In Ancient Greece, a deme or demos (Greek: δῆμος) modern Municipality was a suburb or a subdivision of Athens and other city-states. Demes as simple subdivisions of land in the countryside seem to have existed in the 6th century BC and earlier, but did not acquire particular significance until the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508 BC. In those reforms, enrollment in the citizen-lists of a deme became the requirement for citizenship; prior to that time, citizenship had been based on membership in a phratry, or family group. At this same time, demes were established in the main city of Athens itself, where they had not previously existed; in all, at the end of Cleisthenes' reforms, Athens was divided into 139 demes to which one should add Berenikidai, established in 224/223 BC, Apollonieis (201/200 BC) and Antinoeis (126/127). The establishment of demes as the fundamental units of the state weakened the gene, or aristocratic family groups, that had dominated the phratries.
A deme functioned to some degree as a polis in miniature, and indeed some demes, such as Eleusis and Acharnae, were in fact significant towns. Each deme had a demarchos who supervised its affairs; various other civil, religious, and military functionaries existed in various demes. Demes held their own religious festivals and collected and spent revenue.
Demes were combined with other demes from the same area to make trittyes, larger population groups, which in turn were combined to form the ten tribes, or phylai of Athens. Each tribe contained one trittys from each of three regions: the city, the coast, and the inland area.
Cleisthenes divided the landscape in three zones—urban (asty), coastal (paralia) and inland (mesogeia)—and the 139 demes were organized into 30 groups called trittyes ("thirds"), ten for each of the zones and into ten tribes, or phyle, each composed of three trittyes, one from the coast, one from the city, and one from the inland area.
The ten tribes were named after legendary heroes and came to have an official order:
In 307/306 – 224/223 BC the system was reorganized creating the two Macedonian Phylai (XI. Antigonis and XII. Demetrias), named after Demetrius I of Macedon and Antigonus I Monophthalmus, and increasing the Boule to 600 members. Each of the ten tribes, except Aiantis, provide 3 demes (not necessarily one for trittyes); the missing contribution of Aiantis is covered by two demes of Leontis and 1 from Aigeis.
In connection the contribution of each village to the Boule is properly adapted.
The Egyptian Phyle XIII. Ptolemais, named after Ptolemy III Euergetes is created in 224/223 BC and the Boule increases to 600 members, the twelve tribes giving each a demos; moreover a new village is creatied and named Berenikidai, after Ptolemy's wife Berenice II of Egypt.
In 201/200 BC the Macedonian Phylae are dissolved and the villages (except the two given to Ptolemais) go back to the original tribe. Moreover, in spring 200 BC the tribe XIV. Attalis, named after Attalus I, is created following the same scheme used for the creation of the Egyptian Phyle: each tribe contributes a deme and a new deme, Apollonieis, is created in honour of Apollonis, wife of Attalus I of Pergamum. As a consequence we have again 12 tribeas and 600 members of the Boule.
From this period there are no more quotas assigned to the demes for the 50 Boule members of each tribe
The last modification is the creation in 126/127 of XV. Hadrianis, named after Hadrian following the same scheme: each tribe contributes a deme and a new deme, Antinoeis is created in honour of Hadrian's favorite, Antinous.
More over each tribe contributes 40 members to the Boule.
In the first three periods there it a more detailed system of fixed quotas which essentially remained unchanged. There is no evidence for a single general reapportionment of quotas within each of the first three periods, while there are evident small quota-variations between the first and the second periods.
More precisely in:
As regards the last two periods, the material illustrates the complete collapse of the quota-system from 201/200 BC.
Some deme lists suggest to extend the 139+3 list adding 43 other names some of which have been considered by scholars as attic demes. The criticism performed by John S. Traill shows that 24 are the result of error, ancient or modern, or of misinterpretation and 19 are well known chiefly from inscriptions of the second and third centuries after Christ, i.e. in the fifth period, and thus for political purposes they were originally dependent on legitimate cleisthenic demes.
There are 6 pairs of homonymous demes:
and 6 divided demes, one composed of three parts:
|Upper Agryle||2||3||3||One deme to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Themakos||1||1||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Upper Lamptrai||5||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Pambotadai||1(0)||1||2||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Upper Pergase||2||3||3||One deme to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Upper Ankyle||1||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Diomeia||1||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Phegaia||3(4)||3(4)||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Gargettos||4||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Ikarion||5(4)||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Kydantidai||1(2)||1(2)||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Kydathenaion||12(11)||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Probalinthos||5||5||5||to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Konthyle||1||1||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Kytheros||2(1)||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Oa||4||4||4||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Upper Paiania||1||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Oion Kerameikon||1||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Skambonidai||3||4||4||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Lower Potamos||1||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Deiradiotai||2||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Potamioi Deiradiotai||2||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Sounion||4||6||6||to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Aithalidai||2||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Hekale||1||1||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Poros||3||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Eitea||2||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Hagnous||5||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Prospalta||5||5||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Boutadai||1||1||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Hippotomadai||1||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Tyrmeidai||1(0)||1||to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Kothokidai||2(1)||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third period|
|Phyle||2||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third period|
|Thria||7||8||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Daidalidai||1||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Melite||7||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Xypete||7||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Athmonon||6||10||to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Phlya||7||9||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Koile||3||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Korydallos||1||1||to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Auridai||1||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Elaious||1||1||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Oinoe||2||to XII.Demetrias in the second and to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Oion Dekeleikon||3||3||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Oinoe||4||4||6||to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Trikorynthos||3||3||6||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Aphidna||16||16||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Aigilia||6||7||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Atene||3||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Besa||2||2||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Thorai||4||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Kolonai||2||to XI.Antigonis in the second period and to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Kydantidai||Aigeis||inland||1 (2)||1 (2)||1|
|Pambotadai||Erechteis||coast||1 (0)||1 (0)||2|
|Phegaia||Aigeis||coast||3 (4)||3 (4)||4|
When the city was settled under the support of Pericles and the command of Lampon and Xenocritus the population was organized in ten tribes, following the Athenian organization: there were tribes for the population of 1. Arcadia, 2. Achaea, 3. Elis, 4. Boeotia, 5. Delphi, 6. Dorians, 7. Ionians, 8. population of Euboea, 9. the islands and 10. Athenians.
