Demographics of Africa

The population of Africa has grown rapidly over the past century[1] and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries.[2] Total population as of 2017 is estimated at more than 1.25 billion, with a growth rate of more than 2.5% p.a. The most populous African country is Nigeria with 191 million inhabitants as of 2017 and a growth rate of 2.6% p.a.[3]

Demographics of Africa
Density1/sq km (2017 est.)
Growth rate2.5% per annum (2017 est.)
HDImap spectrum2006 Africa
Map of Africa indicating Human Development Index (2004).

Population growth

Population growth rate world 2018
Most African countries have annual population growth rates above 2%.

As of 2016, the total population of Africa is estimated at 1.225 billion, representing 17% of the world's population.[3] According to UN estimates, the population of Africa may reach 2.5 billion by 2050 (about 26% of the world's total) and nearly 4.5 billion by 2100 (about 40% of the world's total).[3]

The population of Africa first surpassed one billion in 2009, with a doubling time of 27 years (growth rate 2.6% p.a.).[5]

Population growth has continued at almost the same pace, and total population is expected to surpass 2 billion by 2038 (doubling time 29 years, 2.4% p.a.).[3]

The reason for the uncontrolled population growth since the mid 20th century is the decrease of infant mortality and general increase of life expectancy without a corresponding reduction in fertility rate, due to a very limited use of contraceptives. Uncontrolled population growth threatens to overwhelm infrastructure development and crippling economic development.[6] Kenya and Zambia are pursuing programs to promote family planning in an attempt to curb growth rates.[7]

The extreme population growth in Africa is driven by East Africa, Middle Africa and West Africa, which regions are projected to more than quintuple their populations over the 21st century. The most extreme of these is Middle Africa, with an estimated population increase by 680%, from less than 100 million in 2000 to more than 750 million in 2100 (more than half of this figure is driven by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, projected to increase from 47 million in 2000 to 379 million in 2100). Projected population growth is less extreme in Southern Africa and North Africa, which are expected, respectively, to not quite double and triple their populations over the same period.[3]

Expectancy of life CIA2016
  >80
  77.5–80
  75–77.5
  72.5–75
  70–72.5
  67.5–70
  65–67.5
  60–65
  55–60
  50–55
Life expectancy by region in 2016[8][9][10][11]

Population estimates by region (in billions):

2000 2050 2100
Eastern Africa 0.26 0.89 (+242%, +2.5% p.a.) 1.58 (+507%, +1.8% p.a.)
Middle Africa 0.096 0.38 (+300%, +2.8% p.a.) 0.75 (+680%, +2.1% p.a.)
North Africa 0.17 0.36 (+112%, +1.5% p.a.) 0.47 (+176%, +1.0% p.a.)
Southern Africa 0.052 0.086 (+65%, +1.0% p.a.) 0.092 (+77%, +0.6% p.a.)
West Africa 0.24 0.81 (+238%, +2.5% p.a.) 1.58 (+558%, +1.9% p.a.)
Africa 0.82 2.53 (+209%, +2.3% p.a.) 4.47 (+454%, +1.7% p.a.)
World 6.15 9.77 (+60%, +0.9% p.a.) 11.18 (+82%, +0.6% p.a.)

Health

Infantmortalityrate
World map indicating infant mortality rates per 1000 births in 2006.[12]

History of health care development in sub-Saharan Africa

In September 1987, UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Committee announced the launching of the Bamako Initiative— chartered in response to financial issues occurring in the region during the 1980s, and with the aim of increasing access to vital medications through community involvement in revolving drug funds.[13][14] The 1987 Bamako Initiative conference, organized by the WHO was held in Bamako, the capital of Mali, and helped reshape the health policy of sub-Saharan Africa.[15] The meeting was attended by African Ministers of Health who advocated for improvement of healthcare access through the revitalization of primary healthcare.[13][14] The new strategy substantially increased accessibility through community-based healthcare reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services. The public health community within the region raised issues in response to the initiative, of which included: equity, access, affordability, integration issues, relative importance given to medications, management, dependency, logistics, and sustainability.[13] As a result of these critiques, the Initiative later transformed to address the increase of accessibility of health services, the enhancement of quality of health services, and the overall improvement of health system management.[13] A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost.[16][17]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 37.46
1955–1960 Increase 39.95
1960–1965 Increase 42.32
1965–1970 Increase 44.42
1970–1975 Increase 46.51
1975–1980 Increase 48.66
1980–1985 Increase 50.45
1985–1990 Increase 51.72
1990–1995 Decrease 51.71
1995–2000 Increase 52.33
2000–2005 Increase 53.67
2005–2010 Increase 56.97
2010–2015 Increase 60.23

Source: World Population Prospects[18]

Major health challenges

The sub-Saharan African region experiences disproportionate rates of infectious and chronic diseases in comparison to other global regions.[19]

Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes persists as an epidemic in the region posing a public health and socioeconomic crisis for sub-Saharan Africa. Scarcity of data for pathogenesis and subtypes for diabetes in sub-Saharan African communities has led to gaps in documenting epidemiology for the disease. High rates of undiagnosed diabetes in many countries leaves individuals at a high risk of chronic health complications, thus, posing a high risk of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality in the region.[20]

HIV/AIDS

In 2011, sub-Saharan Africa was home to 69% of all people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide.[21] In response, a number of initiatives have been launched to educate the public on HIV/AIDS. Among these are combination prevention programmes, considered to be the most effective initiative, the abstinence, be faithful, use a condom campaign, and the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation's outreach programs.[22] According to a 2013 special report issued by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the number of HIV positive people in Africa receiving anti-retroviral treatment in 2012 was over seven times the number receiving treatment in 2005, with an almost 1 million added in the last year alone.[23][24] The number of AIDS-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2011 was 33 percent less than the number in 2005.[25] The number of new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa in 2011 was 25 percent less than the number in 2001.[25]

Malaria

Malaria is an endemic illness in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of malaria cases and deaths worldwide occur.[26]

Maternal and infant mortality

Studies show that more than half of the world’s maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa.[27][28] However, progress has been made in this area, as maternal mortality rates have decreased for multiple countries in the region by about half since 1990.[28] Additionally, the African Union in July 2003 ratified the Maputo Protocol, which pledges to prohibit female genital mutilation(FGM).[29]

The sub-Saharan African region alone accounts for about 45% of global infant and child mortalities. Studies have shown a relationship between infant survival and the education of mothers, as years of education positively correlate with infant survival rates. Geographic location is also a factor, as child mortality rates are higher in rural areas in comparison to urban regions.[30]

Measles

Routine immunization has been introduced to countries within sub-Saharan Africa in order to prevent measles outbreaks within the region.[31]

Neglected tropical diseases

Neglected tropical diseases such as hookworm infection encompass some of the most common health conditions which affect an estimated 500 million individuals in the sub-Saharan African region.[32]

Non-communicable diseases

Results of Global Burden of Disease studies reveal that the age-standardized death rates of non-communicable diseases in at least four sub-Saharan countries including South Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Ethiopia supersede that of identified high-income countries.[19] Improvement in statistics systems and increase in epidemiological studies with in-depth analysis of disease risk factors could improve the understanding of non-communicable diseases (i.e.: diabetes, hypertension, cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, etc.) in sub-Saharan Africa as well as better inform decisions surrounding healthcare policy in the region.[19]

Onchocerciasis

Onchocerciasis ("river blindness"), a common cause of blindness, is also endemic to parts of the region. More than 99% of people affected by the illness worldwide live in 31 countries therein.[33] In response, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was launched in 1995 with the aim of controlling the disease.[33]

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality on a global scale, especially in high HIV-prevalent populations in the sub-Saharan African region, with a high case fatality rate.[34]

National healthcare systems

National health systems vary between countries. In Ghana, most health care is provided by the government and largely administered by the Ministry of Health and Ghana Health Services. The healthcare system has five levels of providers: health posts which are first level primary care for rural areas, health centers and clinics, district hospitals, regional hospitals and tertiary hospitals. These programs are funded by the government of Ghana, financial credits, Internally Generated Fund (IGF), and Donors-pooled Health Fund.[35]

A shortage of health professionals compounded by migration of health workers from sub-Saharan Africa to other parts of the world (namely English-speaking nations such as the United States and the United Kingdom) has negatively impacted productivity and efficacy of the region’s health systems.[36]

More than 85% of individuals in Africa use traditional medicine as an alternative to often expensive allopathic medical health care and costly pharmaceutical products. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) Heads of State and Government declared the 2000s decade as the African Decade on African Traditional Medicine in an effort to promote The WHO African Region’s adopted resolution for institutionalizing traditional medicine in health care systems across the continent.[37] Public policy makers in the region are challenged with consideration of the importance of traditional/indigenous health systems and whether their coexistence with the modern medical and health sub-sector would improve the equitability and accessibility of health care distribution, the health status of populations, and the social-economic development of nations within sub-Saharan Africa.[38]

Africa HIV-AIDS 2002

Map of Africa colored according to the percentage of the adult (ages 15–49) population with HIV/AIDS.[39]

Life expectancy in select Southern African countries 1960-2012

Life expectancy has fallen drastically in Southern Africa a result of HIV/AIDS.[40]

Ethnicity

San tribesman
San man from Botswana.
Kwarastatedrummers
Yoruba drummers in Kwara State, Nigeria (2004).

