Deme

In Ancient Greece, a deme or demos (Greek: δῆμος) modern Municipality was a suburb or a subdivision of Athens and other city-states. Demes as simple subdivisions of land in the countryside seem to have existed in the 6th century BC and earlier, but did not acquire particular significance until the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508 BC. In those reforms, enrollment in the citizen-lists of a deme became the requirement for citizenship; prior to that time, citizenship had been based on membership in a phratry, or family group. At this same time, demes were established in the main city of Athens itself, where they had not previously existed; in all, at the end of Cleisthenes' reforms, Athens was divided into 139 demes[1] to which one should add Berenikidai, established in 224/223 BC, Apollonieis (201/200 BC) and Antinoeis (126/127). The establishment of demes as the fundamental units of the state weakened the gene, or aristocratic family groups, that had dominated the phratries.[2]

A deme functioned to some degree as a polis in miniature, and indeed some demes, such as Eleusis and Acharnae, were in fact significant towns. Each deme had a demarchos who supervised its affairs; various other civil, religious, and military functionaries existed in various demes. Demes held their own religious festivals and collected and spent revenue.[3]

Demes were combined with other demes from the same area to make trittyes, larger population groups, which in turn were combined to form the ten tribes, or phylai of Athens. Each tribe contained one trittys from each of three regions: the city, the coast, and the inland area.

AGMA Pinakia
Pinakia, identification tablets (name, father's name, deme) used for tasks like jury selection, Museum at the Ancient Agora of Athens

Cleisthenes' reforms and its modifications

First period: 508 – 307/306 BC

CarteAttiqueApresClisthene
The division of Athens city-state into urban (pink), inland (green), and coastal (blue) zones by Cleisthenes

Cleisthenes divided the landscape in three zones—urban (asty), coastal (paralia) and inland (mesogeia)—and the 139 demes were organized into 30 groups called trittyes ("thirds"), ten for each of the zones and into ten tribes, or phyle, each composed of three trittyes, one from the coast, one from the city, and one from the inland area.

Cleisthenes also reorganized the Boule, created with 400 members under Solon, so that it had 500 members, 50 from each tribe, each deme having a fixed quota.

The ten tribes were named after legendary heroes and came to have an official order:

  1. Erechtheis (Ἐρεχθηΐς) named after Erechtheus
  2. Aigeis (Αἰγηΐς) named after Aegeus
  3. Pandionis (Πανδιονίς) named after Pandion
  4. Leontis (Λεοντίς) named after Leos, son of Orpheus
  5. Acamantis (Ἀκαμαντίς) named after Acamas
  6. Oineis (Οἰνηΐς) named after Oeneus
  7. Kekropis (Κεκροπίς) named after Cécrops
  8. Hippothontis (or Hippothoontis) (Ἱπποθοντίς) named after Hippothoon
  9. Aiantis (Αἰαντίς) named after Ajax
  10. Antiochis (Ἀντιοχίς) named after Antiochus, son of Heracles

Second period: 307/306 – 224/223 BC

In 307/306 – 224/223 BC the system was reorganized creating the two Macedonian Phylai (XI. Antigonis and XII. Demetrias), named after Demetrius I of Macedon and Antigonus I Monophthalmus, and increasing the Boule to 600 members. Each of the ten tribes, except Aiantis, provide 3 demes (not necessarily one for trittyes); the missing contribution of Aiantis is covered by two demes of Leontis and 1 from Aigeis.

In connection the contribution of each village to the Boule is properly adapted.

Third period: 224/223 – 201/200 BC

The Egyptian Phyle XIII. Ptolemais, named after Ptolemy III Euergetes is created in 224/223 BC and the Boule increases to 600 members, the twelve tribes giving each a demos; moreover a new village is creatied and named Berenikidai, after Ptolemy's wife Berenice II of Egypt.

