The Delmarva Peninsula, or simply Delmarva, is a large peninsula on the East Coast of the United States, occupied by Delaware and parts of the Eastern Shores of Maryland and Virginia. The peninsula is 170 miles (274 km) long. In width, it ranges from 70 miles (113 km) near its center, to 12 miles (19 km) at the isthmus on its northern edge, to less near its southern tip of Cape Charles. It is bordered by the Chesapeake Bay on the west, the Delaware River, Delaware Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and the Elk River and its isthmus on the north.
In older sources, the peninsula between Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay was referred to variously as the Delaware and Chesapeake Peninsula or simply the Chesapeake Peninsula.
The toponym Delmarva is a clipped compound of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia (abbreviated VA), which in turn was modeled after Delmar, a border town named after two of those states. While Delmar was founded and named in 1859, the earliest uses of the name Delmarva occurred several decades later (for example on February 10, 1877 in the Middleton Transcript newspaper in Middleton, Delaware) and appear to have been commercial; for example, the Delmarva Heat, Light, and Refrigerating Corp. of Chincoteague, Virginia, was in existence by 1913—but general use of the term did not occur until the 1920s.
At the northern point of the peninsula there is a geographic fall line that separates the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont from the unconsolidated sediments of the Coastal Plain. This line passes through Newark and Wilmington, Delaware and Elkton, Maryland. The northern isthmus of the peninsula is transected by the sea-level Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Several bridges cross the canal, and the Chesapeake Bay Bridge and the Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel join the peninsula to mainland Maryland and Virginia, respectively. Another point of access is Lewes, Delaware, reachable by the Cape May–Lewes Ferry from Cape May, New Jersey.
Dover, Delaware's capital city, is the peninsula's second largest city by population. The main commercial areas are Wilmington, Delaware in the north and Salisbury, Maryland, near its center. Including all offshore islands (the largest of which is Kent Island in Maryland), the total land area south of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is 5,454 sq mi (14,130 km2). At the 2000 census the total population was 681,030, giving an average population density of 124.86 inhabitants per square mile (48.21/km2).
Cape Charles forms the southern tip of the peninsula in Virginia.
The entire Delmarva Peninsula falls within the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a flat and sandy area with very few or no hills; the highest point in the peninsula is only 102 ft (31 m) above sea level. The fall line, found in the region southwest of Wilmington, Delaware, and just north of the northern edge of the Delmarva Peninsula, is a geographic borderland where the Piedmont region transitions into the coastal plain. Its Atlantic Ocean coast is formed by the Virginia Barrier Islands in the south and the Fenwick Island barrier spit in the north.
The culture on is the Virginian portion of Delmarva is starkly different from the rest of the Mid-Atlantic region and is much like that of the Southern United States. While North-eastern portion of Delmarva [Wilmington, Delaware metro area] is similar to Philadelphia urban regions. The Maryland and Virginia Delmarva counties are more conservative than their "mainland" counties.
Delmarva is driven by agriculture and commercial fishing. Most of the land is rural, and there are only a few large population centers.
The border between Maryland and Delaware, which resulted from the 80-year-long Penn–Calvert Boundary Dispute, consists of the east-west Transpeninsular Line and the perpendicular north-south portion of the Mason–Dixon line extending north to just beyond its tangental intersection with the Twelve-Mile Circle which forms Delaware's border with Pennsylvania. The border between Maryland and Virginia on the peninsula follows the Pocomoke River from the Chesapeake to a series of straight surveyed lines connecting the Pocomoke to the Atlantic Ocean.
All three counties in Delaware—New Castle (partially), Kent, and Sussex—are located on the peninsula. Of the 23 counties in Maryland, nine are on the Eastern Shore: Kent, Queen Anne's, Talbot, Caroline, Dorchester, Wicomico, Somerset, and Worcester, as well as a portion of Cecil County. Two Virginia counties are on the peninsula: Accomack and Northampton.