Speakers of Bantu languages (part of the Niger–Congo family) predominate in southern, central and southeast Africa. The Bantu farmers from West Africa's inland savanna progressively expanded over most of Africa.[41] But there are also several Nilotic groups in South Sudan and East Africa, the mixed Swahili people on the Swahili Coast, and a few remaining indigenous Khoisan (San and Khoikhoi) and Pygmy peoples in southern and central Africa, respectively. Bantu-speaking Africans also predominate in Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, and are found in parts of southern Cameroon. In the Kalahari Desert of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as the "San" have long been present. Together with the Khoikhoi, they form the Khoisan. The San are the pre-Bantu indigenous people of southern Africa, while Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous African peoples of Central Africa.[42] The peoples of West Africa primarily speak Niger–Congo languages belonging mostly, though not exclusively, to its non-Bantu branches, though some Nilo-Saharan and Afroasiatic-speaking groups are also found. The Niger–Congo-speaking Yoruba, Igbo, Fulani, Akan and Wolof ethnic groups are the largest and most influential. In the central Sahara, Mandinka or Mande groups are most significant. Chadic-speaking groups, including the Hausa, are found in the more northerly parts of the region nearest to the Sahara and Nilo-Saharan communities such as the Kanuri,[43][44] Zarma[44] and Songhai[44][45] are present in eastern parts of West Africa bordering Central Africa.

The peoples of North Africa comprise three main groups: Berbers in the northwest, Egyptians and Libyans in northeast, and Nilo-Saharan-speaking peoples in the east. The Muslim settlers who arrived in the 7th century introduced the Arabic language and Islam to the region, initiating a process of linguistic Arabization of the region's inhabitants. The Semitic Phoenicians (who founded Carthage) and Hyksos, the Indo-Iranian Alans, the Indo-European Greeks, Romans and Vandals settled in North Africa as well. Berber-speaking populations still make significant communities within Morocco and Algeria and are still also present in smaller numbers in Tunisia and Libya.[46] The Berber-speaking Tuareg and other often-nomadic peoples are the principal inhabitants of the Saharan interior of North Africa. In Mauritania, there is a small Berber community and Niger–Congo-speaking peoples in the South, though in both regions Arabic and Arab culture predominates. In Sudan, although Arabic and Arab culture predominates, it is also inhabited by originally Nilo-Saharan-speaking groups such as the Nubians, Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa[47] who over the centuries have variously intermixed with migrants from the Arabian peninsula. Small communities of Afro-Asiatic-speaking Beja nomads can also be found in Egypt and Sudan.

In the Horn of Africa, Afro-Asiatic-speaking groups predominate. Ethiopian and Eritrean groups like the Amhara and Tigrayans (collectively known as Habesha) speak languages from the Semitic branch of Afro-Asiatic language family, while the Oromo and Somali speak languages from the Cushitic branch of Afro-Asiatic. In southern Ethiopia and Eritrea, Nilotic peoples related to those in South Sudan are also found, while Bantu and Khoisan ethnic minorities inhabit parts of southern Somalia.

Boerfamily1886
An Afrikaner family from South Africa, 1886.

Prior to the decolonization movements of the post-World War II era, Europeans were represented in every part of Africa.[48] Decolonisation during the 1960s and 1970s often resulted in the mass emigration of European-descended settlers out of Africa – especially from Algeria and Morocco (1.6 million pieds-noirs in North Africa),[49] Kenya, Congo,[50] Rhodesia, Mozambique and Angola.[51] By the end of 1977, more than one million Portuguese were thought to have returned from Africa.[52] Nevertheless, White Africans remain a minority in many African states, particularly South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Réunion.[53] The African country with the largest native European African population is South Africa.[54] The Afrikaners, the British diaspora and the Coloureds are the largest native European-descended groups in Africa today.

Native European colonization also brought sizable groups of Asians, particularly people from the Indian subcontinent, to British colonies. Large Indian communities are found in South Africa, and smaller ones are present in Kenya, Tanzania, and some other southern and East African countries. The large Indian community in Uganda was expelled by the dictator Idi Amin in 1972, though many have since returned. The islands in the Indian Ocean are also populated primarily by people of Asian origin, often mixed with Africans and Europeans. The Malagasy people of Madagascar are Austronesian people and native African people, but those along the coast are generally mixed with Bantu, Arab, Indian and European origins. Malay and Indian ancestries are also important components in the group of people known in South Africa as Cape Coloureds (people with origins in two or more races and continents). Beginning with the 21st century many Hispanics, primarily Mexicans, Central Americans, Chileans, Peruvians, and Colombians, have immigrated to Africa. Around 500,000 Hispanics have immigrated to Africa, most of whom live in South Africa, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda, and Ghana. During the 20th century, small but economically important communities of Lebanese and Chinese[55] have also developed in the larger coastal cities of West and East Africa, respectively.[56]