Fourth period: 201/200 BC – 126/127 AD

In 201/200 BC the Macedonian Phylae are dissolved and the villages (except the two given to Ptolemais) go back to the original tribe. Moreover, in spring 200 BC the tribe XIV. Attalis, named after Attalus I, is created following the same scheme used for the creation of the Egyptian Phyle: each tribe contributes a deme and a new deme, Apollonieis, is created in honour of Apollonis, wife of Attalus I of Pergamum. As a consequence we have again 12 tribeas and 600 members of the Boule.

From this period there are no more quotas assigned to the demes for the 50 Boule members of each tribe

Fifth period: 126/127 – third century

The last modification is the creation in 126/127 of XV. Hadrianis, named after Hadrian following the same scheme: each tribe contributes a deme and a new deme, Antinoeis is created in honour of Hadrian's favorite, Antinous.

More over each tribe contributes 40 members to the Boule.

Representation in the Boule

In the first three periods there it a more detailed system of fixed quotas which essentially remained unchanged. There is no evidence for a single general reapportionment of quotas within each of the first three periods, while there are evident small quota-variations between the first and the second periods.[4]

More precisely in:

307/306 BC, 24 demes increased of 1 bouleutes, 13 of 2, 5 or 3, 6 of 4 and 1 (Lower Paiania) of 11 and there is not a single example of a decreased quota.[5]
224/223 BC 4 demes increased of 1 bouleutes, 1 of 2, 2 or 3 and 2 of 4; of the 56 demes whose quota in the third period are known more than half maintain their same quota through the first three periods.[6]

As regards the last two periods, the material illustrates the complete collapse of the quota-system from 201/200 BC.[7]

Spurious and Late Roman demes

Some deme lists suggest to extend the 139+3 list adding 43 other names some of which have been considered by scholars as attic demes.[8] The criticism performed by John S. Traill[9] shows that 24 are the result of error, ancient[10] or modern,[11] or of misinterpretation[12] and 19[13] are well known chiefly from inscriptions of the second and third centuries after Christ, i.e. in the fifth period, and thus for political purposes they were originally dependent on legitimate cleisthenic demes.

Homonymous and divided demes

There are[14] 6 pairs of homonymous demes:

  • Halai Araphenides (VII.Kekropis) and Halai Aixonides (II.Aigeis)
  • Oion Dekeleikon (VIII.Hippothontis; later XIII.Ptolemais, XIV.Attalis) and Oion Kerameikon (IV.Leontis; affiliated with XII.Demetrias in the Macedonanian period)
  • Eitea: there were two demes of that name, but no modifier is known. One is associated to V.Acamantis, later XI.Antigonis and XV.Hadrianis; the other is associated to X.Antiochis
  • Oinoe and Oinoe: again no modifier is known; one deme was associated to VIII.Hippothontis, later XII.Demetrias and XIII.Ptolemais; the other was associated to IX.Aiantis, later XIV.Attalis and XV.Hadrianis.
  • Kolonai: again no modifier is known; one deme was associated to IV.Leontis; the other to X.Antiochis, later XI.Antigonis and XIII.Ptolemais.
  • Eroiadai: again no modifier is known for these two demes associated to VIII.Hippothontis and X.Antiochis.

and 6 divided demes, one composed of three parts:

  • Agryle, Upper Agryle and Lower Agryle (I.Erechtheis); one of them, but there is no prosopographical information for identifying which, was transferred to XI.Antigonis and went back at the end of the Macedonanian period; later one of them (again it is uncertain which) was transferred to XIV.Attalis.
  • Lamptrai, Upper Lamptrai and Coastal/Lower Lamptrai (I.Erechtheis); Upper Lamptrai was transferred to XI.Antigonis and went back at the end of the Macedonanian period.
  • Pergase, Upper and Lower (I.Erechtheis); one of them (no prosopographical information allows to decide which) was transferred to XI.Antigonis and went back at the end of the Macedonanian period.
  • Ankyle: no special designations of either section are preserved, although they are presumed to have the regular Upper and Lower forms. One section, perhaps Upper Ankale, was transferred to XI.Antigonis and went back at the end of the Macedonanian period.
  • Paiania, Upper Paiania and Lower Paiania (III.Pandionis); Upper Paiania, was transferred to XI.Antigonis and went back at the end of the Macedonanian period.
  • Potamos has three sections, Upper Potamos, Lower Potamos and Potamos Deiradiotes (IV.Leontes); during the Macedonanian period, Potamos Deiradiotes belonged to XI.Antigonis and Lower Potamos to XII.Demetrias