At its southern tip, the Delmarva Peninsula is now connected to Virginia Beach and Hampton Roads, Virginia, via the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel which opened in 1964. The bridge tunnel is owned and administered by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge and Tunnel District. The Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel currently has a $13.00 (US) toll for single private vehicles ($5.00 for return within 24 hours) and is patrolled by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel Police Department.
|Rank||Name||Type||Population||Area||County||State||Settled||Inc.||Origin of Name|
|1||Dover ††||Capital city||37,786||23.48 sq mi||Kent||Delaware||1683||1829||Dover in Kent, England|
|2||Salisbury†||City||33,114||13.40 sq mi||Wicomico||Maryland||1732||1854|
|3||Middletown||Town||20,876||11.83 sq mi||New Castle||Delaware||1861||Halfway between Bunker Hill, Maryland and Odessa, Delaware|
|4||Easton†||Town||16,550||10.56 sq mi||Talbot||Maryland||1790|
|5||Cambridge†||Town||12,468||10.34 sq mi||Dorchester||Maryland||1793|
|6||Smyrna||Town||11,371||6.01 sq mi||Kent/New Castle||Delaware||Ancient Greek city of Smyrna|
|7||Milford||City||10,979||9.87 sq mi||Kent/Sussex||Delaware||Named for numerous mills around town|
|8||Seaford||City||7,736||5.30 sq mi||Sussex||Delaware||1865||Seaford, East Sussex|
|9||Georgetown †||Town||7,206||5.14 sq mi||Sussex||Delaware||1791||1869||Commissioner George Mitchell|
|10||Ocean City||Town||7,102||4.41 sq mi||Worcester||Maryland||1875||1880|
At various times in history, residents of the Delmarva Peninsula have proposed that its Maryland and Virginia portions secede from their respective states, merging with Kent County and Sussex County, Delaware, to create the state of Delmarva. A Delmarva State Party with this aim was founded in 1992. Its combined population would be about 750,000, roughly that of Montana, or 977,511 in 2015, or 1,534,290 if New Castle County, Delaware is also included, roughly the population of Idaho, or West Virginia.
Legislative attempts to break the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland away and join Delaware were made several times. In November 1776, delegates from the Eastern Shore attempted to insert a clause into the Maryland Declaration of Rights that would allow the shore counties to secede from Maryland, with the clause being defeated 30–17. In 1833 came the closest secession movement when a Delaware resolution proposing the Eastern Shore of Maryland be absorbed into Delaware passed the Delaware Senate and Delaware House of Representatives, it then passed the Maryland House of Delegates with a 40–24 vote, but failed to be voted out of committee by the Maryland Senate. The following year, a Caroline County representative proposed allowing the Eastern Shore to secede via referendum, but the Maryland House of Delegates voted 60–5 to indefinitely postpone the measure and that proposal was never taken up again. In 1851, Dorchester County delegate and future Maryland Governor Thomas Holliday Hicks proposed an amendment that would give the Eastern Shore the right to vote itself into Delaware, but the amendment failed 51–27.
Some studies have shown that Native Americans inhabited the peninsula from about 8000–10000 BC – since the last Ice Age.
Recent research indicates that Paleoamericans inhabited Maryland during the pre-Clovis period (before 13,000 BP). Miles Point, Oyster Cove, and Cator's Cove archaeological sites on the coastal plain of the Delmarva Peninsula help to document a pre-Clovis presence in the Middle Atlantic region. Thus, these sites suggest a human presence in the Middle Atlantic region during the Last Glacial Maximum.
In 1970 a stone tool (a biface) said to resemble Solutrean stone tools was dredged up by the trawler Cinmar off the east coast of Virginia in an area that would have been dry land prior to the rising sea levels of the Pleistocene Epoch The tool was allegedly found in the same dredge load that contained a mastodon's remains. The mastodon tusks were later determined to be 22,000 years old. In addition several archaeological sites on the Delmarva peninsula with suggestive (but not definitive) dating between 16,000 and 18,000 years have been discovered by Darrin Lowery of the University of Delaware. These factors led Stanford and Bradley to reiterate in 2014 their academic advocacy of pre-Clovis peoples in North America and their possible link to paleolithic Europeans.
Native settlements relocated as natural conditions dictated. They set up villages – scattered groups of thatch houses and cultivated gardens – where conditions favored farming. In the spring they planted crops, which the women and children tended while the men hunted and fished. In the fall they harvested crops, storing food in baskets or underground pits. During the harsh winter, whole communities would move to hunting areas, seeking the deer, rabbit and other game that kept them alive until the spring fishing season. When the farmland around their villages became less productive – the inhabitants did not practice crop rotation – the native people would abandon the site and move to another location.