Languages

Africa ethnic groups 1996
1996 map of the major ethnolinguistic groups of Africa, by the Library of Congress Geography and Map Division (substantially based on G.P. Murdock, Africa, its peoples and their cultural history, 1959). Colour-coded are 15 major ethnolinguistic super-groups, as follows:
Afroasiatic
     Hamitic (Berber, Cushitic) + Semitic (Ethiopian, Arabic)
     Hausa (Chadic)
Niger–Congo
     Bantu
     "Guinean" (Volta-Niger, Kwa, Kru)
     "Western Bantoid" (Atlantic)
     "Central Bantoid" (Gur, Senufo)
     "Eastern Bantoid" (Southern Bantoid)
     Mande
Nilo-Saharan (unity debated)
     Nilotic
     Central Sudanic, Eastern Sudanic (besides Nilotic)
     Kanuri
     Songhai
other
     Khoi-San (unity doubtful; Khoikhoi, San, Sandawe + Hadza)
     Malayo-Polynesian (Malagasy)
     Indo-European (Afrikaaner)

There are three major linguistic phyla native to Africa: Niger–Congo languages (including Bantu) in West, Central, Southeast and Southern Africa; Nilo-Saharan languages (unity debated) spoken from Tanzania to Sudan and from Chad to Mali; Khoisan languages (probably no phylogenetic unit, see Khoe languages), concentrated in the Kalahari Desert of Namibia and Botswana; There are several other small families and language isolates, as well as languages that have yet to be classified.

In addition, the Afroasiatic languages are spread throughout Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel. The Afroasiatic homeland may be either in Western Asia or in Africa.

More recently introduced to Africa are Austronesian languages spoken in Madagascar, as well as Indo-European languages spoken in South Africa and Namibia (Afrikaans, English, German), which were used as lingua francas in former European colonies.

The total number of languages natively spoken in Africa is variously estimated (depending on the delineation of language vs. dialect) at between 1,250 and 2,100,[57] and by some counts at "over 3,000",[58] Nigeria alone has over 500 languages (according to the count of SIL Ethnologue),[59]

Around a hundred languages are widely used for inter-ethnic communication. Arabic, Somali, Berber, Amharic, Oromo, Igbo, Swahili, Hausa, Manding, Fulani and Yoruba are spoken by tens of millions of people. Twelve dialect clusters (which may group up to a hundred linguistic varieties) are spoken by 75 percent, and fifteen by 85 percent, of Africans as a first or additional language.[60]

