Democratic Party of Georgia

The Democratic Party of Georgia is the affiliate of the Democratic Party in the U.S. state of Georgia. It is one of the two major political parties in the state. It is chaired by Nikema Williams.

Democratic Party of Georgia
ChairpersonNikema Williams
Senate leaderSteve Henson
House leaderBob Trammell
HeadquartersAtlanta, GA
IdeologyModern liberalism
Centrism
Political positionCenter to center-left
National affiliationDemocratic Party
ColorsBlue
Seats in the Upper House
21 / 56
Seats in the Lower House
75 / 180
Website
www.georgiademocrat.org

History

Jimmy Carter
President Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)

For over a century, the Democratic Party dominated Georgia state and local politics.

From 1872 to 2002, the Democratic Party controlled the Governor's Mansion, both houses of the state legislature and most statewide offices.

In 1976, Democratic Governor Jimmy Carter (1971-1975) was elected the 39th President of the United States.

After switching to the Republican Party in 1998, Sonny Perdue went on to defeat Democrat Roy Barnes in the 2002 gubernatorial election. Perdue's unexpected victory marked the beginning of a decline for the Democratic Party of Georgia.

Georgia House Speaker Tom Murphy, the longest serving Speaker in any state legislature, lost his bid for another term in the state House.[1] Four Democrats in the Georgia State Senate changed their political affiliation, handing the upper house to the GOP. And in 2004, the Democratic Party lost control of the Georgia House of Representatives, putting the party in the minority for the first time in Georgia history.

The Democratic Party of Georgia entered the 2010 elections with hopes that former Governor Roy Barnes could win back the Governor's Mansion. Polls showed a tight race between Barnes and Republican gubernatorial nominee Nathan Deal,[2] with some predicting a runoff election.[3] However, on election day, Republicans won every statewide office.[4]

Leadership

The Chairman of the Democratic Party of Georgia is Nikema Williams. Porter was elected in August 2013 via special election and was reelected in January 2015 to serve a full four-year term. In 2019, First Vice Chair Nikema Williams was voted to succeed him.

Seven individuals—Chairman DuBose Porter, First Vice Chair Nikema Williams, Wendy Davis, former state AFL-CIO President Richard Ray, Sally Rosser, State Representative Pamela Stephenson and former state Democratic Party Chairman David Worley—were elected to represent Georgia on the Democratic National Committee.

State Representative Robert Trammell serves as Minority Leader in the Georgia House of Representatives.[5] State Senator Steve Henson serves as Minority Leader in the Georgia Senate.[6]

Party officers

Officers of the Democratic Party of Georgia are elected by the state Democratic committee at a January meeting following each regular gubernatorial election.[7] Democratic Party of Georgia officers serve four-year terms, and there is no limit on the number of terms an individual can serve as a Democratic Party of Georgia officer. Below are the current officers of the Democratic Party of Georgia:[8]

  • Chair: DuBose Porter
  • First Vice Chair: Nikema Williams
  • Congressional District/County Liaison Vice Chair: Sarah Todd
  • Constituency Group Vice Chair: State Representative Pedro "Pete" Marin
  • Candidate Recruitment Vice Chair: Ted Terry
  • Secretary: Stephanie Woods Miller
  • Treasurer: Kip Carr

Caucuses

[9]

  • African American Caucus
  • AAPI (Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders) Caucus
  • disABILITY Caucus
  • Greening Georgia
  • Latino Caucus
  • LGBTQ Caucus
  • Senior Caucus
  • Veterans Caucus

Current Democratic officeholders

Five Democrats represent Georgia in the United States House of Representatives. The Democrats do not hold either of the two United State Senate seats. To date, the last Democratic senator from Georgia was Zell Miller, serving from 2000 to 2005.

Members of United States Congress

The Democratic Party of Georgia controls none of the fourteen state constitutional offices. The Democrats control 20 of the 56 senatorial seats and 63 of 180 state house seats. Two-year terms of office apply to both houses, and the entire membership of each body is elected at the same time in even-numbered years.

Georgia Presidential Vote, 1948-2008

Since 1948, the Democrats have secured the state of Georgia 7 times, while the Republican party secured Georgia 8 times. However, during the past 6 presidential elections, the Democrats won the state of Georgia only once, in 1992. Bill Clinton won 43.47% of the vote while incumbent President George H.W. Bush carried 42.88%, while losing his quest for a 2nd term.