The term "deme" (dēmos) survived into the Hellenistic and Roman eras. By the time of the Byzantine Empire, the term was used to refer to one of the four chariot racing factions, the Reds, the Blues, the Greens and the Whites.
In modern Greece, the term dēmos is used to denote the municipalities.
Amos (Ancient Greek: Ἄμος, possibly from ἄμμος "sandy") was a settlement (dēmē) of ancient Caria, located near the modern town of Turunç, Turkey.Ascolia
Ascolia, in Ancient Greece, was a yearly feast that the peasants of Attica celebrated in honor of Dionysus. The rites included sacrificing a goat, chosen because goats were prone to eating and destroying grapevines, and using its skin to make a football, which was filled with wine and smeared in oil. Festival participants then competed against each other by trying to leap onto it in a game that gave the festival its name (askoliazein, ἀσκωλιάζειν); the one who remained standing at the end of the contest won the wineskin as a prize. Participants also painted their faces with wine dregs, sang hymns, and recited satirical poetry.
The Atticans also made icons of Dionysus to hang in their vineyards to turn in the wind, which were called aiorai (αἰώραι). George Spence suggested that this was due to a popular belief that the god ensured fertility of any field he faced, while Varro speculated that the icons were intended as an offering to the spirits of the dead who had committed suicide by hanging.The festival was eventually introduced into Italy as Vinalia, and the aiorai became known as oscilla.
The chief magistrate, or demarch, of a deme conducted the festival, while the deme paid for the expenses.Beaumont-sur-Dême
Beaumont-sur-Dême is a commune in the Sarthe department in the region of Pays-de-la-Loire in north-western France.Chemillé-sur-Dême
Chemillé-sur-Dême is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.Deme (biology)
In biology, a deme, in the strict sense, is a group of individuals that belong to the same taxonomic group. However, when biologists, and especially zoologists, use the term ‘deme’ they usually refer to it as the definition of a gamodeme: a local group of individuals (from the same taxon) that interbreed with each other and share a gene pool. The latter definition of a deme is only applicable to sexual reproducing species, while the former is more neutral and also takes asexual reproducing species into account, such as certain plant species. In the following sections the latter (and most frequently used) definition of a deme will be used.
In evolutionary computation, a "deme" often refers to any isolated subpopulation subjected to selection as a unit rather than as individuals.Deme N'Diaye
N'diaye Deme N'Diaye (born 6 February 1985) is a Senegalese footballer who plays for French National 2 side Arras FA as a striker. He previously played for Portuguese club Estrela Amadora, and French clubs Arles-Avignon and RC Lens.Dèmè
Dèmè is a small town and arrondissement located in the commune of Adjohoun in the Borgou Department of Benin. Agriculture is the main industry lying in the fertile Ouémé River Valley of southern Benin. In 2008 during the 2008 Benin floods, the area was affected by the flooding of the Ouémé River which affected much of Adjohoun commune.Eleusis
Eleusis (Greek: Ελευσίνα Elefsina, Ancient Greek: Ἐλευσίς Eleusis) is a town and municipality in West Attica, Greece. It is situated about 18 kilometres (11 miles) northwest from the centre of Athens. It is located in the Thriasian Plain, at the northernmost end of the Saronic Gulf. North of Eleusis are Mandra and Magoula, while Aspropyrgos is to the northeast.
Eleusis is the seat of administration of West Attica regional unit. It is the site of the Eleusinian Mysteries and the birthplace of Aeschylus. Today, Eleusis is a major industrial centre, with the largest oil refinery in Greece as well as the home of the Aeschylia Festival, the longest-lived arts event in the Attica Region.
On 11 November 2016 Eleusis was named the European Capital of Culture for 2021.József Deme
József Deme (born 11 December 1951) is a Hungarian sprint canoeist who competed from the early 1970s to the early 1980s. Competing in three Summer Olympics, he won a silver medal in the K-2 1000 m event at Munich in 1972.