Niger–Congo is the largest phylum of African languages, with more than 500 million speakers (2017); it is dominated by the Bantu branch, spread throughout sub-Saharan Africa in the Bantu expansion, Bantu speakers accounting for about half of Niger–Congo speakers. Arabic is the most widely spoken single language in Africa by far, with a population of Arab Africa of the order of 330 million (2017). Other Afroasiatic languages are spoken by of the order of 100 million speakers in Africa (2017). Nilo-Saharan are spoken by of the order of 100 million speakers (2017). Khoisan groups a number of mostly endangered click languages, the largest being Khoekhoe with of the order of 300,000 speakers (2016).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Zinkina J., Korotayev A. Explosive Population Growth in Tropical Africa: Crucial Omission in Development Forecasts (Emerging Risks and Way Out). World Futures 70/2 (2014): 120–139.
  2. ^ See List of countries by life expectancy; according to the 2012 CIA Factbook, 4 of 53 countries show a life expectancy at birth below 50 years
  3. ^ a b c d e "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  4. ^ "Population of Africa (2019) - Worldometers". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  5. ^ "Africa population tops a billion". BBC. 18 November 2009."World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision" United Nations (Department of Economic and Social Affairs, population division)
  6. ^ Eliya Zulu, "How to defuse sub-Saharan Africa’s population bomb", New Scientist, 26 April 2012. Jeffrey Gutman and Nirav Patel, "Urban Africa: Avoiding the perfect storm", Foresight Africa, 26 January 2018.
  7. ^ Joseph J Bish, "Population growth in Africa: grasping the scale of the challenge", The Guardian, 11 January 2016. "African fertility has not fallen as expected. Precipitous declines in fertility in Asia and Latin America, from five children per woman in the 1970s to around 2.5 today, led many to believe Africa would follow a similar course. [...] Unfortunately, since the early 1990s, family planning programmes in Africa have not had the same attention [as in other parts of the world], resulting in slow, sometimes negligible, fertility declines. In a handful of countries, previous declines have stalled altogether and are reversing. [...] A few heroic efforts, such as Family Planning 2020, are attempting to stimulate family planning programmes across the continent, and there are some signs of success. Recent figures from Kenya and Zambia show substantial strengthening of contraceptive use among married women. In Kenya, 58% of married women now use modern contraception, and in Zambia this measure has risen from 33% to 45% in the last three years. In both cases, the catalysts for improvements were government commitment and commensurate budget financing. The virtuous circle may not be completely out of reach, but many more African governments must make haste and make substantial investments in contraceptive information and access for their people."
  8. ^ "World Health Statistics 2016: Monitoring health for the SDGs Annex B: tables of health statistics by country, WHO region and globally" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  9. ^ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (29 July 2015). "United Nations World Population Prospects: 2015 revision" (PDF). UN. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  10. ^ "Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Life expectancy at birth". Index Mundi. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
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  12. ^ The world factbook 2006. United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Dulles, Va.: Potomac. 2006. ISBN 978-1574889970. OCLC 64964412.CS1 maint: others (link)
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  18. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  19. ^ a b c Dalal, Shona; Beunza, Juan Jose; Volmink, Jimmy; Adebamowo, Clement; Bajunirwe, Francis; Njelekela, Marina; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Fawzi, Wafaie; Willett, Walter (1 August 2011). "Non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: what we know now". International Journal of Epidemiology. 40 (4): 885–901. doi:10.1093/ije/dyr050. ISSN 0300-5771. PMID 21527446.
  20. ^ Mbanya, Jean Claude N; Motala, Ayesha A; Sobngwi, Eugene; Assah, Felix K; Enoru, Sostanie T (26 June 2010). "Diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa". The Lancet. 375 (9733): 2254–2266. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(10)60550-8. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 20609971.
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  22. ^ "Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation - Our Work". 16 January 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  23. ^ "UNAIDS reports more than 7 million people now on HIV treatment across Africa––with nearly 1 million added in the last year—while new HIV infections and deaths from AIDS continue to fall". www.unaids.org. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  24. ^ UN Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) (May 2013). "UNAIDS Special Report Update: How Africa Turned AIDS Around" (PDF).
  25. ^ a b Global report : UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic : 2012. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. [Geneva]: UNAIDS. 2012. ISBN 9789291735921. OCLC 823635323.CS1 maint: others (link)
  26. ^ "Fact sheet about Malaria". World Health Organization. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  27. ^ Alvarez, Jose Luis; Gil, Ruth; Hernández, Valentín; Gil, Angel (14 December 2009). "Factors associated with maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study". BMC Public Health. 9: 462. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-462. PMC 2801510. PMID 20003411.
  28. ^ a b "Maternal mortality". World Health Organization. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  29. ^ Bonino, Emma (15 September 2004). "A brutal custom : Join forces to banish the mutilation of women". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  30. ^ Black lives matter : lifespan perspectives. Fairchild, Halford H. Delhi, India. ISBN 9789382661405. OCLC 984759607.CS1 maint: others (link)
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  32. ^ Hotez, Peter J.; Kamath, Aruna (25 August 2009). "Neglected Tropical Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Disease Burden". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 3 (8): e412. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000412. PMC 2727001. PMID 19707588.
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  34. ^ Mukadi, Ya Diul; Maher, Dermot; Harries, Anthony (26 January 2001). "Tuberculosis case fatality rates in high HIV prevalence populations in sub-Saharan Africa". AIDS. 15 (2): 143–52. doi:10.1097/00002030-200101260-00002. ISSN 0269-9370. PMID 11216921.
  35. ^ Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Ye, Xiao (1 April 2001). "Public Health and Education Spending in Ghana in 1992-98: Issues of Equity and Efficiency". SSRN 632648.
  36. ^ Naicker, Saraladevi; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Tutt, Roger C.; Eastwood, John B. (2009). "Shortage of healthcare workers in developing countries--Africa". Ethnicity & Disease. 19 (1 Suppl 1): S1–60–4. ISSN 1049-510X. PMID 19484878.
  37. ^ Kofi-Tsekpo, Mawuli (2004). "Institutionalization of African traditional medicine in health care systems in Africa". African Journal of Health Sciences. 11 (1–2): i–ii. ISSN 1022-9272. PMID 17298111.
  38. ^ Dunlop, David W. (November 1975). "Alternatives to "modern" health delivery systems in Africa: Public policy issues of traditional health systems". Social Science & Medicine. 9 (11–12): 581–586. doi:10.1016/0037-7856(75)90171-7. ISSN 0037-7856.
  39. ^ "Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  40. ^ "BBC News | Health | Life expectancy in Africa plummets due to Aids". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  41. ^ Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). "Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective". PUQ. p.204. ISBN 2-7605-1588-5
  42. ^ Pygmies struggle to survive in war zone where abuse is routine. Times Online. 16 December 2004.
  43. ^ "The World Factbook".
  44. ^ a b c "The World Factbook".
  45. ^ "The World Factbook".
  46. ^ Q&A: The Berbers. BBC News. 12 March 2004.
  47. ^ John A. Shoup, Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East (2011), p. 333, ISBN 159884363X: "The Zaghawa is one of the major divisions of the Beri peoples who live in western Sudan and eastern Chad, and their language, also called Zaghawa, belongs to the Saharan branch of the Nilo-Saharan language group."
  48. ^ "We Want Our Country" (3 of 10). Time. 5 November 1965
  49. ^ Raimondo Cagiano De Azevedo (1994). "Migration and development co-operation.". Council of Europe. p.25. ISBN 92-871-2611-9
  50. ^ Jungle Shipwreck. Time. 25 July 1960
  51. ^ Flight from Angola, The Economist , 16 August 1975
  52. ^ Portugal - Emigration, Eric Solsten, ed. Portugal: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1993.
  53. ^ Holm, John A. (1989). Pidgins and Creoles: References survey. Cambridge University Press. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-521-35940-5.
  54. ^ South Africa: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  55. ^ "China and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration". By Malia Politzer, Migration Information Source. August 2008.
  56. ^ "Lebanese Immigrants Boost West African Commerce", By Naomi Schwarz, VOANews.com, 10 July 2007
  57. ^ Heine, Bernd; Heine, Bernd, eds. (2000). African Languages: an Introduction. Cambridge University Press.
  58. ^ Epstein, Edmund L.; Kole, Robert, eds. (1998). The Language of African Literature. Africa World Press. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-86543-534-6. Retrieved 23 June 2011. Africa is incredibly rich in language—over 3,000 indigenous languages by some counts, and many creoles, pidgins, and lingua francas.
  59. ^ "Ethnologue report for Nigeria". Ethnologue Languages of the World.
  60. ^ "Human Development Report 2004" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2004.
Demographics of Burkina Faso