The primary Indigenous peoples of the ocean side of the lower peninsula prior to the arrival of Europeans were the Assateague, including the Assateague, Transquakin, Choptico, Moteawaughkin, Quequashkecaquick, Hatsawap, Wachetak, Marauqhquaick, and Manaskson. Their territories and populations ranged from Cape Charles, Virginia, to the Indian River inlet in Delaware.
The upper peninsula and the Chesapeake shore was the home of Nanticoke-speaking people such as the Nentigo and Choptank. The Assateague and Nentigo made a number of treaties with the colony of Maryland, but the land was gradually taken and those treaties dissolved for the use of the colonists, and the native peoples of the peninsula assimilated into other Algonquian tribes as far north as Ontario.
In 1566, an expedition sent from Spanish Florida by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés reached the Delmarva Peninsula. The expedition consisted of two Dominican friars, thirty soldiers and an indigenous Virginia boy, Don Luis, in an effort to set up a Spanish colony in the Chesapeake. At the time, the Spanish believed the Chesapeake to be an opening to the fabled Northwest Passage. However, a storm thwarted their attempts at establishing a colony. The land that is currently Delaware was first colonized by the Dutch West India Company in 1631 as Zwaanendael. That colony lasted one year before a dispute with local Indians led to its destruction. In 1638, New Sweden was established which colonized the northern part of the state, together with the Delaware Valley. Eventually, the Dutch, who had maintained that their claim to Delaware arose from the colony of 1631, recaptured Delaware and incorporated the colony into the Colony of New Netherland.
However, shortly thereafter Delaware came under British control in 1664. James I of England had granted Virginia 400 miles of Atlantic coast centered on Cape Comfort, extending west to the Pacific Ocean to a company of colonists in a series of charters from 1606 to 1611. This included a piece of the peninsula. The land was transferred from the Duke of York to William Penn in 1682 and was governed with Pennsylvania. The exact border was determined by the Chancery Court in 1735. In 1776, the counties of Kent, New Castle, and Sussex declared their independence from Pennsylvania and entered the United States as the state of Delaware.
In the 1632 Charter of Maryland, King Charles I of England granted "all that Part of the Peninsula, or Chersonese, lying in the Parts of America, between the Ocean on the East and the Bay of Chesapeake on the West, divided from the Residue thereof by a Right Line drawn from the Promontory, or Head-Land, called Watkin's Point, situate upon the Bay aforesaid, near the river Wigloo, on the West, unto the main Ocean on the East; and between that Boundary on the South, unto that Part of the Bay of Delaware on the North, which lieth under the Fortieth Degree of North Latitude from the Equinoctial, where New England is terminated" to Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, as the colony of Maryland. This would have included all of present-day Delaware; however, a clause in the charter granted only that part of the peninsula that had not already been colonized by Europeans by 1632. Over a century later, it was decided in the case of Penn v. Lord Baltimore that because the Dutch had colonized Zwaanendael in 1631, that portion of Maryland's charter granting Delaware to Maryland was void.
The peninsula was the premier location for truck farming of vegetables during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Though it has been largely eclipsed by California's production, the area still produces significant quantities of tomatoes, green beans, corn, soy beans—Queen Anne's County is the largest producer of soy beans in Maryland—and other popular vegetables.
The area is served by four television markets. Cecil, Kent, Queen Anne's, Caroline and Talbot are primarily served by the Baltimore, Maryland designated market area and stations WBAL-TV, WJZ-TV, WMAR-TV and WBFF-TV. New Castle and Kent Counties are served by the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania designated market area and stations WPVI-TV, WCAU-TV, KYW-TV and WTXF-TV. Sussex, Dorchester, Wicomico, Worcester and Somerset Counties are served by the Salisbury, Maryland designated market area, the only located on the peninsula. These stations are WBOC-TV, WMDT-TV, and WRDE-LD. Accomack and Northampton Counties are primarily served by the Norfolk, Virginia designated market area and stations WAVY-TV, WVEC-TV and WTKR-TV.
The peninsula has minor airports with few commercial carriers, as it is overshadowed by proximate major airports in Baltimore and Philadelphia. Its airports include Wilmington Airport southwest of Wilmington, Delaware, Salisbury Regional Airport to the southeast of Salisbury, Maryland, and Dover Air Force Base to the southeast of Dover, Delaware.