GeorgiaPresidentialVoteChart1948-2008
Georgia Presidential Vote, 1948-2008

Democratic National Committee members

[10]

Appointed by DNC Chair Tom Perez

Chairs of the DPG

Elected by the state convention

  • Thomas Hardeman (1872)
  • L. N. Trammell (1880)
  • Charles F. Clay (1883-)
  • B. H. Bigham (1886)
  • Hoke Smith (1888)
  • William Yates Atkinson (1890-1892)
  • Allen Fort (1892-1894)
  • Alexander Stephens Clay (1894-1898)
  • Fleming W. Dubignon (1898-1900)
  • E. T. Brown (1902-1904)
  • E. J. Yeomans (1904-1906)
  • Alexander Lawton Miller (1906-1908)
  • Hewlett A. Hall (1908-1909)
  • Charles R. Pendleton (1909-1910)
  • W. C. Wright (1910-1912)
  • William J. Harris (1912-1913)
  • William S. West (1913-1914)
  • E. J. Reagan (1914-1916)
  • John James Flynt, Sr. (1916–1920)
  • William Jerome Vereen (1920-1921)
  • G. E. Maddox 1925-30
  • Lawrence S. Camp 1930-32
  • Hugh Howell (c. 1935-1937)
  • Charles S. Reid 1937
  • Jim L. Gillis 1939
  • William Y. Atkinson, Jr. 1942
  • J. Lon Duckworth (1943-1946)
  • James S. Peters (1948-1954)
  • John Sammons Bell (1954-1960)
  • J.B. Fuqua (1962-1966)
  • James Gray (1966-1970)

Appointed by the Governor

  • David Gambrell (1970-1972)
  • Charles Kirbo (1972-1974)
  • Marge Thurman (1974-1982)
  • Al Holloway (Interim Chairman, 1982)
  • Bert Lance (1982-1986)
  • John Henry Anderson (1986-1990)
  • Ed Sims (1990-1994)
  • John Blackmon (1994-1998)
  • David Worley (1998-2001)
  • Calvin Smyre (2001-2004)

Elected by State Committee

See also

References

  1. ^ WSB-TV Tom Murphy Biography
  2. ^ Real Clear Politics: Georgia Governor - Deal vs. Barnes
  3. ^ WSB Radio Georgia Governor: Runoff Likely
  4. ^ WXIA-TV Republicans Sweep Statewide Races
  5. ^ http://www.house.ga.gov/Representatives/en-US/member.aspx?Member=865&Session=24
  6. ^ http://www.accessnorthgeorgia.com/detail.php?n=255374
  7. ^ "Charter of the Democratic Party of Georgia" (PDF). Democratic Party of Georgia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-11-22.
  8. ^ "Officers". Georgia Democratic Party. 12 July 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  9. ^ "Caucuses". Georgia Democratic Party. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  10. ^ "DNC Members". Georgia Democratic Party. 6 February 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2018.

External links

1921 Svanetian uprising

The Svanetian uprising of 1921 was an unsuccessful rebellion against the recently established Bolshevik regime in Georgia.

The uprising broke out in Svaneti, a highland western Georgian province, almost immediately after the Red Army invasion of Georgia and the establishment of the Georgian SSR (February-March 1921). The first disturbances among the local peasants appeared already in May 1921, and quickly developed into an armed revolt against the highly unpopular Revolutionary Committee of Georgia (Revkom), an acting Bolshevik government in the transitional period. The guerrilla detachments led by Mosostr Dadeshkeliani, Nestor Gardapkhadze and Bidzina Pirveli, disarmed the Svaneti-based Red Army units in September, and launched preparations for the march on Kutaisi, the second largest city of Georgia. The Georgian Revkom, which faced the distinct prospect of a nationwide insurrection and civil war, ordered, on October 7, 1921, the formation of special punitive detachments to fight the insurgents who were denounced as "political bandits". On November 15, 1921, Soviet officials reported that the number of Svanetian rebels amounted to 1,600, and their actions were coordinated by the National-Democratic Party of Georgia, which maintained contacts with a Tbilisi-based Menshevik organization.The fighting in Svaneti continued for six months, but the Soviet troops managed to curb the spread of the uprising into neighboring regions. By late December 1921, the fresh Red Army reinforcements finally crushed the revolt. The chief rebels were executed and severe repressive measures were established in the area. The defeat of the Svanetian rebellion forced major Georgian opposition parties to seek closer cooperation, which would later conclude with the generalization of an anti-Soviet uprising in August 1924.

Constituent Assembly of Georgia

The Constituent Assembly of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველოს დამფუძნებელი კრება, sak’art’velos damp’udznebeli kreba) was a national legislature of the Democratic Republic of Georgia which was elected in February 1919 to ratify the Act of Independence of Georgia and enact the Constitution of 1921. The assembly remained active until the Soviet Russian military intervention brought Georgia’s three-year independence to an end in March 1921.

DPG

DPG may refer to

Defense Planning Guidance provides basis for the U.S. National Military Strategy

Democratic Party of Georgia an affiliate of the Democratic Party in the state of Georgia

Diplomatic Protection Group is a branch of the London Metropolitan Police

Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft - German Physical Society

Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft - German Phytomedicine Society

Tha Dogg Pound (Dogg Pound Gangstaz), a gangsta rap group

D.P.G. Recordz, a record label

Dugway Proving Ground, a US Army chemical and biological testing facility

Dulwich Picture Gallery, London, UK

A chemical mixture dipropylene glycol, used in industry

A metabolite 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate in glycolysis

A chemical 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-diphosphoglycerate), involved in hemoglobin-oxygen binding

Dihydroxyphenylglycine, an amino acid

Digital pair gain, a telecommunications term for delivering multiple phone lines over a single copper pair

An abbreviation for doubleplusgood, Orwellian neologism for excellent

DuBose Porter

DuBose Porter is an American politician who served as Chairman of the Democratic Party of Georgia and served as a member of the Georgia House of Representatives from 1982 to 2011. He served as Minority Leader in the House from 2005 to 2011. He was previously Administration Floor Leader for Governor Zell Miller from 1991 through 1992 and ran for Governor of Georgia in 2010.

Ekvtime Takaishvili

Ekvtime Takaishvili (also spelled Taqaishvili) (Georgian: ექვთიმე თაყაიშვილი) (January 3, 1863 – February 21, 1953) was a Georgian historian, archaeologist and public benefactor.

Born in the village of Likhauri in the western Georgian province of Guria (then part of Kutais Governorate, Russian Empire) to a local nobleman Svimon Takaishvili, he graduated from St. Petersburg University in 1887. From 1887 to 1917, he lectured on the history of Georgia at various prestigious schools in Tbilisi, including the Tbilisi Gymnasium for Nobility. During these years, he was actively involved in extensive scholarly activities and chaired, from 1907 to 1921, the Society of History and Ethnography of Georgia. Between 1907 and 1910, he organized a series of archaeological expeditions to the historic Georgian region of Tao-Klarjeti (now part of Turkey).

After the February Revolution, he engaged also in politics, taking part in the establishment of the National Democratic Party of Georgia in 1917 and being elected to a post of Deputy Chairman in the Constituent Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from 1919 to 1921.

Irakli Tsereteli

Irakli Tsereteli (20 November 1881 – 20 May 1959) was a Georgian politician and a leading spokesman of the Social Democratic Party of Georgia and later Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) during the era of the Russian Revolutions.

Tsereteli was born and raised in Georgia when it was part of the Russian Empire. A member of the Menshevik faction of the RSDLP, Tsereteli was elected to the Duma in 1907, where he gained fame for his oratory abilities. Shortly after entering the Duma, Tsereteli was arrested and charged with conspiracy to overthrow the Tsarist government, and exiled to Siberia. A dedicated Social Democrat who believed in the Menshevik ideology, Tsereteli was one of the leading figures of the movement in Russia. In 1915, during his Siberian exile, Tsereteli formed what would become known as Siberian Zimmerwaldism, which advocated for the role of the Second International in ending the war. He also developed the idea of "Revolutionary Defensism", the concept of a defensive war which only allowed for the defence of territory, and argued it was not being utilized.

Returning to the government in the aftermath of the 1917 February Revolution, he took up a leading position in the Petrograd Soviet and accepted a position in the Russian Provisional Government as Minister of Post and Telegraph, and briefly as Minister of the Interior. Concerned that political fragmentation would lead to a civil war in Russia, Tsereteli strived to broker compromises between the various leftist factions in the Russian Revolution and was the force behind efforts to work together with the middle classes, to no avail. Renowned for his speaking ability, Tsereteli gained appreciation for his ability in this regard, giving impassioned speeches in the Duma and in the Petrograd Soviet. Uninterested in acquiring or maintaining political power, Tsereteli was much more concerned with inequality, and tried to solve that above all.

After the Bolsheviks seized power of the Russian government during the October Revolution, Tsereteli returned to Georgia. He worked as a diplomat at the Paris Peace Conference, where he lobbied for international recognition and assistance for the newly independent Democratic Republic of Georgia; these efforts largely failed to materialize before the Bolshevik-led Red Army invaded in 1921. An avowed internationalist, Tsereteli grew increasingly distant from the Georgian Mensheviks who gradually adopted more nationalist tendencies. He spent the rest of his life in exile, mainly in France, working with socialist organisations and writing on socialism, and died in New York in 1959.

Irine Sarishvili-Chanturia

Irina Sarishvili-Chanturia (b. 24 December 1963, Tbilisi), is a Georgian NGO leader, formerly actively involved in national politics.A philologist by education, she graduated from the Faculty of Western Literature at Tbilisi State University in 1984.

Married to the prominent Georgian politician Giorgi Chanturia, she was a member of the National Democratic Party of Georgia (NDPG) and participated in several protest actions against Soviet rule in the late 1980s. Appointed Deputy Prime Minister (1993–94), she headed the NDPG faction (second largest faction at that time) in the Georgian parliament from 1992 to 1999.

After the assassination of her husband in 1995 (she herself was seriously wounded in the attack), she was elected Chairperson of the NDPG. Prior to the 2003 parliamentary elections, she became a spokesperson of the pro-governmental bloc "For a New Georgia". She called on President Eduard Shevardnadze to use tough measures against the mass demonstrations that led to Georgia's Rose Revolution in November 2003. After Shevardnadze's ouster, she resigned as chairperson of the NDPG and formed an NGO to oppose Mikheil Saakashvili's government. Currently she plays no significant role in the nation's political life.

J. B. Fuqua

John Brooks "J.B." Fuqua (pronounced ) (June 26, 1918 – April 5, 2006) was a businessman, philanthropist and chairman of The Fuqua Companies and Fuqua Enterprises. The Fuqua School of Business at Duke University is named after him, as is the Fuqua School in Farmville, Virginia.

King v. Chapman

King v. Chapman is a 1946 court case between Primus King, a religious leader and barber in Columbus, Georgia, and J. E. Chapman, Jr., the chair of the Muscogee County Democratic Party. It ruled the white primary as used by the Democratic Party of Georgia to be unconstitutional. This case followed the Smith v. Allwright case, which struck down the white primaries in Texas and began the downfall of white primaries in other Deep South states.

List of leaders of Georgia

This is the list of the rulers of Georgia from 1918 to the present. It includes leaders of the short-lived Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921), of Soviet Georgia (1921–1991), and of the post-Soviet era.

List of state parties of the Democratic Party (United States)

This is a list of official state and territorial party organizations of the United States Democratic Party.

Mike Berlon

Mike Berlon is the former Chairman of the Democratic Party of Georgia. He served from early 2011 until June 9, 2013, when he resigned following accusations of professional misconduct.

Nathan Dean

Nathan Dean (May 9, 1934 – June 8, 2013) was an insurance executive from Rockmart, Georgia, who served 15 consecutive terms in the Georgia General Assembly as Senator for district 31. Dean was first elected to the Senate in 1974 and began serving in 1975. Previously, Dean served for 12 years in the Georgia House of Representatives (1963 – 1975)—and served on the Rockmart City Council. Dean was Chairman of the Senate Democratic Caucus and a member of the Executive Committee of the Democratic Party of Georgia. as Senator, Dean represented both Polk and Haralson County and parts of Bartow and Paulding county as well. Dean has been recognized for his civic duties—seeing the Rockmart community center named in his honor, and being named Senator of the Year by the Georgia Municipal Association.

National Democratic Party (Georgia)

The National Democratic Party (Georgian: ეროვნულ-დემოკრატიული პარტია, erovnul-demokratiuli partia) is a political party in Georgia. At the last legislative elections, 2012, the party won 3,050 votes, 0.14% of the national total. It was established in 1988 by Giorgi Chanturia as a radical splinter group of the Ilia Chavchavadze Society.