List of Athenian demes according to tribes/phylai (φυλαί)

The ten Cleisthenic tribes

  1. Erechtheïs (Ἐρεχθηΐς)[15]
    Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
    city
    Upper Agryle 2 3 3 One deme to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
    Lower Agryle 2
    Euonymon 10 12 12
    Themakos 1 1 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
    coast
    Anagyrous 6 8 8
    Kedoi 2 2 2
    Upper Lamptrai 5 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
    Coastal Lamptrai 9 10 10
    Pambotadai 1(0) 1 2 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
    Kephisia (?) inland
    Kephisia 6 8 8
    Upper Pergase 2 3 3 One deme to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
    Lower Pergase 2
    Phegous 1 1 1
    Sybridai 0(1) 1 1
    Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
  2. Aigeis (Αἰγηΐς)[19]
    Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
    city
    Upper Ankyle 1 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
    Lower Ankyle 1 1
    Bate 1(2) 1
    Diomeia 1 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
    Erikeia 1 2
    Hestiaia 1 1
    Kollytos 3 4
    Kolonos 2 2
    coast
    Araphen 2 2
    Halai Araphenides 5 9
    Otryne 1 1
    Phegaia 3(4) 3(4) to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
    Philaidai 3 3
    Epakria inland
    Erchia 7(6) 11
    Gargettos 4 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
    Ikarion 5(4) to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
    Ionidai 2(1) 2
    Kydantidai 1(2) 1(2) to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
    Myrrhinoutta 1 1
    Plotheia 1 2
    Teithras 4 4
    Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
  3. Pandionis (Πανδιονίς)[20]
    Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
    Kydathenaion city
    Kydathenaion 12(11) to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
    Myrrhinous coast
    Angele 2(3) 4 4
    Myrrhinous 6 8 8
    Prasiai 3 3 3
    Probalinthos 5 5 5 to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
    Steiria 3 3 4
    Paiania inland
    Konthyle 1 1 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
    Kytheros 2(1) to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
    Oa 4 4 4 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
    Upper Paiania 1 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
    Lower Paiania 11 22 22
    Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
  4. Leontis (Λεοντίς)[21][22]
    Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
    Skambonidai city
    Halimous 3 3 3
    Kettos 3 3(4) 3
    Leukonoion 3 5 5
    Oion Kerameikon 1 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
    Skambonidai 3 4 4 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
    Upper Potamos 2 2 2
    Lower Potamos 1 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
    Phrearrhioi coast
    Deiradiotai 2 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
    Potamioi Deiradiotai 2 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
    Phrearrhioi 9 9 10
    Sounion 4 6 6 to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
    Hekale (?) inland
    Aithalidai 2 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
    Cholleidai 2 5 5
    Eupyridai 2 2 2
    Hekale 1 1 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
    Hybadai 2 2(1) 2
    Kolonai 2 2 2
    Kropidai 1 1 1
    Paionidai 3 3 3
    Pelekes 2 2 2
    Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
  5. Akamantis (Ἀκαμαντίς)[23]
    Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
    Cholargos city
    Cholargos 4 6
    Eiresidai 1 2
    Hermos 2 2
    Iphistiadae 1 1
    Kerameis 6 6
    Thorikos coast
    Kephale 9 12
    Poros 3 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
    Thorikos 5(6) 6
    Sphettos inland
    Eitea 2 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
    Hagnous 5 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
    Kikynna 2 3
    Prospalta 5 5 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
    Sphettos 5 7
    Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
  6. Oeneïs (Οἰνηΐς)[24]
    Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
    Lakiadai city
    Boutadai 1 1 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
    Epikephisia 1(2) 1
    Hippotomadai 1 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
    Lakiadai 2 3
    Lousia 1 1
    Perithoidai 3 3
    Ptelea 1 1
    Tyrmeidai 1(0) 1 to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
    Thria coast
    Kothokidai 2(1) to XII.Demetrias in the second and third period
    Oe 6(7) 6
    Phyle 2 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third period
    Thria 7 8 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
    Pedion inland
    Acharnae 22 25
    Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
  7. Kekropis (Κεκροπίς)[25]
    Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
    Melite (?) city
    Daidalidai 1 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
    Melite 7 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
    Xypete 7 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
    Aixone(?) coast
    Aixone 8 12
    Halai Aixonides 6 10
    inland
    Athmonon 6 10 to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
    Epieikidai 1 1(0)
    Phlya 7 9 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
    Pithos 2(3) 4
    Sypalettos 2 2 [26]
    Trinemeia 2 2
    Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
  8. Hippothontis (Ἱπποθοντίς)[27]
    Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
    Peiraieus city
    Hamaxanteia 2 2
    Keiriadai 2 2
    Koile 3 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
    Korydallos 1 1 to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
    Peiraieus 9 10
    Thymaitadai 2 2
    Eleusis coast
    Acherdous 1 1
    Auridai 1 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
    Azenia 2 2
    Elaious 1 1 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
    Eleusis 11 12
    Kopros 2 2
    Oinoe 2 to XII.Demetrias in the second and to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
    Dekeleia (?) inland
    Anakaia 3 3
    Eroiadai 1 2
    Dekeleia 4 6
    Oion Dekeleikon 3 3 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
    Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
  9. Aiantis (Αἰαντίς) [28]
    Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
    Phaleron (?) city
    Phaleron 9 9 13
    Thorikos coast
    Marathon 10 10 13
    Oinoe 4 4 6 to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
    Rhamnous 8 8 12
    Trikorynthos 3 3 6 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
    Aphidna (?) inland
    Aphidna 16 16 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
    Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
  10. Antiochis (Ἀντιοχίς)[29]
    Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
    Alopeke city
    Alopeke 10 12
    Anaphlistos coast
    Aigilia 6 7 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
    Amphitrope 2 3
    Anaphlystos 10 11
    Atene 3 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
    Besa 2 2 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
    Thorai 4 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
    Pallene inland
    Eitea 2(1) 2
    Eroiadai 1 1
    Kolonai 2 to XI.Antigonis in the second period and to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
    Krioa 1 2
    Pallene 6(7) 9
    Semachidai 1 1
    Deme #[16] #[17] Notes

