficient enough in both official languages to use them in employment.
The province's bilingual status is enshrined in both provincial and federal law. The Canadian Constitution makes specific mention of New Brunswick's bilingual status and defines the spirit of implementation as one based on both community and individual rights (in contrast with the constitutional protections for the other provinces that is limited to individuals, though this extends to "community" issues in terms of provision of schooling etc.). The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms has a number of New Brunswick specific articles and makes specific mention of New Brunswick in each section relating to language (ex. Section 18 has two paragraphs, the first regarding bilingual publication of the Canadian Parliaments work and laws, the second specifying that New Brunswick's legislature will publish its work in both French and English). Of particular interest is Article 16.1, which declares that the French and English speaking communities of New Brunswick have equal rights and privileges, including community specific educational and cultural institutions. This specific distinction of linguistic community is important in that it recognizes not only the rights of individuals to use their language, but also demands that the two official language communities have their specific institutions upheld.
New Brunswick's official languages are shown in bold. Figures shown are for the number of single-language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses. During the 19th century Scottish Gaelic was also spoken in the Campbellton and Dalhousie area. The language died out as a natively-spoken language in the province in the early 20th century.
In 2012, New Brunswick francophones scored lower on the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies than their anglophone counterparts in New Brunswick.
Note: "n.i.e.": not included elsewhere
There were also 45 single-language responses for Gujarati; 135 for Niger-Congo languages n.i.e.; 70 for Creole; 95 for Non-verbal languages (Sign languages); 115 for Japanese; 30 for Indo-Iranian languages n.i.e.; 5 for Somali; 20 for Sinhala (Sinhalese); and 40 for Malayalam. New Brunswick's official languages are shown in bold. (Figures shown are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.)
There were also 195 immigrants from the Democratic Republic of Congo; 180 from Vietnam; 170 from Colombia; 165 each from Hungary and Romania; 155 each from Belgium and El Salvador; 140 each from Greece and Ireland (Éire); 125 from Poland; 120 each from Afghanistan and South Africa; 115 from Ukraine; 110 from Guyana; 105 each from Denmark and from Trinidad and Tobago; and 100 from Austria.
A total of 64,205 people moved to New Brunswick from other parts of Canada between 1996 and 2006 while 83,240 people moved in the opposite direction. These movements resulted in a net outmigration of 8,410 people to Alberta, 4,330 to Ontario, 2,930 to Nova Scotia, and 1,995 to Quebec. During this period there was a net outmigration of 2,125 francophones to Quebec, 1,460 francophones going to Ontario, 1,355 to Alberta and 145 to Nova Scotia; and also a net influx of 240 anglophones from Quebec. (All net inter-provincial movements of more than 500 persons and official minority movements of more than 100 persons are given.)
|- Total Catholic2||386,035||53.6||366,155||49.8|
|- Total Protestant||260,695||36.2||249,820||34.0|
|- United Church of Canada||69,235||9.6||54,270||7.4|
|- Anglican Church of Canada||58,210||8.1||51,365||7.0|
|- Protestant, Other3||24,200||2.6||45,910||6.2|
|- Christian Orthodox4||565||0.1||980||0.1|
|No Religious Affiliation||56,440||7.8||111,435||15.1|
|- Other Religions5||1,970||0.3||1,915||0.3|
|- Aboriginal Spirituality||360||0.1||525||0.1|
1 The 2011 data is from the National Household Survey and so numbers are estimates.
Dialogue New Brunswick (NB) is a non-profit organization known for developing programs and initiatives that inspire communities and individuals to live together in greater harmony - respecting and celebrating all people as valued members of society.The non-profit was formed to be a catalyst to get French- and English-speaking people to talk and listen to each other within New Brunswick, Canada and beyond.List of communities in New Brunswick
This is a list of communities in New Brunswick, a province in Canada. For the purposes of this list, a community is defined as either an incorporated municipality, an Indian reserve, or an unincorporated community inside or outside a municipality.List of municipalities in New Brunswick
New Brunswick is the eighth-most populous province in Canada with 747,101 residents as of the 2016 Census, and the third-smallest province in land area at 71,389 km2 (27,563 sq mi). New Brunswick's 104 municipalities cover only 9.8% of the province's land mass but are home to 68.9% of its population.
Municipalities in New Brunswick may incorporate under the Municipalities Act of 1973 as a city, town, village, regional municipality, or rural community. Municipal governments are led by elected councils and are responsible for the delivery of services such as civic administration, land use planning, emergency measures, policing, road, and garbage collection. New Brunswick has 8 cities, 26 towns, 61 villages, 1 regional municipality, and 8 rural communities. Although rural communities are under the Municipalities Act, the provincial government distinguishes them from municipalities.In 1785, Saint John became the first community in what would eventually become Canada to incorporate as a city. Moncton is New Brunswick's largest municipality by population with 71,889 residents and Saint John is the largest urban municipality by land area at 315.96 km2 (121.99 sq mi). Approximately one-third of the residents of New Brunswick do not live in municipalities but reside in local service districts, which are unincorporated communities administered by the Minister of Environment and Local Government and have no local government of their own.List of parishes in New Brunswick
The Canadian province of New Brunswick is home to 152 parishes that previously had political significance as districts within counties. While their political significance was abolished in 1966, they are still recognized as census subdivisions by Statistics Canada.
The Interpretation Act of New Brunswick states that parishes contain all municipalities within them; however, Statistics Canada separates incorporated municipalities from their parishes.
The unincorporated parts of parishes are often used as local service districts (LSDs), although some parishes contain multiple LSDs and some LSDs cross parish boundaries. These non-parish LSDs can serve as designated places for census purposes.Outline of Canada
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Canada:
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area, and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest, and marine borders with France and Greenland on the east and northeast, respectively.
The lands have been inhabited for millennia by various groups of aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War.
In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of additional provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom, highlighted by the Statute of Westminster in 1931 and culminating in the Canada Act in 1982 which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. Technologically advanced and industrialized, Canada maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has a long and complex relationship.Outline of New Brunswick
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to New Brunswick:
New Brunswick is a Canadian maritime province. The province, with an area of 72,908 square kilometres (28,100 sq mi), has a humid continental climate. It is the only constitutionally bilingual (English–French) province. Its urban areas have modern, service-based economies dominated by the health care, educational, retail, finance, and insurance sectors, while the rural primary economy is best known for forestry, mining, mixed farming, and fishing. New Brunswick's capital is Fredericton, and its largest city is Saint John.