Democracy in Motion

Democracy in Motion (German: Demokratie in Bewegung, DiB) is a minor party in Germany. The basis for the party's founding was a petition on, in which petitioners promised to run as a party in September 2017 at the federal election if the petition reached at least 100,000 signatures, which it reached on 20 July 2017.[2] After this was accomplished, the party 'Democracy in Motion' was established on 29 April 2017 in Berlin.[3]

Democracy in Motion

Demokratie in Bewegung
ChairmanJulia Beerhold, Alexander Plitsch
Founded29 April 2017
HeadquartersBrunnenstr. 64/65, 13355 Berlin
Membership (December 2018)Increase 397
Political positionLeft-wing
European affiliation
International affiliationNone
Colors     Blue (customary)
     Orange (customary)
0 / 709
0 / 69
State Parliaments
0 / 1,821
European Parliament
0 / 96
Prime Ministers of States
0 / 16

Content Profile

The Party Platform outlines four core values:

  1. Democracy, participation, transparency
  2. Justice on social, political, economic, and environmental issues
  3. Cosmopolitanism and diversity
  4. Future-oriented sustainability[4]

Policy was adopted at the 2nd Federal Party Congress on 27 August 2017 in Cologne in accordance to the campaign requirements for the 2017 Bundestag election.[5] The proposals for this were developed in a grassroots manner using the principle of initiative and presented to the federal party congress for a final vote.[6] The code of ethics, an ethical commitment in accordance to core party values laying down a series of rules of conduct, is given to all new party members, "movers", and advocates (MPs).[4][7]

The party has outlined, by statute, a women's quota and diversity rate.[3][8]

Transparency and Participation

The party believes that the introduction of a lobbying register is required in order to hinder covert influence on elected officials.[9] The party's Code of Ethics requires its own members to disclose their ancillary income and take other measures to combat lobbying. The party does not accept donations from companies.

The party calls for more citizen participation possibilities, for example, administrative decisions should be able to be made on a federal level via referendum. Similarly, the 5 percent hurdle should be lowered to 3 percent to facilitate smaller parties being represented in the Bundestag and thus more accurately reflect the opinion of the electorate.

Social Justice

Social inequality is discussed in the basic program with various measures proposed to improve conditions, including reform of Hartz IV to introduce unconditional basic income,[10] increase of the minimum wage to €12,[11] improved working conditions for temporary workers, and creation of a fairer, standardized, pension system.

Family & Social Equality Policies

The party calls for the improvement of midwife profession, the development of all-day child care, and the reduction of gender pay gaps, in particular the abolition of spousal income splitting. The party also advocates the introduction of a women's quota in governing bodies. Violence against women should be combated through financial support for aid organizations and the establishment of victim protection clinics. The party is committed to the rights of disabled people and calls for more inclusion of the disabled, for example, freedom to choose how they live their lives and recognition of sign language as an official language. The party also believes in complete equality of same-sex marriage and that the equal treatment of LGBTIQ people should be anchored in the constitution.

Tax Policy

The party calls for raising the tax rate on the highest income tax bracket, more effective taxation of large companies and combating tax evasion, whilst also relieving lower and middle income groups, and introducing a financial transaction tax.

Health Policy

According to the party, the two-tier healthcare system should be abolished in favor of guaranteed health insurance, and having private health insurance offer additional benefits. DiB wants the health system modernized and working conditions improved, and advocate for professional active euthanasia.

Foreign Policy

The party calls for giving greater power to the European Parliament, including through the introduction of right of initiative. In the long term, it advocates the establishment of a European, federal, parliamentary republic.[12] In negotiating free trade agreements such as TTIP and CETA, the party calls for greater democratic control and transparency, including through the establishment of an ethics committee. The party calls for the creation of safe escape routes for refugees, an international fight against the causes of the flight of refugees from their countries of origin, increased funding for international development, and increased regulation, with severe limitation, of the arms industry and for it to be completely dropped in areas of conflict. Germany should end their nuclear sharing deals, and a global ban on nuclear weapons is sought.


With respect to sustainability the party advocates a rapid switch to renewable energies, a decentralization of energy policy, and an introduction of an emissions tax on carbon dioxide and methane to discourage air pollution thus counteract climate change. The party calls for Organic farming to be promoted; factory farming, the patenting of living organisms, the use of genetic engineering, and glyphosate in agriculture to be ended.

Education and Digitization

The party calls for more money in education, and free access to daycare and universities, school education to be standardized across all federal states. DiB advocates increased digitization with greater connection of rural areas to the internet, the allowance of smaller artists to compete with larger media companies and to be able to live off of the gains from their art. The party opposes mass surveillance and is critical of computer and network surveillance, and for example, fears the development of a government Trojan horse.


The party opposes privatization of public infrastructure and calls for a constitutionally anchored common carrying for the likes of electricity, telecommunications, roads and railways. DiB would counteract emigration from rural areas by increasing the quality of life in said areas, and calls for a fairer, more environmentally friendly, transport system that promotes alternatives to car use.

Organisational Structure

Party Board

The party leaders of the party Federal Association are Alexander Plitsch and Julia Beerhold. The other members of the board are Dorothee Vogt (treasurer), Benedikt Sequeira Gerardo, Narges Lankarani, Franka Kretschmer and Lea Brunn.[13]

National Associations

There are regional associations in all 16 federal states. These were founded within five weeks of the founding of the Federal Association accordingly. Shortly after the foundation of the last state association in Rhineland-Palatinate on 4 June, state lists for the 2017 federal elections were drawn up in all 16 federal states.[14]

District Associations

The first two district associations were founded in Halle (Saale) on 18 October 2017 and one day later in Karlsruhe.[15]


The party has 379 confirmed party members (as of December 31, 2017), the proportion of women is 35%. Added to this are 785 (as of 31 December 2017) confirmed "movers" in the marketplace of ideas and the plenary of mover who actively work on the preparation of initiatives,[16] which are, after majority vote at a federal party congress, then incorporated into the party platform.[6]

Election Results

Federal Election 2017

Election year # of constituency
# of party list
% of party list
# of overall seats won +/− Notes
2017 - 60,826 0.1
0 / 709

The party appeared in eight states (Bavaria, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Berlin, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt) for the 2017 federal election.[17] They won 60,826 second votes nationwide, equivalent to 0.1%.[18] Their best results were achieved in the states of Hamburg, and Berlin; each with 0.4%. The party received her best constituency result in the constituency Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg - Prenzlauer Berg Ost in Berlin, with 0.7%.[19]


  1. ^ European Spring Webpage (retrieved on 17 October 2018)
  2. ^ "2017: A fresh start for Democracy and Justice!" (Petition on
  3. ^ a b Statute of 29 April 2017
  4. ^ a b Party Platform (self-presentation on the website, accessed on 18 August 2017)
  5. ^ Your Program (self-presentation on the website, accessed on 18 August 2017)
  6. ^ a b The Principle of Initiative (self-presentation on the website, accessed on 18 August 2017)
  7. ^ Our code of ethics (self-presentation on the website, accessed on 18 August 2017)
  8. ^ We are the first party with a diversity quota (self-presentation on the website, accessed on 18 August 2017)
  9. ^ [1] (initiative to introduce a binding lobby register, website of the party, retrieved on 10 September 2017)
  10. ^ [2] (Initiative for the introduction of an unconditional basic income, website of the party, retrieved on 10 September 2017)
  11. ^ [3] (initiative to raise the minimum wage, website of the party, retrieved on 10 September 2017)
  12. ^ [4] (Initiative to found the United States of Europe, website of the party, accessed 10 September 2017)
  13. ^ #BringTheSpiritToKarlsruhe - our federal party convention (blog post for the 3rd Federal Party Congress on the website, accessed on 27 November 2017)
  14. ^ Party (self-presentation on the website, accessed on 18 August 2017)
  15. ^ DiB is in Town (Blog post from 19 October 2017, Accessed on 22 October 2017)
  16. ^ Transparency in DiB (self-presentation on the website, accessed on 26 November 2017)
  17. ^ Permitted Country Lists (overview on, retrieved on 18 August 2017)
  18. ^ Table of First & Second Votes (from
  19. ^ Bundestag Election 2017, Berlin-Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg - Prenzlauer Berg Ost (from

External links

2016 Sammarinese general election

General elections were held in San Marino on 20 November 2016 and 4 December 2016. The San Marino First alliance received a plurality of the popular vote, but fell short of a majority in the Grand and General Council, initially being allocated 25 seats. As no single bloc had won a majority of seats, a runoff was held on 4 December 2016 between the top two coalitions, San Marino First and, to determine the winner of the majority prize. The second round saw win with 58% of the vote, resulting in seats being reallocated and the winning alliance receiving 35 seats.

Active Citizenship

Active Citizenship (Italian: Cittadinanza Attiva) is a left-wing political and electoral alliance in San Marino, formed to contest the 2012 general election. It comprises

United Left (SU, democratic socialist),

Civic 10.


The Bundestag (German pronunciation: [ˈbʊndəstaːk], "Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament. It can be compared to the lower house of parliament along the lines of the United States House of Representatives, the Irish Dáil Éireann or the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, with the Bundesrat, though a separate institution, having a similar role to the upper house of a bicameral parliament.

The Bundestag was established by chapter III of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Constitution) in 1949 as one of the legislative bodies of Germany and thus the historical successor to the earlier Reichstag.

Since 1999 it has met in the Reichstag Building in Berlin. Wolfgang Schäuble is the current President of the Bundestag. Members of the Bundestag (Mitglieder des Bundestages) are usually elected every four years by all adult German citizens in a mixed system of constituency voting and list voting. The constitutional minimum number of seats is 598; with overhang and leveling seats there are currently 709 seats. The Election Day can be called earlier than four years after the last if the Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) loses a vote of confidence and asks the Federal President (Bundespräsident) to dissolve the Bundestag in order to hold new general elections.

In the 19th century, the name Bundestag was the unofficial designation for the assembly of the sovereigns and mayors of the Monarchies and Free Cities which formed the German Confederation (1815–1866). Its seat was in the Free City of Frankfurt on the Main.

Civic 10

Civic 10 (Italian: Movimento Civico10) is a political party in San Marino. It advocates democratic socialism, environmentalism, E-democracy and opposition to particracy.

Committee of Freedom

The Committee of Freedom (Italian: Comita Libertà) was a political alliance in San Marino.

Elections in San Marino

Elections in San Marino gives information on election and election results in San Marino.

San Marino elects on national level a legislature. The Grand and General Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale) has 60 members, elected for a five-year term by semi-proportional representation with national majority bonus (the winning coalition receives at least 35 seats on 60).

San Marino has a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.

The first elections were held in March 1906 after the Arengo held on the same year that established democracy in the country. Between 1926 and 1943, the Sammarinese Fascist Party takes the power and the rest of parties are banned. Democracy is restored in 1945.

Since early 2008, there is an electoral threshold of 3.5%. Since 2016, if none of the coalitions achieves an absolute majority of seats, a runoff between the two largest coalitions is held.

Future Republic

Future Republic (Italian: Repubblica Futura, RF) is a centrist political party in San Marino and one of the five current governing parties in San Marino with United Left (SU), Progressives and Reformists (PER), Democratic Laboratory of San Marino (LabDem) and Civic 10.

The party was formed on the 24th and the 25th of February 2017 by a merger of the Popular Alliance (AP) and the Union for the Republic (UPR).

The youth wing of the party is Future Generation (Italian: Generazione Futura)

Grand and General Council

The Grand and General Council (Italian: Consiglio Grande e Generale) is the parliament of San Marino. The council has 60 members elected for a five-year term.

The country's electoral law is based on the electoral system of Italian municipalities. Between 1945 and 2007, San Marino used proportional representation. A majority of at least 35 seats is given to the winning coalition of parties which receives an absolute majority of votes at the first or the eventual second round of elections. Within single coalitions, seats are divided between the parties using a D'Hondt system. A 3.5% threshold exists, together with guarantees for female candidates.

The Council appoints from among its members the Congress of State, which is the executive branch of the government, and the Captains Regents, who serve as the heads of state.

The Council is the equivalent of the Roman Senate during the Roman Republic.

List of political parties in Germany

This is a list of political parties in Germany.

The Parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Bundestag, has a plural multi-party system, with two major parties, the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), with its sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU) in the same parliamentary group, also known as CDU/CSU or the Union.

Germany also has a number of minor parties, in recent history most importantly the Free Democratic Party (FDP), Alliance 90/The Greens, The Left, and more recently the Alternative for Germany (AfD), founded in 2013. The federal government of Germany often consisted of a coalition of a major and a minor party, specifically CDU/CSU and FDP or SPD and FDP, and from 1998 to 2005 SPD and Greens. From 1966 to 1969, from 2005 to 2009 and again since 2013, the federal government consisted of a coalition of the two major parties, called Grand Coalition.

Coalitions in the Bundestag and state legislators are often described by party colors. Party colors are red for the Social Democratic Party, green for Alliance 90/The Greens, yellow for the Free Democratic Party, purple (officially red, which is customarily used for the SPD) for the Left, light blue for the AfD, and black and blue for the CDU and CSU respectively.

List of political parties in San Marino

San Marino has a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.

Lookout Farm (album)

Lookout Farm is an album by American jazz saxophonist Dave Liebman recorded in 1973, his first released on the ECM label.

Popular Alliance (San Marino)

The Popular Alliance (Italian: Alleanza Popolare, AP) was a liberal-centrist political party in San Marino. The party formed a coalition with the Union for the Republic for the Sammarinese election of 2016 and following their electoral success, the two parties created a new party, Future Republic.

Popular Alliance (San Marino, historical)

The Popular Alliance (Italian: Alleanza Popolare) was a political alliance in San Marino.