The Macedonian tribes

  1. Antigonis[30]
    Deme Former phyle Trittys #[16] #[17]
    Lower Agryle Erachtheis city 3 3
    Upper Lamptrai Erachtheis coast 5 5
    Lower Pergase Erachtheis inland 2 2
    Upper Ankyle Aigeis city 1 1
    Ikarion Aigeis inland 5 6
    Kydathenaion Pandionis city 12 12
    Kytheros Pandionis inland 2 2
    Upper Paiania Pandionis inland 1 1
    Aithalidai Leontis inland 2 2
    Deiradiotai Leontis coast 2 2
    Potamos Deiradiotes Leontis coast 2 2
    Eitea Akamantis inland 2 2
    Auridai Hippothontis coast 1 1
    Kolonai Antiochis inland 2 2
  2. Demetrias[31]
    Deme Former phyle Trittys #[16] #[17]
    Diomeia Aigeis city 1 1
    Oion Kerameikon Leontis city 1 1
    Lower Potamos Leontis coast 1 2
    Hagnous Akamantis inland 5 5
    Poros Akamantis coast 3 3
    Hippotomadai Oineis city 1 1
    Kothokidai Oineis coast 2 2
    Phyle Oineis coast 2 6
    Daidalidai Kekropis city 1 1
    Melite Kekropis city 7 7
    Xypete Kekropis city 7 7
    Koile Hippothontis city 3 3
    Oinoe Hippothontis coast 2 2
    Atene Antiochis coast 3 4
    Thorai Antiochis coast 4 5

The later tribes

  1. Ptolemais[32]
    Deme Former phyle Trittys #[16] #[17] #[18]
    Kolonai Antigonis inland 2 2 2
    Oinoe Demetrias coast 2 2 2
    Themakos Erechteis city 1 1 1
    Kydantidai Aigeis inland 1 (2) 1 (2) 1
    Konthyle Pandionis inland 1 1 1
    Hekale Leontis inland 1 1 1
    Prospalta Akamantis inland 5 5 5
    Boutadai Oineis city 1 1 1
    Phlya Kekropis inland 6 9 9
    Oion Dekeleikon Hippothontis inland 3 3 3
    Aphidna Aiantis inland 16 16 16
    Aigilia Antiochis coast 6 7 7
    Berenikidai new 1
  2. Attalis[33]
    Deme Former phyle Trittys #[16] #[17] #[18]
    Lower Agrile Erechteis city 3 3 3
    Ikarion Aigeis inland 5 (4) 6 6
    Probalinthos Pandionis coast 5 5 5
    Sounion Leontis coast 4 6 6
    Oion Dekailekon Ptolemais inlamd 3 3 3
    Hagnous Akamantis inland 5 5 5
    Tyrmeidai Oineis city 1(0) 1 1
    Athmonon Kekropis inland 6 10 10
    Korydallos Hippothontis city 3 3 3
    Oinoe Aiantis coast 4 4 6
    Atene Antiochis coast 3 4 4
    Apollonieis new
  3. Hadrianis[34]
    Deme Former phyle Trittys #[16] #[17] #[18]
    Pambotadai Erechteis coast 1 (0) 1 (0) 2
    Phegaia Aigeis coast 3 (4) 3 (4) 4
    Oa Pandionis inland 4 4 4
    Skambonidai Leontis city 3 4 4
    Aphidna Ptolemais inlamd 16 16 16
    Eitea Akamantis inland 2 2 2
    Thria Oineis coast 7 8 8
    Daidalidai Kekropis city 1 1 1
    Elaious Hippothontis coast 1 1 1
    Trikorynthos Aiantis coast 3 3 6
    Besa Antiochis coast 2 2 2
    Oinoe Attalis coast 4 4 6
    Antinoeis new

The ten tribes of Thurii

When the city was settled under the support of Pericles and the command of Lampon and Xenocritus the population was organized in ten tribes, following the Athenian organization: there were tribes for the population of 1. Arcadia, 2. Achaea, 3. Elis, 4. Boeotia, 5. Delphi, 6. Dorians, 7. Ionians, 8. population of Euboea, 9. the islands and 10. Athenians.[35]

Later usage

The term "deme" (dēmos) survived into the Hellenistic and Roman eras. By the time of the Byzantine Empire, the term was used to refer to one of the four chariot racing factions, the Reds, the Blues, the Greens and the Whites.

In modern Greece, the term dēmos is used to denote the municipalities.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Traill 1975, p. 76
  2. ^ J.V. Fine, The Ancient Greeks: A Critical History
  3. ^ David Whitehead, "Deme" from the Oxford Classical Dictionary, Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, ed.
  4. ^ Traill 1975, p. 56
  5. ^ Traill 1975, p. 59
  6. ^ Traill 1975, p. 62
  7. ^ Traill 1975, p. 61
  8. ^ Graes, Phegaia, Kaletea (III); Rhakidai, Kyrteidai (V); Phyle B, Perrihidai (VI); Kikynna B, Trinemeia B, Sypalettos B (VII); Agriadai, Pol(--), Anakaia B, Amymone, Sphendale (VIII); Kykala, Perrhidai, Thyrgonidai, Titakidai, Petalidai, Psaphis (IX); Atene B, De(--), Lekkon, Leukopyra, Ergadeis, Phyrrhinesioi, Malainai, Pentele (X).
  9. ^ Traill 1975, pp. 81–96
  10. ^ Anakaia B, Phegaieis B, Graes, Pol(--)
  11. ^ Agriadai
  12. ^ De(--), Salamis, Kaletea, Kikynna B, Atene B, Ikaroin, Amphitrope B, Phyle B, Sypalettos B, Trinemeia B, Coastal Lamptrai, Chastieis, Chelidonia, Echelidai, Gephyreis, Lekkon, Oisia, Rhakidai, Sporgilos.
  13. ^ Hyporeia,Thirgonidai, Titakidai, Perrhidai, Petalidai, Eunostidai, Klopidai, Melainai, Sphendale, Pentale, Psaphis, Akyaia, Amymone, Ergadeis, Kykala, Kyrteidai, Leukopyra, Phy(r)rhinesioi, Semachidai B,
  14. ^ Traill 1975, pp. 123-8
  15. ^ Traill 1975, Table I
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Quota in the first period
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Quota in the second period
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Quota in the third period
  19. ^ Traill 1975, Table II
  20. ^ Traill 1975, Table III
  21. ^ Traill 1975, Table IV
  22. ^ Traill, 1975 & pg.133
  23. ^ Traill 1975, Table V
  24. ^ Traill 1975, Table VI
  25. ^ Traill 1975, Table VII
  26. ^ Meritt, 1961, pp.227-230 suggests that Sypalettos could be temporarily belonged to XIV.Attalis in 145; the argument would justify the conflicting facts that the current archon, Epikrates, was from Sypalettos and that archonship, in the secretary-cycle, should be assigned to Attalis; in connection he pointed that the son of the eponym, Attalos II, was of the deme Sypalettos and that a similar reletionship between phylai and members of the family of the eponym is proved by Ptolemy V Epiphanes, grandson of Ptolemy III and member of XIII.Ptolemais and by Hadrian which was accepted into the deme of Besa.
  27. ^ Traill 1975, Table V
  28. ^ Traill 1975, Table IX
  29. ^ Traill 1975, Table X
  30. ^ Traill 1975, Table XI
  31. ^ Traill 1975, Table XII
  32. ^ Traill 1975, Table XIII
  33. ^ Traill 1975, Table XIV
  34. ^ Traill 1975, Table XV
  35. ^ Fritz Schachermeyr, Perikles, Kohlhammer, Stuttgart–Berlin–Köln–Mainz 1969

References

  • Traill, John S. (1975). The Political Organization of Attica. Amsterdam: American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA). ISBN 978-0-87661-514-0. JSTOR 1353928.
  • Fine, John V. A. The Ancient Greeks: A critical history (Harvard University Press, 1983). ISBN 0-674-03314-0.
  • Hornblower, Simon, and Anthony Spawforth, ed., The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Oxford University Press, 2003). ISBN 0-19-866172-X.
  • Meritt, B. D. The Athenian Year. Berkeley, 1961.
  • Suzanne, Bernard (1998). plato-dialogues.org, "Attic Tribes and Demes". Accessed August 1, 2006.
  • Whitehead, David. The Demes of Attica 508/7–ca. 250 BC: A Political and Social Study (Princeton University Press, 1986).
Amos (ancient city)

Amos (Ancient Greek: Ἄμος, possibly from ἄμμος "sandy") was a settlement (dēmē) of ancient Caria, located near the modern town of Turunç, Turkey.

Ascolia

Ascolia, in Ancient Greece, was a yearly feast that the peasants of Attica celebrated in honor of Dionysus. The rites included sacrificing a goat, chosen because goats were prone to eating and destroying grapevines, and using its skin to make a football, which was filled with wine and smeared in oil. Festival participants then competed against each other by trying to leap onto it in a game that gave the festival its name (askoliazein, ἀσκωλιάζειν); the one who remained standing at the end of the contest won the wineskin as a prize. Participants also painted their faces with wine dregs, sang hymns, and recited satirical poetry.

The Atticans also made icons of Dionysus to hang in their vineyards to turn in the wind, which were called aiorai (αἰώραι). George Spence suggested that this was due to a popular belief that the god ensured fertility of any field he faced, while Varro speculated that the icons were intended as an offering to the spirits of the dead who had committed suicide by hanging.The festival was eventually introduced into Italy as Vinalia, and the aiorai became known as oscilla.

The chief magistrate, or demarch, of a deme conducted the festival, while the deme paid for the expenses.

Beaumont-sur-Dême

Beaumont-sur-Dême is a commune in the Sarthe department in the region of Pays-de-la-Loire in north-western France.

Chemillé-sur-Dême

Chemillé-sur-Dême is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.

Deme (biology)

In biology, a deme, in the strict sense, is a group of individuals that belong to the same taxonomic group. However, when biologists, and especially zoologists, use the term ‘deme’ they usually refer to it as the definition of a gamodeme: a local group of individuals (from the same taxon) that interbreed with each other and share a gene pool. The latter definition of a deme is only applicable to sexual reproducing species, while the former is more neutral and also takes asexual reproducing species into account, such as certain plant species. In the following sections the latter (and most frequently used) definition of a deme will be used.

In evolutionary computation, a "deme" often refers to any isolated subpopulation subjected to selection as a unit rather than as individuals.

Deme N'Diaye

N'diaye Deme N'Diaye (born 6 February 1985) is a Senegalese footballer who plays for French National 2 side Arras FA as a striker. He previously played for Portuguese club Estrela Amadora, and French clubs Arles-Avignon and RC Lens.

Dèmè

Dèmè is a small town and arrondissement located in the commune of Adjohoun in the Borgou Department of Benin. Agriculture is the main industry lying in the fertile Ouémé River Valley of southern Benin. In 2008 during the 2008 Benin floods, the area was affected by the flooding of the Ouémé River which affected much of Adjohoun commune.

Eleusis

Eleusis (Greek: Ελευσίνα Elefsina, Ancient Greek: Ἐλευσίς Eleusis) is a town and municipality in West Attica, Greece. It is situated about 18 kilometres (11 miles) northwest from the centre of Athens. It is located in the Thriasian Plain, at the northernmost end of the Saronic Gulf. North of Eleusis are Mandra and Magoula, while Aspropyrgos is to the northeast.

Eleusis is the seat of administration of West Attica regional unit. It is the site of the Eleusinian Mysteries and the birthplace of Aeschylus. Today, Eleusis is a major industrial centre, with the largest oil refinery in Greece as well as the home of the Aeschylia Festival, the longest-lived arts event in the Attica Region.

On 11 November 2016 Eleusis was named the European Capital of Culture for 2021.

József Deme

József Deme (born 11 December 1951) is a Hungarian sprint canoeist who competed from the early 1970s to the early 1980s. Competing in three Summer Olympics, he won a silver medal in the K-2 1000 m event at Munich in 1972.

Deme also won seven medals at the ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships with two golds (K-2 1000 m and K-4 1000 m: both 1973), two silvers (K-2 500 m: 1973, 1974), and three bronzes (K-2 1000 m: 1975, K-4 1000 m: 1974, 1975).

Kaba Deme language

Kaba Démé (Kaba ’Dem, Ta Sara, Sara Deme), or just Dem, is a Bongo–Bagirmi language of Chad and the Central African Republic. It is one of several local languages that go by the names Kaba and Sara.

Kolonos

Kolonos (Greek: Κολωνός, pronounced [ko.loˈnos]) is a densely populated working-class district of the Municipality of Athens. It is named after the ancient deme, Hippeios Colonus.

The district hosts a multi-year football club, Attikos F.C., that was founded in 1919.

Marathon, Greece

Marathon (Demotic Greek: Μαραθώνας, Marathónas; Attic/Katharevousa: Μαραθών, Marathṓn) is a town in Greece and the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BC, in which the heavily outnumbered Athenian army defeated the Persians. Legend has it that Pheidippides, a Greek herald at the battle, was sent running from Marathon to Athens to announce the victory, which is how the marathon running race was conceived in modern times.

Piraeus

Piraeus (; Greek: Πειραιάς Pireás [pireˈas], Ancient Greek: Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús, pronounced [peːrai̯eús]) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece. Piraeus is located within the Athens urban area, 12 kilometres (7 miles) southwest from its city centre (municipality of Athens), and lies along the east coast of the Saronic Gulf.

According to the 2011 census, Piraeus had a population of 163,688 people within its administrative limits, making it the fourth largest municipality in Greece and the second largest within the urban area of the Greek capital, following the municipality of Athens. The municipality of Piraeus and several other suburban municipalities within the regional unit of Piraeus form the greater Piraeus area, with a total population of 448,997, and is part pf Athens urban area.

Piraeus has a long recorded history, dating to ancient Greece. The city was founded in the early 5th century BC, when this area was selected to become the new port of classical Athens and was built as a prototype harbour, concentrating all the import and transit trade of Athens. During the Golden Age of Athens the Long Walls were constructed to fortify Athens and its port (Piraeus). Consequently, it became the chief harbour of ancient Greece, but declined gradually after the 3th century B.C., growing once more in the 19th century, after Athens' declaration as the capital of Greece. In the modern era, Piraeus is a large city, bustling with activity and an integral part of Athens, acting as home to the country's biggest harbour and bearing all the characteristics of a huge marine and commercial-industrial center.

The port of Piraeus is the chief port in Greece, the largest passenger port in Europe and the second largest in the world, servicing about 20 million passengers annually. With a throughput of 1.4 million TEUs, Piraeus is placed among the top ten ports in container traffic in Europe and the top container port in the Eastern Mediterranean. The city hosted events in both the 1896 and 2004 Summer Olympics held in Athens. The University of Piraeus is one of the largest universities in Greece.

Sounion

Cape Sounion (Modern Greek: Aκρωτήριο Σούνιο Akrotírio Soúnio [akroˈtirʝo ˈsuɲo]; Ancient Greek: Ἄκρον Σούνιον Άkron Soúnion, latinized Sunium; Venetian: Capo Colonne "Cape of Columns") is the promontory at the southernmost tip of the Attic peninsula, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the town of Lavrio (ancient Thoricus), and 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Athens.

It is part of Lavreotiki municipality, East Attica, Greece.

Cape Sounion is noted for its Temple of Poseidon, one of the major monuments of the Golden Age of Athens. Its remains are perched on the headland, surrounded on three sides by the sea.

Telescope (goldfish)

The telescope eye (Japanese: 出目金, romanized: Demekin) is a fancy goldfish characterised by its protruding eyes.

University College School

University College School, generally known as UCS Hampstead, is an independent day school in Frognal, northwest London, England. The school was founded in 1830 by University College London and inherited many of that institution's progressive and secular views.

The UCS Hampstead Foundation is composed of four main entities:

"The UCS Pre-Prep" (previously known as "The Phoenix"), currently co-educational (though from September 2017 new entry has been for boys only) for ages 4 to 7 on the Finchley Road site. This was acquired by UCS in 2003.

"The Junior Branch", for boys aged 7 to 11 on the Holly Hill site in the heart of Hampstead.

"The Senior School", for boys aged 11 to 16 and co-educational for ages 16 to 18 on the Frognal site, which is the largest school site. The main campus and the Great Hall are noted examples of Edwardian architecture. Inside the hall is a Walker pipe organ, used for school concerts, professional recordings and other festivities.

"The Playing Fields" are situated in Ranulf Road in West Hampstead.UCS is a member of the Eton Group of twelve independent schools, the Haileybury Group of 26 independent schools, and the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference. It is well known for its established Bursary Programme and Music Scholarships, as well as its outreach work with a number of other schools in North and West London, including Westminster Academy, the London Academy of Excellence and UCL Academy. It also has strong ties with the Equatorial College School in Uganda, and charitable work in Romania and India.

Épeigné-sur-Dême

Épeigné-sur-Dême is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.

Modern
Historical
Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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