Major north-south highways include U.S. 9, U.S. 13, U.S. 50 and U.S. 301. Highways U.S. 50 and U.S. 301 run over the Chesapeake Bay Bridge on the western side of the peninsula. U.S. 13 at the southern limit of the peninsula connects through the Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel to the main part of Virginia.
Until 1965, the Pennsylvania Railroad provided service to the peninsula. It ran the Del-Mar-Va Express day train from New York City, through Wilmington, Dover, Delmar, Salisbury, and Pocomoke City to the Cape Charles, Virginia ferry docks and it ran the Cavalier counterpart night train. At that point, ferries ran to Norfolk, Virginia. In earlier decades branches ran to Centreville, Maryland; Oxford, Maryland; Cambridge, Maryland; Georgetown and Lewes, Delaware; and to Franklin City, Virginia. Today, the Delmarva Central Railroad provides freight and tanker transportation on the peninsula.
The Big Annemessex River is a 15.4-mile-long (24.8 km) tributary of the Chesapeake Bay on the Delmarva Peninsula. It rises in Kingston, Somerset County, Maryland, and flows roughly southwest about 6 miles (10 km) in a meandering pattern, then widens into an estuary and continues about 9 miles (14 km) to the bay, near Janes Island State Park. Tributaries include Annemessex Creek, Holland Creek, Hall Creek, Muddy Creek, Colbourn Creek, Jones Creek and Daugherty Creek.
The river is spanned once by River Road, a residential county road far from any population center. The Annemessex Creek upstream, however, is spanned by Maryland Route 413.
There is also a Little Annemessex River; the city of Crisfield rests upon its shores.Bohemia River
The Bohemia River is a 4.7-mile-long (7.6 km) tributary of the Elk River on the Delmarva Peninsula. It is located in Cecil County, Maryland, with its headwaters extending into New Castle County, Delaware.
The Bohemia River begins east of Hacks Point, Maryland, where its two major tributaries, Great Bohemia Creek and Little Bohemia Creek, come together, and ends at the Elk River in a wide mouth between Town Point and Ford Landing. Great Bohemia Creek and its tributary, Sandy Branch rise near Middletown, Delaware and Little Bohemia Creek rises near Warwick, Maryland. They flow through the level coastal plain, quickly reaching sea level.
There are several small creeks on the northern shore, including Pooles Creek and Manor Creek. On the southern shore small creeks include Morgan Creek and Scotchman Creek.Canterbury, Delaware
Canterbury is an unincorporated community in Kent County, Delaware, United States. Canterbury is located at the intersection of U.S. Route 13 and Delaware Route 15 south of Woodside, north of Felton, and east of Viola. The community was named for the city of Canterbury in England. Canterbury was an important horse changeover along the north-south stagecoach line on the Delmarva Peninsula.Cape Charles (headland)
Cape Charles is a headland, or cape, in Northampton County, Virginia. Located at the southern tip of Northampton County, it forms the southern tip of the Delmarva Peninsula and the northern side of the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay.Cape Henry, which forms the southern side of the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay, and Cape Charles are collectively known as the Virginia Capes.Delmarva Central Railroad
The Delmarva Central Railroad (reporting mark DCR) is an American short-line railroad owned by Carload Express that operates 188 miles (303 km) of track on the Delmarva Peninsula in the states of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. The railroad operates lines from Porter, Delaware to Hallwood, Virginia and from Harrington, Delaware to Frankford, Delaware along with several smaller branches. The DCR interchanges with the Norfolk Southern Railway and the Maryland and Delaware Railroad. The railroad was created in 2016 to take over the Norfolk Southern Railway lines on the Delmarva Peninsula. The DCR expanded by taking over part of the Bay Coast Railroad in 2018 and the Delaware Coast Line Railroad in 2019.Delmarva Shorebirds
The Delmarva Shorebirds are a Minor League Baseball team based in Salisbury, Maryland. They are members of the Single-A South Atlantic League and affiliates of the Baltimore Orioles. The Shorebirds play at Arthur W. Perdue Stadium.