RETE Movement

The RETE Movement (Italian: Rinnovamento, Equità, Transparenza, Ecosostenibilità Movimento Civico, lit. Renewal, Equity, Transparency and Eco-sustainability Civic Movement) is a political party in San Marino.

Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party

The Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party (Italian: Partito Democratico Cristiano Sammarinese, PDCS) is a Christian-democratic political party in San Marino.

The PDCS is an observer member of the European People's Party (EPP), having joined the EPP in 1993. Its Italian counterpart was the now-dissolved Christian Democracy. Its internal left-wing faction left in 2006 to form the Centre Democrats and was joined by the social democrats of Arengo and Freedom. It is led by Giovanni Lonfernini, a former Captain-Regent.

In the 2006 general election PDCS won the 32.9% of the vote and 21 out of 60 seats in the Grand and General Council. The party stood in opposition to the 2006-2008 governing political coalition of Party of Socialists and Democrats, Popular Alliance and United Left.

For the 2008 general election the party was part of the Pact for San Marino coalition and gave hospitality in its list to some candidates of the Euro-Populars for San Marino and Arengo and Freedom. The electoral coalition won 35 seats out of 60 in the Grand and General Council in the Sammarinese parliamentary election, 2008 gaining 54.22% of the national vote and a governmental majority of 5, becoming the new government of San Marino. The Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party which itself gained 22 seats (a few of which went to Euro-Populars for San Marino and Arengo and Freedom) out of the 35 the coalition and gained 31.90% of the national vote. Ernesto Benedettini became one of the two Joint Captains Regent of San Marino.

A political crisis in 2011 dissolved the old majority, and the PDCS formed a government of national unity with the Party of Socialists and Democrats, whose predecessors worked with the PDCS for decades, so restoring a political formula which led San Marino, and Italy, during the second half of the 20th century. The new alliance, San Marino Common Good, won the Sammarinese election of 2012, PDCS obtaining 21 seats together with their electoral running-mates, We Sammarinese.

San Marino Common Good

San Marino Common Good (Italian: San Marino Bene Comune) is a centrist political and electoral alliance in San Marino, formed to contest the 2012 general election. It comprises

Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party (PDCS, Christian democratic), including also:

We Sammarinese (NS, centrist),

Party of Socialists and Democrats (PSD, social-democratic),

Popular Alliance (AP, liberal-centrist).

Socialist Party (San Marino)

The Socialist Party (Italian: Partito Socialista, PS) is a moderate social-democratic political party in San Marino. The party was founded on 30 May 2012 as a merger of the New Socialist Party and Sammarinese Reformist Socialist Party.

During the Sammarinese election of 2012 the party joined the unsuccessful centrist coalition of the Agreement for the Country, even if the party itself obtained quite good results gaining 7 seats.

The party has been characterized as "friendly" by the former Foreign Minister of South Ossetia.

Union for the Republic (San Marino)

The Union for the Republic (Italian: Unione Per la Repubblica, UPR) is a centrist and Christian democratic political party in San Marino. The party was formed on 4 March 2011 by a merger of the Centre Democrats (DdC) and Euro-Populars for San Marino (EPS).During the Sammarinese election of 2012 the party ran as part of the losing Agreement for the Country alliance, obtaining 5 seats.

The party formed a coalition with the Popular Alliance for the Sammarinese election of 2016 and following their electoral success, the two parties created a new party, Future Republic.

United Left (San Marino)

United Left (Italian: Sinistra Unita, SU) was a left-wing political party in San Marino.

It was founded as a coalition on 2 August 2006, by the Sammarinese Communist Refoundation, formed by those who did not agree with the transformation of the Sammarinese Communist Party into the Sammarinese Democratic Progressive Party in 1992, and the Left Party, a split from the Party of Democrats in 2005. Its Italian counterpart was Left and Freedom.

In the Sammarinese parliamentary election, 2006, the alliance won 8.67% of the votes cast and took five seats. The United Left was part of the governing coalition that governed San Marino from 2006-2008 along with the Party of Socialists and Democrats and the Popular Alliance of Sammarinese Democrats for the Republic until tensions between itself and the latter caused the coalition to disintegrate.

For the 2008 general election United Left was part of the Reforms and Freedom electoral coalition which won 25 seats out of 60 in the Grand and General Council gaining 45.78% of the national vote. The United Left itself gained 5 seats and 8.57% of the national vote.

Looking to the good results of the alliance, the two parties merged in a single one in 2012. During the election of 2012, SU created a leftist alliance with Civic 10 called Active Citizenship which obtained the 16% of votes. SU itself maintained its five seats.

On 10 November 2017, the party is dissolved and merged into the new party Democratic Socialist Left.

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