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Burkina Faso, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Burkina Faso's 18.6 million people belong to two major West African cultural groups—the Gur (Voltaic) and the Mandé. The Voltaic are far more numerous and include the Mossi, who make up about one-half of the population. The Mossi claim descent from warriors who migrated to present-day Burkina Faso and established an empire that lasted more than 800 years. Predominantly farmers, the Mossi are still bound by the traditions of the Mogho Naba, who hold court in Ouagadougou.

About 12,000 Europeans reside in Burkina Faso, the majority of whom are French.

Most of Burkina Faso's population is concentrated in the south and center of the country, with a population density sometimes exceeding 48 inhabitants per square kilometer (120 inhabitants per square mile). This population density, high for Africa, causes annual migrations of hundreds of thousands of Burkinabé to Ivory Coast and Ghana for seasonal agricultural work. About a third of Burkinabé adhere to traditional African religions. The introduction of Islam to Burkina Faso was initially resisted by the Mossi rulers. Christians, predominantly Roman Catholics, are largely concentrated among the urban elite.

Few Burkinabé have had formal education. Schooling is free but not compulsory, and only about 29% of Burkina's primary school-age children receive a basic education. The University of Ouagadougou, founded in 1974, was the country's first institution of higher education. The Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso in Bobo-Dioulasso was opened in 1995.

Demographics of Burundi

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Burundi, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

At 206.1 persons per km²., Burundi has the second-largest population density in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most people live on farms near areas of fertile volcanic soil. The population is made up of three major ethnic groups – Hutu (Bahutu), Tutsi (Batutsi or Watusi), and Twa (Batwa). Kirundi is the common language. Intermarriage takes place frequently between the Hutus and Tutsis. The terms "pastoralist" and "agriculturist", often used as ethnic designations for Watusi and Bahutu, respectively, are only occupational titles which vary among individuals and groups. Although Hutus encompass the majority of the population, historically Tutsis have been politically and economically dominant.

Demographics of Cameroon

The demographic profile of Cameroon is complex for a country of its population. Cameroon comprises an estimated 250 distinct ethnic groups, which may be formed into five large regional-cultural divisions:

western highlanders (Semi-Bantu or grassfielders), including the Bamileke, Bamum (or Bamoun), and many smaller Tikar groups in the Northwest (est. 38% of total population);

coastal tropical forest peoples, including the Bassa, Duala (or Douala), and many smaller groups in the Southwest (12%);

southern tropical forest peoples, including the Beti-Pahuin, Bulu (a subgroup of Beti-Pahuin), Fang (subgroup of Beti-Pahuin), Maka, Njem, and Baka pygmies (18%);

predominantly Islamic peoples of the northern semi-arid regions (the Sahel) and central highlands, including the Fulani (French: Peul or Peuhl; Fula: Fulɓe) (14%); and

the "Kirdi", non-Islamic or recently Islamic peoples of the northern desert and central highlands (18%).The Cameroon government held two national censuses during the country's first 44 years as an independent country, in 1976 and again in 1987. Results from the second head count were never published. A third census, expected to take years to produce results, began on November 11, 2005, with a three-week interviewing phase. It is one of a series of projects and reforms required by the International Monetary Fund as prerequisites for foreign debt relief. The first results were published in 2010.

Demographics of Cape Verde

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Cape Verde, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Cape Verde has a population of about 540,000 inhabitants, divided evenly of those who live in the islands and the ones who live abroad in the Cape Verdean diaspora in mainland Africa, Europe, U.S., Brazil, et cetera. A large proportion (236,000) of Cape Verdeans live on the main island, Santiago.The archipelago of Cape Verde were first found and claimed by Portuguese sailors working for the Portuguese Crown in 1456. There is no such thing as Black. Cape Verdeans are West African. Trade between the Norwegian and Portuguese people caused a mix of people. Many foreigners from other parts of the world settled in Cape Verde as their permanent country. Most of them were Dutch, French, British (English), Arab and Jewish (from Lebanon and Morocco). All of these have been absorbed into the mixed population.The high degree of genetic mixture of individuals is a result of centuries of migration. It is not unusual to encounter persons with dark skin, blond hair, and blue eyes, and persons with seemingly light caucasian skin and textured curly hair.