The name "Shorebirds" refers to the marine waterfowl of the Delmarva Peninsula. The team name was chosen by 7-year-old Katie Duffy of Newark, Delaware. The team's geographic appellation is a portmanteau of the states that govern counties on the peninsula: Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia (abbreviated VA). The Shorebirds have won two South Atlantic League championships, in 1997 and 2000. Also in 1997, the Shorebirds received Baseball America’s Bob Freitas Award for Class A baseball. In July 2018, Baltimore Orioles extended their contract with the Delmarva Shorebirds.Delmarva fox squirrel
The Delmarva fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus) is a formerly endangered subspecies of the fox squirrel. It is native to the eastern United States. The Delmarva Fox Squirrel was removed from the endangered species list in November 2015.Dividing Creek (Pocomoke River tributary)
Dividing Creek is a 19.1-mile-long (30.7 km) tributary of the Pocomoke River on the Delmarva Peninsula. It rises in Wicomico County, Maryland, and forms the boundary between Somerset and Worcester counties.
The entire watershed is in the Atlantic coastal plain and quickly reaches sea level at the Pocomoke. The original county courthouse for pre-1742 Somerset County was located not far above the mouth of Dividing Creek, close to its west bank.Eastern Shore of Virginia
The Eastern Shore of Virginia consists of two counties (Accomack and Northampton) on the Atlantic coast detached from the mainland of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. The 70-mile-long (110 km) region is part of the Delmarva Peninsula and is separated from the rest of Virginia by the Chesapeake Bay. Its population was 45,553 as of 2010.The terrain is overall very flat, ranging from sea level to just 50 feet (15 m) above sea level. It is characterized by sandy and deep soil. The weather in the area has temperate summers and winters, significantly affected by the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. The rural area has long been devoted to cotton, soybean, vegetable and truck farming, and large-scale chicken farms. Since the late 20th century, vineyards have been developed in both counties, and the Eastern Shore has received recognition as an American Viticultural Area (AVA).
The region has more than 78,000 acres of preserved parks, refuges, preserves and a national seashore and is a popular outdoor recreation destination for fishing, boating, hiking and kayaking. It is also an important birding hotspot along the Atlantic Flyway at the southernmost tip of the Delmarva Peninsula. There are public beaches at Cape Charles, Kiptopeke State Park, Savage Neck Preserve, Tangier Island and the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge abutting the Assateague Island National Seashore.
The area includes 70 miles of barrier islands, the longest chain of undeveloped barrier islands in the global temperate zone and a United Nations International Biosphere Reserve. At the northern end of the Atlantic side is the beach community of Chincoteague, famous for its annual wild pony roundup, gathered from Assateague Island. Wallops Flight Facility, a NASA space launch base, is located near Chincoteague. At the southern end of the Chesapeake Bay coast, the beach community of Cape Charles, a historic railroad town, is home to the Cape Charles Yacht Center, a super yacht service center. The town of Wachapreague on the Atlantic coast is a popular destination for fishing and guided trips out to the wild barrier islands. Onancock, a harbor town on the Chesapeake Bay, has a ferry service to Tangier Island, off the western shore in the Chesapeake Bay, during spring, summer and fall.
The Eastern Shore, geographically removed from the rest of Virginia, has had a unique history of settlement and development influenced by agriculture, fishing, tourism, and the Pennsylvania Railroad. William G. Thomas describes the Eastern Shore during the late 19th and early 20th century as "a highly complex and interdependent landscape". He continues:
It was a liminal place, a zone of interpenetration, where the settlement patterns, speech, demography, and political outcomes defined its place in the South but its engagement with technology and rapid transformation of the landscape betrayed other allegiances, motives, forces, and effects.
The 23-mile-long (37 km) Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel, which is part of U.S. Route 13, spans the mouth of the Bay and connects the Eastern Shore to South Hampton Roads and the rest of Virginia. Before the Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel was built in 1964, the Little Creek-Cape Charles Ferry provided the continuation of U.S. 13 across this stretch of water.Elk River (Maryland)
The Elk River is a tidal tributary of the Chesapeake Bay on the Eastern Shore of Maryland and on the northern edge of the Delmarva Peninsula. It is about 15 miles (24 km) long. As the most northeastern extension of the Chesapeake Bay estuary, it has served as one entrance to the Chesapeake & Delaware Canal since the 19th century. The canal and river now serve as one boundary of the Elk Neck Peninsula. The river flows through Cecil County, Maryland, with its watershed extending into New Castle County, Delaware and Chester County, Pennsylvania. Elkton, the county seat of Cecil County, is located at its head. Its total watershed area is 143 square miles (370 km2) (including the Bohemia River), with 21 square miles (54 km2) of open water, so its watershed is 15% open water. It is south and east of the North East River, and north of the Sassafras River.List of railroad lines in the Delmarva Peninsula
This is a list of all freight railroad (not streetcar or rapid transit) lines that have been built in the Delmarva Peninsula south of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, and does not deal with ownership changes from one company to another. The lines are named by the first company to build them. Unless noted, each railroad eventually became part of the Pennsylvania Railroad system.Martins Siding, Virginia
Martins Siding is an unincorporated community in Northampton County, Virginia, United States.