Nikema Williams

Nikema Williams is an American politician. She currently serves as a member of the Georgia State Senate for District 39, succeeding Vincent Fort in a special election in 2017 after his resignation to compete in the Atlanta mayoral election. She currently serves as Chair of the Democratic Party of Georgia, and was a delegate to the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Democratic National Conventions. Prior to being elected as state senator, Williams served as vice-president of Public Policy for Planned Parenthood Southeast.She is a graduate of Talladega College. She is the third woman and second African American to chair the party.

In January 2019 Williams became the first Black woman elected to lead the Georgia Democratic Party.Nikema Williams was arrested during a protest at the Georgia State Capital on November 13, 2018. The arrest was made despite her not taking part in the protest or doing anything wrong, and she has since talked about the issue of racial profiling in arrests.

Niko Nikoladze

Niko Nikoladze (Georgian: ნიკო ნიკოლაძე) (27 September 1843 – 5 June 1928) was a notable Georgian writer, pro-Western enlightener, and public figure primarily known for his contributions to the development of Georgian liberal journalism and his involvement in various economic and social projects of that time.

He was born in the village of Didi Jikhaishi, Imereti, western Georgia (then part of the Russian Empire) into petite noble family of Nikoladze. After the graduation from Kutaisi Gymnasium (1860), he enrolled the Faculty of Law at St Petersburg University in 1861. In the same year he was excluded from the university for taking part in student protests. After leaving St. Petersburg he went to study in Western Europe in 1864 and became the first Georgian to receive a doctorate (in law) from a European university, namely in Zurich (1868). Like many other Georgian intellectuals of that time, he followed the evolution of Russian liberals to different versions of socialism, establishing his own contacts with the Western leftist thinkers. Nikoladze was the first Georgian figure within this trend to gain position of influence in all-Russian liberalist movements. During his stay in Zurich, through Paul Lafargue he met Karl Marx, who asked Nikoladze to become the representative of the International in Transcaucasia. Nikoladze declined the offer because at that time his views were closer with the Russian revolutionary democrats, Nikolai Chernyshevsky and Nikolay Dobrolyubov, whom he had met in St. Petersburg. While in Europe, he briefly collaborated with Aleksandr Herzen in his influential newspaper, Kolokol (The Bell), in 1865, but Nikoladze soon broke with Herzen when the latter send a reconciliatory open letter to the tsar.

Back in his native Georgia, he became involved in national-liberation movement inspired by Georgia’s most famous intellectual of that time Prince Ilia Chavchavadze though Nikoladze’s relations with Chavchavadze were not always easy. Nikoladze joined a more radical wing of this movement later named the Second Group (meore dasi) and quickly became one of its most influential leaders. This group sought widely for a program, ranging from state-regulated capitalism to various forms of "association" and collectivism, and worked to introduce European learning and culture in Georgia. They became the first Georgian political team to stress the importance of the urban and economic life of Georgia. They actively implemented their ideas into practice and worked to keep the Georgians from being pushed aside by the Russians and Armenians who dominated the Georgian cities, particularly the capital, Tiflis. He gained almost a scandalous name by publishing his sarcastic article, "A Thought on Likhi Mountain" (1871), where he compared Tiflis to an old whore, the wide, paved avenues, parks, and theaters being just her make-up, while the markets are her blackened teeth and the cemeteries and war-devastated fields her raddled body. Nikoladze’s rhetoric attacks on the representatives of the older generation, who mostly chose to serve loyally to the Russian administration, further strengthened positions of the "men of the 60s," a backbone of younger Georgian intellectuals forming an opposition to the Tsarist regime.

Despite the strong governmental censure and pressure exerted upon Nikoladze, he remained an influential and respected writer not only in Georgia, but also in Russia proper. Many of his best writings composed in Russian, and French were systematically published in the European press. The climax of Nikoladze’s activity was his successful negotiations in the mid-1880s with Alexander III and his government that reduced the nationwide repressions and saved Vera Figner from the gallows and Chernyshevsky from exile.

As a notable public benefactor, Nikoladze was responsible for a number of social and economic projects, including the expansion of railway systems in Georgia and the construction of the Grozny-Poti pipeline. From 1894 to 1912, Nikoladze was elected a mayor of Poti. During his tenure as a mayor, he made this small portal town on Georgia’s Black Sea coast an important maritime city and trading center.

Soon after the 1917 February Revolution in Russia, Nikoladze allied himself with more radical Georgian intelligentsia, supporting Georgia’s full independence from Russia. He was elected an honorary chairman of the National Democratic Party of Georgia. During the years of the first Georgian republic (1918-1921), he was actively involved in the nation's social and economic life. In 1920 he led a delegation of the Chiatura Manganese Exporting Society in Europe. He was still abroad, when the short-lived Georgian independence was terminated by the Soviet Russia's military invasion in 1921. Yet Nikoladze decided to return to Soviet Georgia, retreating into a world of theory, preaching education and reform instead of violent revolution.

His daughter, Nino, married with Levan Zurabishvili.

Prime Minister of Georgia

The Prime Minister of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველოს პრემიერ-მინისტრი, translit.: sakartvelos p'remier-minist'ri) is the head of government and chief executive of Georgia. The Prime Minister organizes, directs, and controls the functions of the Government and signs the legal acts of the government. They appoint and dismiss ministers in the government. The Prime Minister represents Georgia in foreign relations and concludes international treaties on behalf of Georgia. They are accountable for the activities of the Government before the Parliament of Georgia.The Prime Minister is nominated by a political party that has secured the best results in the parliamentary election. The nominee must win the confidence vote of the Parliament and then be appointed by the President of Georgia.

RJ Hadley

RJ Hadley (born Rakeim Jerhal Hadley on January 14, 1969) is a Democratic Party activist and current Tax Commissioner of Rockdale County, Georgia. In 2008 he was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention representing Georgia. He has been a member of the Rockdale County Democratic Party since 2006 and was elected to its executive board in 2010.

Hadley is a graduate of Dartmouth College. He has worked in the public sector as juvenile justice social worker for the State of New Jersey. He has also held software technology positions in the United States and abroad with the Federal Aviation Administration, Motorola, and Logica. In 2009, he was appointed Chief of Staff for Rockdale County. He served as the Chief Operating Officer for Affordable Housing CDC, a non-profit housing and economic development organization, until his election as Tax Commissioner in 2012.

In 2010, Hadley sought the Democratic Party's nomination for Senate in Georgia, losing to Labor Commissioner Mike Thurmond. On January 29, 2011, he was elected Vice-Chair of County Parties with the Democratic Party of Georgia.

Social Democratic Party of Georgia

The Social Democratic Party of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველოს სოციალ-დემოკრატიული პარტია, sakartvelos sotsial-demok'rat'iuli p'art'ia), also known as the Georgian Menshevik Party, was a Georgian Marxist, and later, social democratic political party. It was founded in the 1890s by Nikolay Chkheidze, Silibistro Jibladze, Egnate Ninoshvili, Noe Zhordania and others. It became the Georgian branch of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. After 1905, Georgian social democrats joined the Menshevik faction, except for some such as Joseph Stalin, Grigol Ordzhonikidze and Makharadze. Several leaders were elected to the Russian Duma from Kutais or Tifli: Nikolay Chkheidze, Akaki Chkhenkeli, Evgeni Gegechkori, Isidore Ramishvili, Irakly Tsereteli, Noe Zhordania.

The party was prior to 1917 "ambivalent" on Georgia's independence from Russia, for which it has been criticized by some Georgians as "unpatriotic and anti-national". Natalie Sabanadze describes them as "unique in their non-nationalist approach to national liberation." She argues that "they led a highly successful national movement while maintaining a degree of hostility towards nationalism and avoiding the use of nationalist rhetoric and ideology." The party became a "vehicle for Georgian nationalism" following the Russian Revolution. It governed the Democratic Republic of Georgia from 1918 to 1921. At parliamentary elections on February 14, 1919 it garnered 81.5% of the votes. Noe Zhordania became Prime Minister. In the words of Ronald Grigor Suny, "Their achievement in building a Georgian political nation was extraordinary. Their support among all classes of the Georgian people was genuine. And however ephemeral their accomplishments in the brief episode of national independence, the most impressive testimony to their successes is the fact that they could not be dislodged from Georgia except by a militarily superior force from outside."In March 1921 the Georgian government was overthrown by the Red Army invasion. The party was liquidated in Georgia during the Soviet repressions predating to the failed anti-Soviet August Uprising in 1924. From 1921 onwards, the party began operating in exile, particularly in France, Germany (until 1933) and the United States. A Foreign Bureau was set up as the new leading organ of the party. The party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1923 and 1940.

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