Survival in a country with few natural resources has historically induced Cape Verdeans to emigrate. In fact, of the more than 1 million people of Cape Verdean ancestry in the world, only a little more than one-third actually live on the islands. Some 500,000 people of Cape Verdean ancestry live in the United States, mainly in New England. Many people of Cape Verdean ancestry also live in Portugal, Netherlands, France, Italy, Mexico, Uruguay, Argentina, and Senegal. Cape Verdean populations also settled Spain, Germany, Canada, and other CPLP countries (Angola, Brazil and Guinea-Bissau). Since after independence from Portugal in 1975, a number of Cape Verdean students continued to be admitted every year at Portuguese high schools, polytechnical institutes and universities, through bilateral agreements between the Portuguese and Cape Verdean governments.

Portuguese functions as a state language. Virtually all formal documents and official declarations are stated in Portuguese. But it is not the first language. Cape Verdean, commonly called Creolo, is spoken as a mother tongue by virtually all Cape Verdeans, irrespective of social status or religious affiliation. Moreover, historical linguists often attribute Cape Verdean Creole as the oldest "New World" contact language. It is a "contact" language in the sense that it was birthed and evolved between linguistically different groups who, by necessity, had to create a common language to communicate with each other. There is a rich repertoire of literature and songs in Cape Verdean Creole. In religion, the majority of Cape Verdeans follow Catholic Christianity. There are some Protestants, Bahá'ís and Muslims.

Demographics of Djibouti

This article is about the demographics of Djibouti, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Eswatini

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Eswatini, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The majority of Eswatini's population is ethnic Swazi, mixed with a small number of Zulus and white Africans, predominantly of British and Afrikaner origin. This population also includes a small segment within it that is mixed with any number of these ancestries.

Traditionally Swazis have been subsistence farmers and herders, but most now work in the growing urban formal economy and in government. Some Swazis work in the mines in South Africa. Eswatini also received Portuguese settlers and black refugees from Mozambique. Christianity in Eswatini is sometimes mixed with traditional beliefs and practices. Most Swazis ascribe a special spiritual role to the Swazi Royal Family.

The country's official languages are Siswati (a language related to Zulu) and English. Government and commercial business is conducted mainly in English. Asians, Afrikaners, Portuguese, and black Mozambicans speak their own languages.

Demographics of Guinea-Bissau

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Guinea-Bissau, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Ivory Coast

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Ivory Coast, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Lesotho

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Lesotho, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The Demographics of Lesotho describe the condition and overview of Lesotho's peoples. Demographic topics include basic education, health, and population statistics as well as identified racial and religious affiliations.

Demographics of Madagascar

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Madagascar, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Madagascar's population is predominantly of mixed Austronesian and East African origin.

Demographics of Mali

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Mali, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Mauritania

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Mauritania, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Mozambique

The demographics of Mozambique describes the condition and overview of Mozambique's peoples. Demographic topics include basic education, health, and population statistics as well as identified racial and religious affiliations.

Demographics of Seychelles

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Seychelles, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

About 90% of the Seychellois people live on the island of Mahé. Most of the rest live on Praslin and La Digue, with the remaining smaller islands either sparsely populated or uninhabited.

Most Seychellois are descendants of early French settlers and East Africans who arrived in the 19th century. Tamils, along with other South Indians and Chinese (1.1% of the population) account for the other permanent inhabitants. About 1,703 (2000) expatriates live and work in Seychelles.

Seychelles culture is a mixture of French and African (Creole) influences. The local Seychellois Creole (Kreol), a creole language derived from French and African tongues, is the native language of 91.8% of the people; but English and French are also commonly used. English remains the language of government and commerce.

About 91.9% of the adult population is literate, and the literacy rate of school-aged children has risen to well over 98%. Increases are expected, as nearly all children of primary school age attend school, and the government encourages adult education.

Demographics of São Tomé and Príncipe

This article is about the demographic features of the population of São Tomé and Príncipe, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Of São Tomé and Príncipe's total population, about 131,000 live on São Tomé and 6,000 on Príncipe. All are descended from various ethnic groups that have migrated to the islands since 1485. Six groups are identifiable:

Luso-Africans, or mixed-heritage, descendants of Portuguese colonists and African slaves brought to the islands during the early years of settlement from Benin, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola (these people also are known as filhos da terra or "children of the land");

Angolares, reputedly descendants of Angolan slaves who survived a 1540 shipwreck and now earn their livelihood fishing;

Forros, descendants of freed slaves when slavery was abolished;

Serviçais, contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde, living temporarily on the islands;

Tongas, children of servicais born on the islands; and

Europeans, primarily Portuguese.

Asians, mostly Chinese minority, including Macanese people of mixed Portuguese and Chinese blood from Macau.Although a small country, São Tomé and Príncipe has four national languages: Portuguese (the official language, spoken by 95% of the population), and the Portuguese-based creoles Forro (85%), Angolar (3%) and Principense (0.1%). French is also learned in schools, as the country is a member of Francophonie.

In the 1970s, there were two significant population movements—the exodus of most of the 4,000 Portuguese residents and the influx of several hundred São Toméan refugees from Angola. The islanders have been absorbed largely into a common Luso-African culture. Almost all belong to the Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, or Seventh-day Adventist churches, which in turn retain close ties with churches in Portugal. There is a small but growing Muslim population.

Demographics of the Republic of the Congo

This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Republic of the Congo, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The Republic of the Congo's sparse population is concentrated in the southwestern portion of the country, leaving the vast areas of tropical jungle in the north virtually uninhabited. Thus, Congo is one of the most urbanized countries in Africa, with 85% of its total population living in a few urban areas, namely in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or one of the small cities or villages lining the 534-kilometre (332 mi) railway which connects the two cities. In rural areas, industrial and commercial activity has declined rapidly in recent years, leaving rural economies dependent on the government for support and subsistence. Before the 1997 war, about 15,000 Europeans and other non-Africans lived in Congo, most of whom were French. Presently, only about 9,500 remain. Pygmies make up 2% of Congo's population.

Emigration from Africa

This article addresses recent emigration from Africa. See African diaspora for a general treatment of historic population movements. See recent African origin of modern humans for pre-historic human migration.

During the period of 2000–2005, an estimated 440,000 people per year emigrated from Africa; a total number of 17 million migrants within Africa was estimated for 2005.

The figure of 0.44 million African emigrants per year (corresponding to about 0.05% of the continent's total population) pales in comparison to the annual population growth of about 2.6%, indicating that only about 2% of Africa's population growth is compensated for by emigration.During the 2000s, North Africa had been receiving large numbers of Sub-Saharan African migrants "in transit", predominantly from West Africa, who plan to enter Europe. An annual 22,000 illegal migrants took the route from either Tunisia or Libya to Lampedusa in the 2000–2005 period. This figure has decreased in 2006, but it has increased greatly as a result of the 2011 Tunisian revolution and the 2011 Libyan civil war. In 2005, 10,000 West African migrants heading for Europe were stranded in the Mauritanian port of Nouadhibou, and 20,000 sub-Saharan African migrants were waiting for an opportunity to cross to Europe in the Spanish enclaves in North Africa.

Languages of Africa

The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families:

Afroasiatic languages are spread throughout Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel.

Austronesian languages are spoken in Madagascar.

Indo-European languages are spoken in South Africa and Namibia (Afrikaans, English, German) and are used as lingua francas in the former colonies of Britain and Liberia that was part of American Colonization Society (English), former colonies of France and of Belgium (French), former colonies of Portugal and remaining Afro-Portuguese islands (Portuguese), former colonies of Italy (Italian), former colonies of Spain (Spanish) and the current Spanish territories of Ceuta, Melilla and the Canary Islands (Spanish).

Niger–Congo languages (Bantu and non-Bantu) cover West, Central, Southeast and Southern Africa.

Nilo-Saharan languages (unity debated) are spoken from Tanzania to Sudan and from Chad to Mali.There are several other small families and language isolates, as well as languages that have yet to be classified. In addition, Africa has a wide variety of sign languages, many of which are language isolates (see below).

The total number of languages natively spoken in Africa is variously estimated (depending on the delineation of language vs. dialect) at between 1,250 and 2,100, and by some counts at "over 3,000".Nigeria alone has over 500 languages (according to the count of SIL Ethnologue), one of the greatest concentrations of linguistic diversity in the world. However, "One of the notable differences between Africa and most other linguistic areas is its relative uniformity. With few exceptions, all of Africa’s languages have been gathered into four major phyla."Around a hundred languages are widely used for inter-ethnic communication. Arabic, Somali, Berber, Amharic, Oromo, Igbo, Swahili, Hausa, Manding, Fulani and Yoruba are spoken by tens of millions of people. Twelve dialect clusters (which may group up to a hundred linguistic varieties) are spoken by 75 percent, and fifteen by 85 percent, of Africans as a first or additional language. Although many mid-sized languages are used on the radio, in newspapers and in primary-school education, and some of the larger ones are considered national languages, only a few are official at the national level. The African Union declared 2006 the "Year of African Languages".

List of African countries by population

This is a list of African countries and dependent territories sorted by population, which is sorted by the 2015 mid-year normalized demographic projections.

Demographics of Africa
Sovereign states
States with limited
recognition
Dependencies and
other territories
Demographics by continent
History
Geography
Politics
Economy
Society
By year

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