It is on the eastern shore of Virginia, on the Delmarva peninsula. A short drive away from Martins Siding is the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel, which you can take over to the 'mainland'. The bridge begins in Kiptopeke.Nassawango Creek
Nassawango Creek is a stream in the U.S. state of Maryland; it is the largest tributary of the Pocomoke River, located on the Delmarva Peninsula. Older variations on the same name include Nassanongo, Naseongo, Nassiongo, and Nassiungo, meaning "[ground] between [the streams]". Early English records have it as Askimenokonson Creek, after a Native settlement near its headwaters (askimenokonson roughly approximating a local Algonquian word meaning "stony place where they pick early [straw]berries").The Nassawango (locally or ) rises in Wicomico County, Maryland and flows 20.8 miles (33.5 km) through Worcester County to join the Pocomoke below Snow Hill. Large portions of its drainage lie within the Pocomoke River State Forest and The Nature Conservancy's Nassawango Creek Preserve. Nassawango Creek and its tributaries were once dammed in several places for mills; one dam site, became an early industrial blast furnace operation, where bog iron ore was smelted to make pig iron at Furnacetown during the first half of the 19th century. Today, the furnace grounds are considered a local historical landmark.New York, Philadelphia and Norfolk Railroad
The New York, Philadelphia and Norfolk Railroad (reporting mark NYP&N) was a railroad line that ran down the spine of the Delmarva Peninsula connecting Wilmington, Delaware and Cape Charles, Virginia and then by ferry to Norfolk, Virginia. It became part of the Pennsylvania Railroad system.The Daily Times (Salisbury, Maryland)
The Daily Times is a morning daily English-language (broadsheet) publication based in Salisbury, Maryland, and primarily covers Wicomico, Worcester, and Somerset counties, and regional coverage across the Delmarva Peninsula. It has been a Gannett publication since 2002. The online news product is Delmarva Now.Tropical Storm Bret (1981)
Tropical Storm Bret made a rare landfall on the Delmarva Peninsula in June 1981. The fifth tropical cyclone and second named storm of the season, Bret developed as a subtropical storm from a large area of frontal clouds near Bermuda on June 29. Moving westward, the subtropical storm intensified while producing deep convection, and was consequently reclassified as a tropical storm early on June 30. Around that time, Bret peaked with sustained winds of 70 mph (110 km/h). The storm then began weakening and struck near Oyster, Virginia as a minimal tropical storm early on July 1. Upon moving inland, Bret weakened to a tropical depression and subsequently accelerated prior to dissipating over northern Virginia that same day.
In its early stages, Bret dropped light rainfall on Bermuda, peaking at 3.34 inches (85 mm). Impact in the United States was generally minor. In Virginia, the storm produced up to 4.48 inches (114 mm) of rain in Big Meadows section of Shenandoah National Park. Along the coast, minor beach erosion occurred due to tides up to 0.9 feet (0.27 m) above normal. In western Pennsylvania, locally heavy rainfall flooded some streets and basements. Elsewhere, Bret dropped 1 to 3 inches (25 to 76 mm) of precipitation to several states. One fatality was confirmed after a woman was killed by rip currents at Nags Head, North Carolina.U.S. Route 13
U.S. Route 13 (US 13) is a north–south U.S. highway established in 1926 that runs for 517 miles (832 km) from Interstate 95 just north of Fayetteville, North Carolina to the northeastern suburbs of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in Morrisville. In all, it traverses five states in the Atlantic coastal plain region. It follows the Atlantic coast more closely than does the main north–south U.S. highway of the region, U.S. Route 1. Its routing is largely rural, the notable exceptions being the Hampton Roads area and the northern end of the highway in Delaware and Pennsylvania. It is also notable for being the main thoroughfare for the Delmarva Peninsula and carrying the Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel to it in Virginia.
US 13's original plan in 1926 had the route serve no further south than the Delmarva Peninsula. However, it has been extended many times, connecting to the mainland via ferry service and eventually reaching North Carolina. This link across the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay became fixed in 1964 with a bridge-tunnel. The entire route on the Delmarva Peninsula save a few sections in Accomack County, Virginia have been dualized fully with four lanes, and further upgrades continue, such as a freeway section around the east side of Salisbury, Maryland.Western Shore of Maryland
Maryland's Western Shore (not to be confused with Western Maryland) is an area of Maryland west of the Chesapeake Bay. Originally, it included all areas not on the Eastern Shore and some colonial and later state government functions were administered separately for each region. The term no longer identifies an official region of Maryland and is used in contrast to the "Eastern Shore", also known as the "Delmarva" peninsula separated from the Maryland northeast corner of mainland with northern Delaware in the north by the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, heavily used by transiting cargo ships along the major East Coast port cities.
"The Shore" which has long had a distinct historical, cultural, sociological, and economic character and sense of personality, well known in American and state history, politics and events, especially before the 1949-1952 construction of the "Gov. William Preston Lane Memorial Bridge" (Chesapeake Bay Bridge) from Annapolis in Anne Arundel County on the Western Shore to Kent Island and Queen Anne's County on the Eastern Shore changed and influence its personality for the past 65 years.
Since it is not an officially defined region, there is no official border for the Western Shore. At a minimum, it can be taken to include the tidewater region bordering the Chesapeake Bay on the west and southwest of the Hampton Roads harbor at the mouth of the James and Elizabeth Rivers in southeast Virginia. Here is a major metropolitan urban area if unified but split up into several portions of small cities by several rivers and creeks with Norfolk, Portsmouth, Chesapeake and Virginia Beach on the Southside and the towns of Newport News, Poquoson and Hampton on the Northern Peninsula.
The region along the long estuary of the Bay includes the cities of Baltimore and Annapolis, nearly all of Southern Maryland, much of the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area, and part or all of the following counties:
City of Baltimore
Anne Arundel County
St. Mary's CountyTo residents of the Eastern Shore, the term "Western Shore" still often refers to all of Maryland west of the Chesapeake Bay.
The Eastern Shore of Maryland is only the northern two-thirds of the Delmarva peninsula separated by the straight line across from west to East forming the political boundary between Maryland to the north and Virginia to the south below it. This forms again the distinctive unique culture and history of the Eastern Shore of Virginia as similarly compared to the rest of the Commonwealth of Virginia on its Western Shore of the Bay.Wicomico River (Maryland eastern shore)
The Wicomico River is a 24.4-mile-long (39.3 km) tributary of the Chesapeake Bay on the eastern shore of Maryland. It drains an area of low marshlands and farming country in the middle Delmarva Peninsula. The name "Wicomico" derives from the words wicko mekee, meaning "a place where houses are built," apparently referring to an Indian town on the banks. The river is one of two in Maryland with this same name, along with the Wicomico River (a tributary of the Potomac River) in south central Maryland.
It rises in northern Wicomico County, close to the Delaware state line, and flows generally southwest, through Salisbury, its head of navigation is Monie Bay on the eastern edge of the Chesapeake Bay between Mt. Vernon and Waterview approximately 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Salisbury. The lower 20 miles (32 km) of the river form a tidal estuary.
The gentle free-flowing river is a popular destination for recreational canoeing and kayaking, as well as recreational fishing and crabbing. The river has also become a hotspot for water sports such as wakeboarding and water skiing due to its consistently smooth surface. Barge traffic on the river has made Salisbury the primary shipping points for goods on the Delmarva Peninsula over the last several centuries. Two automobile cable ferries cross the river at Whitehaven and Upper Ferry.
A civic group, the Wicomico Creekwatchers, have been testing water quality at 22 different points along the river since 2002. The City of Salisbury partners with Wicomico Creekwatchers, and provides funding. Their 2016 report, released in April 2017, showed that the water quality decreased compared to 2015, with higher levels of phosphorus, nitrogen, and bacteria.