Deme also won seven medals at the ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships with two golds (K-2 1000 m and K-4 1000 m: both 1973), two silvers (K-2 500 m: 1973, 1974), and three bronzes (K-2 1000 m: 1975, K-4 1000 m: 1974, 1975).Kaba Deme language
Kaba Démé (Kaba ’Dem, Ta Sara, Sara Deme), or just Dem, is a Bongo–Bagirmi language of Chad and the Central African Republic. It is one of several local languages that go by the names Kaba and Sara.Kolonos
Kolonos (Greek: Κολωνός, pronounced [ko.loˈnos]) is a densely populated working-class district of the Municipality of Athens. It is named after the ancient deme, Hippeios Colonus.
The district hosts a multi-year football club, Attikos F.C., that was founded in 1919.Marathon, Greece
Marathon (Demotic Greek: Μαραθώνας, Marathónas; Attic/Katharevousa: Μαραθών, Marathṓn) is a town in Greece and the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BC, in which the heavily outnumbered Athenian army defeated the Persians. Legend has it that Pheidippides, a Greek herald at the battle, was sent running from Marathon to Athens to announce the victory, which is how the marathon running race was conceived in modern times.Piraeus
Piraeus (; Greek: Πειραιάς Pireás [pireˈas], Ancient Greek: Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús, pronounced [peːrai̯eús]) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece. Piraeus is located within the Athens urban area, 12 kilometres (7 miles) southwest from its city centre (municipality of Athens), and lies along the east coast of the Saronic Gulf.
According to the 2011 census, Piraeus had a population of 163,688 people within its administrative limits, making it the fourth largest municipality in Greece and the second largest within the urban area of the Greek capital, following the municipality of Athens. The municipality of Piraeus and several other suburban municipalities within the regional unit of Piraeus form the greater Piraeus area, with a total population of 448,997, and is part pf Athens urban area.
Piraeus has a long recorded history, dating to ancient Greece. The city was founded in the early 5th century BC, when this area was selected to become the new port of classical Athens and was built as a prototype harbour, concentrating all the import and transit trade of Athens. During the Golden Age of Athens the Long Walls were constructed to fortify Athens and its port (Piraeus). Consequently, it became the chief harbour of ancient Greece, but declined gradually after the 3th century B.C., growing once more in the 19th century, after Athens' declaration as the capital of Greece. In the modern era, Piraeus is a large city, bustling with activity and an integral part of Athens, acting as home to the country's biggest harbour and bearing all the characteristics of a huge marine and commercial-industrial center.
The port of Piraeus is the chief port in Greece, the largest passenger port in Europe and the second largest in the world, servicing about 20 million passengers annually. With a throughput of 1.4 million TEUs, Piraeus is placed among the top ten ports in container traffic in Europe and the top container port in the Eastern Mediterranean. The city hosted events in both the 1896 and 2004 Summer Olympics held in Athens. The University of Piraeus is one of the largest universities in Greece.Sounion
Cape Sounion (Modern Greek: Aκρωτήριο Σούνιο Akrotírio Soúnio [akroˈtirʝo ˈsuɲo]; Ancient Greek: Ἄκρον Σούνιον Άkron Soúnion, latinized Sunium; Venetian: Capo Colonne "Cape of Columns") is the promontory at the southernmost tip of the Attic peninsula, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the town of Lavrio (ancient Thoricus), and 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Athens.
It is part of Lavreotiki municipality, East Attica, Greece.
Cape Sounion is noted for its Temple of Poseidon, one of the major monuments of the Golden Age of Athens. Its remains are perched on the headland, surrounded on three sides by the sea.Telescope (goldfish)
The telescope eye (Japanese: 出目金, romanized: Demekin) is a fancy goldfish characterised by its protruding eyes.University College School
University College School, generally known as UCS Hampstead, is an independent day school in Frognal, northwest London, England. The school was founded in 1830 by University College London and inherited many of that institution's progressive and secular views.
The UCS Hampstead Foundation is composed of four main entities:
"The UCS Pre-Prep" (previously known as "The Phoenix"), currently co-educational (though from September 2017 new entry has been for boys only) for ages 4 to 7 on the Finchley Road site. This was acquired by UCS in 2003.
"The Junior Branch", for boys aged 7 to 11 on the Holly Hill site in the heart of Hampstead.
"The Senior School", for boys aged 11 to 16 and co-educational for ages 16 to 18 on the Frognal site, which is the largest school site. The main campus and the Great Hall are noted examples of Edwardian architecture. Inside the hall is a Walker pipe organ, used for school concerts, professional recordings and other festivities.
"The Playing Fields" are situated in Ranulf Road in West Hampstead.UCS is a member of the Eton Group of twelve independent schools, the Haileybury Group of 26 independent schools, and the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference. It is well known for its established Bursary Programme and Music Scholarships, as well as its outreach work with a number of other schools in North and West London, including Westminster Academy, the London Academy of Excellence and UCL Academy. It also has strong ties with the Equatorial College School in Uganda, and charitable work in Romania and India.Épeigné-sur-Dême
Épeigné-sur-Dême is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.
§ signifies a defunct institution
Designations for types of administrative territorial entities
1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics.