Delhi (/ˈdɛli/, Hindi pronunciation: [dɪlliː] Dillī, Punjabi pronunciation: [dɪlliː] Dillī, Urdu pronunciation: [dɛhliː] Dehlī), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India.[17][18] It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million,[7] the second-highest in India after Mumbai,[19] while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million.[8] Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries and include the neighboring satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon, Ghaziabad and Noida in an area now called Central National Capital Region (CNCR) and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's second-largest urban area according to United Nations.[9] As of 2016, recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India.[13][12][20][14] Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai, with a total private wealth of $450 billion and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.[21]

Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BCE.[22] Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and empires. It has been captured, ransacked and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region.

A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, and serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982, respectively, 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup.

Delhi is also the centre of the National Capital Region (NCR), which is a unique 'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.[23][24]

National Capital Territory of Delhi
From top clockwise: Lotus temple, Humayun's Tomb, Connaught Place, Akshardham temple and India Gate
Location of Delhi in India
Location of Delhi in India
Coordinates: 28°36′36″N 77°13′48″E / 28.61000°N 77.23000°ECoordinates: 28°36′36″N 77°13′48″E / 28.61000°N 77.23000°E
Country India
Settled6th century B.C.
Capital formation1911
Formation of Union Territory[1][2]1956
Formation of NCT[3]1 February 1992
CapitalNew Delhi
 • BodyGovernment of Delhi
 • Lt. GovernorAnil Baijal, IAS[4]
 • Chief MinisterArvind Kejriwal (AAP)
 • Deputy Chief MinisterManish Sisodia
 • Chief SecretaryVijay Kumar Dev, IAS[5]
 • Commissioner of PoliceAmulya Patnaik, IPS[6]
 • Union territory1,484.0 km2 (573.0 sq mi)
 • Water18 km2 (6.9 sq mi)
Area rank31st
200–250 m (650–820 ft)
 • Union territory16,787,941
 • Density11,312/km2 (29,298/sq mi)
 • Urban16,349,831 (2nd)
 • Megacity11,034,555 (2nd)
 • Metro (2016)26,454,000 (1st)
 • Official
 • Additional official
 • Nominal (NCT)7.79 lakh crore (US$110 billion) (2018-19)[11]
 • Nominal Per Capita360,664 (US$5,000) (2017-18)[11]
 • Metro GDP/PPP$167–370 billion[12][13][14]
 • Per Capita (PPP)$18,593
Time zoneUTC+5.30 (IST)
Area code(s)+91 11
ISO 3166 codeIN-DL
HDI (2017)Increase 0.744[15] (High) · 5th
Literacy (2011)86.21%[16]
Sex ratio (2011)868 /1000 [16]


There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself.[25][26][27] Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili (loose) and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved.[27] The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal.[28] According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and later named the fort dehali.[29] Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning 'threshold' or 'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.[30][31][32]

The people of Delhi are referred to as Delhiites or Dilliwalas.[33] The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include:

  • Abhi Dilli door hai (अभी दिल्ली दूर है) or its Persian version, Hanuz Dehli dur ast (هنوز دهلی دور است), literally meaning Delhi is still far away, which is generically said about a task or journey still far from completion.[34][35]
  • Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring.[36]
  • Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse, literally meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty.[35]


Ancient and Early Medieval Periods

The area around Delhi was probably inhabited before the second millennium BCE and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BCE.[22] The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata.[25] According to the Mahabharata, this land was initially a huge mass of forests called 'Khandavaprastha' which was burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha. The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period (c. 300 BCE); in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273–235 BCE) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi. The first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in 736 CE. Prithviraj Chauhan conquered Lal Kot in 1178 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora.

Entry Door to the Yogmaya precincts

The ancient Yogmaya Temple, claimed to be one of the five temples from the era of Mahabharata in Indraprastha.[37]


The iron pillar of Delhi is said to have been fashioned at the time of Chandragupta Vikramaditya (375–413 CE) of the Gupta Empire.[38]

Agrasen ki Baoli, New Delhi, India - 20070127

Agrasen ki Baoli is believed to be originally built by the legendary king Agrasen.[39]

The bastion of Lal Kot fort, Mehrauli, Delhi

The bastion of Lal Kot fort in Delhi's Mehrauli built by Tomara Rajput ruler, Anangpal in c. 736 CE.[40]

Late Medieval Period

Qila Rai Pithora, New Delhi
Museum and remnants of the walls at Qila Rai Pithora, the first city of Delhi, and ruled by Prithviraj Chauhan.

The king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Muslim invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India.[25] By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, and the Muslims were victorious. The newfound dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in north India would last for the next five centuries. The slave general of Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India until Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor. When Ghori died without a heir in 1206 CE, his territories fractured, with various generals claiming sovereignty over different areas. Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions, and laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty. He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (Might of Islam) mosque, the earliest extant mosque in India. It was his successor, Iltutmish (1211–1236), who consolidated the Turkic conquest of northern India.[25][41] Razia Sultan, daughter of Iltutmish, succeeded him as the Sultan of Delhi. She is the first and only woman to rule over Delhi.

Qutub - Minar, Delhi (6994969674)
At 72.5 m (238 ft), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Qutub Minar is the world's tallest free-standing brick minaret.[42]

For the next three hundred years, Delhi was ruled by a succession of Turkic and an Afghan, Lodi dynasty. They built several forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi.[43] Delhi was a major centre of Sufism during this period.[44] The Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) was overthrown in 1290 by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji (1290–1320). Under the second Khalji ruler, Ala-ud-din Khalji, the Delhi sultanate extended its control south of the Narmada River in the Deccan. The Delhi sultanate reached its greatest extent during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351). In an attempt to bring the whole of the Deccan under control, he moved his capital to Daulatabad, Maharashtra in central India. However, by moving away from Delhi he lost control of the north and was forced to return to Delhi to restore order. The southern provinces then broke away. In the years following the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), the Delhi Sultanate rapidly began to lose its hold over its northern provinces. Delhi was captured and sacked by Timur in 1398,[45] who massacred 100,000 captives.[46] Delhi's decline continued under the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), until the sultanate was reduced to Delhi and its hinterland. Under the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526), the Delhi sultanate recovered control of the Punjab and the Gangetic plain to once again achieve domination over Northern India. However, the recovery was short-lived and the sultanate was destroyed in 1526 by Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty.

Early Modern Period

Maharaja Hemu Bhargava - Victor of Twenty Two Pitched Battles, 1910s
Hemu, after taking control of Delhi, claimed royal status, assumed the ancient Hindu title of Vikramaditya, and resisted Mughals in the 16th century.

Babur was a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, from the Fergana Valley in modern-day Uzbekistan. In 1526, he invaded India, defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi and Agra.[25] The Mughal dynasty ruled Delhi for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus during the reigns of Sher Shah Suri and Hemu from 1540 to 1556.[47] In 1553, the Hindu king Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi by defeating forces of Mughal Emperor Humayun at Agra and Delhi. However, the Mughals re-established their rule after Akbar's army defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556.[48][49][50] Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name Shahjahanabad, which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638 and is today known as the Old City or Old Delhi.[51]

Delhi Red fort
Red Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was the main residence of the Mughal emperors for nearly 200 years. The location is currently used by the Prime Minister of India to address the nation on Indian Independence Day.

After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Maratha Empire from Deccan Plateau rose to prominence.[52] In 1737, Maratha forces sacked Delhi following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. In 1739, the Mughal Empire lost the huge Battle of Karnal in less than three hours against the numerically outnumbered but militarily superior Persian army led by Nader Shah of Persia. After his invasion, he completely sacked and looted Delhi, carrying away immense wealth including the Peacock Throne, the Daria-i-Noor, and Koh-i-Noor. The Mughals, severely further weakened, could never overcome this crushing defeat and humiliation which also left the way open for more invaders to come, including eventually the British.[53][54][55] Nader eventually agreed to leave the city and India after forcing the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah I to beg him for mercy and granting him the keys of the city and the royal treasury.[56] A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protectors of the Mughal throne in Delhi.[57]

Ragonath Row Ballajee
Raghunath Rao, the Maratha Empire's Peshwa who played a key role in capturing Delhi from the Afghans in the Second Battle of Delhi.

In 1757, the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Durrani, sacked Delhi. He returned to Afghanistan leaving a Mughal puppet ruler in nominal control. The Marathas again occupied Delhi in 1758, and were in control until their defeat in 1761 at the third battle of Panipat when the city was captured again by Ahmad Shah.[58] However, in 1771, the Marathas established a protectorate over Delhi when the Maratha ruler, Mahadji Shinde, recaptured Delhi and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II was installed as a puppet ruler in 1772.[59] In 1783, Sikhs under Baghel Singh captured Delhi and Red Fort but due to the treaty signed, Sikhs withdrew from Red Fort and agreed to restore Shah Alam II as the emperor.

Colonial Period

In 1803, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, the forces of British East India Company defeated the Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi.[60]

During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Delhi fell to the forces of East India Company after a bloody fight known as the Siege of Delhi. The city came under the direct control of the British Government in 1858. It was made a district province of the Punjab.[25] In 1911, it was announced that the capital of British held territories in India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi.[61] The name "New Delhi" was given in 1927, and the new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931. New Delhi, also known as Lutyens' Delhi,[62] was officially declared as the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947.[63] During the partition of India, thousands of Hindu and Sikh refugees, mainly from West Punjab fled to Delhi, while many Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan. Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues (as of 2013), contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining.[64]


Delhi aerial photo 04-2016 img11
Aerial view of Delhi in April 2016 with river Yamuna in top-right.

The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 created the Union Territory of Delhi from its predecessor, the Chief Commissioner's Province of Delhi.[1][2] The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi.[3] The Act gave Delhi its own legislative assembly along Civil lines, though with limited powers.[3]

In December 2001, the Parliament of India building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants, killing six security personnel.[65] India suspected Pakistan-based militant groups were behind the attack, which caused a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries.[66] There were further terrorist attacks in Delhi in October 2005 and September 2008, resulting in a total of 103 deaths.[67]


Local symbols of Delhi
Animal Nilgai[68] Boselaphus tragocamelus1.jpg
Bird House sparrow[69][70] House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)- Male in Kolkata I IMG 5904.jpg
Tree Not designated[71]
Flower Alfalfa[68] MedicagoSativa-CloseUp-hr.jpg

Delhi is located at 28°37′N 77°14′E / 28.61°N 77.23°E, and lies in Northern India. It borders the Indian states of Haryana on the north, west and south and Uttar Pradesh (UP) to the east. Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi ridge. The Yamuna river was the historical boundary between Punjab and UP, and its flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture but are prone to recurrent floods. The Yamuna, a sacred river in Hinduism, is the only major river flowing through Delhi. The Hindon River separates Ghaziabad from the eastern part of Delhi. The Delhi ridge originates from the Aravalli Range in the south and encircles the west, north-east and north-west parts of the city. It reaches a height of 318 m (1,043 ft) and is a dominant feature of the region.[72]

The National Capital Territory of Delhi covers an area of 1,484 km2 (573 sq mi), of which 783 km2 (302 sq mi) is designated rural, and 700 km2 (270 sq mi) urban therefore making it the largest city in terms of area in the country. It has a length of 51.9 km (32 mi) and a width of 48.48 km (30 mi).

Delhi is included in India's seismic zone-IV, indicating its vulnerability to major earthquakes.[73]


Delhi features a rare version of the humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) bordering a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh). The warm season lasts from 21 March to 15 June with an average daily high temperature above 39 °C (102 °F). The hottest day of the year is 22 May, with an average high of 40 °C (104 °F) and low of 28 °C (82 °F).[74] The cold season lasts from 26 November to 9 February with an average daily high temperature below 20 °C (68 °F). The coldest day of the year is 4 January, with an average low of 2 °C (36 °F) and high of 14 °C (57 °F).[74] In early March, the wind direction changes from north-westerly to south-westerly. From April to October the weather is hot. The monsoon arrives at the end of June, along with an increase in humidity.[75] The brief, mild winter starts in late November, peaks in January and heavy fog often occurs.[76]

Temperatures in Delhi usually range from 2 to 47 °C (35.6 to 116.6 °F), with the lowest and highest temperatures ever recorded being −2.2 and 48.4 °C (28.0 and 119.1 °F), respectively.[77] The annual mean temperature is 25 °C (77 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 13 to 32 °C (55 to 90 °F). The highest temperature recorded in July was 45 °C (113 °F) in 1931.[78][79] The average annual rainfall is approximately 886 mm (34.9 in), most of which falls during the monsoon in July and August.[25] The average date of the advent of monsoon winds in Delhi is 29 June.[80]

Air pollution

Poulluted killer fog in Delhi
A dense toxic smog in New Delhi blocks out the sun. In November 2017, Delhi's chief minister described the city as a "gas chamber".[83]

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Delhi was the most polluted[84] city in the world in 2014. In 2016 WHO downgraded Delhi to eleventh-worst in the urban air quality database.[85] According to one estimate, air pollution causes the death of about 10,500 people in Delhi every year.[86][87][88] Air quality index of Delhi is generally Moderate (101–200) level between January to September, and then it drastically deteriorates to Very Poor (301–400), Severe (401–500) or Hazardous (500+) levels in three months between October to December, due to various factors including stubble burning, fire crackers burning during Diwali and cold weather.[89][90][91] During 2013–14, peak levels of fine particulate matter (PM) in Delhi increased by about 44%, primarily due to high vehicular and industrial emissions, construction work and crop burning in adjoining states.[86][92][93][94] It has the highest level of the airborne particulate matter, PM2.5 considered most harmful to health, with 153 micrograms.[95] Rising air pollution level has significantly increased lung-related ailments (especially asthma and lung cancer) among Delhi's children and women.[96][97] The dense smog in Delhi during winter season results in major air and rail traffic disruptions every year.[98] According to Indian meteorologists, the average maximum temperature in Delhi during winters has declined notably since 1998 due to rising air pollution.[99]

Smog in the skies of Delhi, India
Dense smog blankets Connaught Place, New Delhi

India's Ministry of Earth Sciences published a research paper in October 2018 attributing almost 41% of PM2.5 air pollution in Delhi to vehicular emissions, 21.5% to dust and 18% to industries.[100] The director of Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) alleged that the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) is lobbying "against the report" because it is "inconvenient" to the automobile industry.[101] Environmentalists have also criticised the Delhi government for not doing enough to curb air pollution and to inform people about air quality issues.[87] In 2014, an environmental panel appealed to India's Supreme Court to impose a 30% cess on diesel cars, but till date no action has been taken to penalize the automobile industry.[102]

Most of Delhi's residents are unaware of alarming levels of air pollution in the city and the health risks associated with it;[93][94] however, as of 2015, awareness, particularly among the foreign diplomatic community and high-income Indians, was noticeably increasing.[103] Since the mid-1990s, Delhi has undertaken some measures to curb air pollution—Delhi has the third-highest quantity of trees among Indian cities[104] and the Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of environmentally friendly compressed natural gas (CNG) buses.[105] In 1996, the CSE started a public interest litigation in the Supreme Court of India that ordered the conversion of Delhi's fleet of buses and taxis to run on CNG and banned the use of leaded petrol in 1998. In 2003, Delhi won the United States Department of Energy's first 'Clean Cities International Partner of the Year' award for its "bold efforts to curb air pollution and support alternative fuel initiatives".[105] The Delhi Metro has also been credited for significantly reducing air pollutants in the city.[106]

However, according to several authors, most of these gains have been lost, especially due to stubble burning, a rise in the market share of diesel cars and a considerable decline in bus ridership.[107][108] According to CSE and System of Air Quality Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), burning of agricultural waste in nearby Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh regions results in severe intensification of smog over Delhi.[109][110]

Delhi Profile, Level 1, 2012
Urban sustainability analysis of the greater urban area of the city using the 'Circles of Sustainability' method of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme

The Circles of Sustainability assessment of Delhi gives a marginally more favourable impression of the ecological sustainability of the city only because it is based on a more comprehensive series of measures than only air pollution. Part of the reason that the city remains assessed at basic sustainability is because of the low resource-use and carbon emissions of its poorer neighbourhoods.[111]

Civic administration

Currently, the National Capital Territory of Delhi comprises of one division, eleven districts, thirty three subdivisions, 59 census towns, 300 villages,[112] and three statutory towns, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) – 1,397.3 km2 or 540 sq mi, the New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) – 42.7 km2 or 16 sq mi and the Delhi Cantonment Board (DCB) – 43 km2 or 17 sq mi).[113][114]

Since the trifurcation of the DMC at the start of 2012, Delhi has been run by five local municipal corporations: the North Delhi, South Delhi and East Delhi Municipal Corporations, the New Delhi Municipal Council and Delhi Cantonment Board.[115] In July of that year, shortly after the MCD trifurcation, the Delhi Government increased the number of districts in Delhi from nine to eleven.[116]

Delhi (civic administration) was ranked 5th out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.6 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.[117]

Delhi houses the Supreme Court of India and the regional Delhi High Court along with the Small Causes Court for civil cases; the Magistrate Court and the Sessions Court for criminal cases has jurisdiction over Delhi. The city is administratively divided into eleven police-zones which are subdivided into 95 local police stations.[118]

Government and politics

Supreme Court of India - Central Wing
Supreme Court in Delhi is the apex court in the country.
Barack Obama at Parliament of India in New Delhi addressing Joint session of both houses 2010
The Parliament House in New Delhi government block.
Rashtrapati Bhavan Wide New Delhi India
The Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi is the official residence of the President of India.

As a first-level administrative division, the National Capital Territory of Delhi has its own Legislative Assembly, Lieutenant Governor, council of ministers and Chief Minister. Members of the legislative assembly are directly elected from territorial constituencies in the NCT. The legislative assembly was abolished in 1956, after which direct federal control was implemented until it was re-established in 1993. The Municipal corporation handles civic administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj Act. The Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi jointly administer New Delhi, where both bodies are located. The Parliament of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), Cabinet Secretariat and the Supreme Court of India are located in the municipal district of New Delhi. There are 70 assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha (Indian parliament's lower house) constituencies in Delhi.[119][120] The Indian National Congress (Congress) formed all the governments in Delhi until the 1990s, when the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Madan Lal Khurana, came to power.[121] In 1998, the Congress returned to power under the leadership of Sheila Dikshit, who was subsequently re-elected for 3 consecutive terms. But in 2013, the Congress was ousted from power by the newly formed Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) led by Arvind Kejriwal forming the government with outside support from the Congress.[122] However, that government was short-lived, collapsing only after 49 days.[123] Delhi was then under President's rule until February 2015.[124] On 10 February 2015, the Aam Aadmi Party returned to power after a landslide victory, winning 67 out of the 70 seats in the Delhi Legislative Assembly.[125]

Since 2011 Delhi has three municipal bodies[126]

  1. SDMC having jurisdiction over South and West Delhi areas including Mahipalpur, Rajouri Garden, Janakpuri, Hari Nagar, Tilak Nagar, Dwarka, Jungpura, Greater Kailash, R K Puram, Malvya Nagar, Kalkaji, Ambedkar Nagar and Badarpur.
  2. NDMC has jurisdiction over areas such as Badli, Rithala, Bawana, Kirari, Mangolpuri, Tri nagar, Model Town, Sadar Bazar, Chandni Chowk, Matia Mahal, Karol Bagh, Moti Nagar
  3. EDMC has jurisdiction over areas such as Patparganj, Kondli, Laxmi Nagar, Seemapuri, Gonda, Karawal Nagar, Babarpur and Shahadra

In 2017 BJP became victorious in all the three corporations[127]


Skyline at Rajiv Chowk
Connaught Place in New Delhi is an important economic hub of the National Capital Region

Delhi is the largest commercial centre in northern India. As of 2016 recent estimates of the economy of the Delhi urban area have ranged from $167 to $370 billion (PPP metro GDP) ranking it either the most or second-most productive metro area of India.[13][12][20][14] The nominal GSDP of the NCT of Delhi for 2016–17 was estimated at 6,224 billion (US$87 billion), 13% higher than in 2015–16.[128]

As per the Economic survey of Delhi (2005–2006), the tertiary sector contributes 70.95% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors with 25.20% and 3.85% contributions, respectively.[129] Delhi's workforce constitutes 32.82% of the population, and increased by 52.52% between 1991 and 2001.[130] Delhi's unemployment rate decreased from 12.57% in 1999–2000 to 4.63% in 2003.[130] In December 2004, 636,000 people were registered with various employment exchange programmes in Delhi.[130] In 2001 the total workforce in national and state governments and the quasi-government sector was 620,000, and the private sector employed 219,000.[130] Key service industries are information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism.[131] Construction, power, health and community services and real estate are also important to the city's economy. Delhi has one of India's largest and fastest growing retail industries.[132] Manufacturing also grew considerably as consumer goods companies established manufacturing units and headquarters in the city. Delhi's large consumer market and the availability of skilled labour has also attracted foreign investment. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers and the city had 129,000 industrial units.[133]

Utility services

Delhi's municipal water supply is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). As of June 2005, it supplied 650 million gallons per day (MGD), whereas the estimated consumption requirement is 963 MGD.[134] The shortfall is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps. At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is DJB's largest water source, followed by the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. Delhi's groundwater level is falling and its population density is increasing, so residents often encounter acute water shortage.[134] Research on Delhi suggests that up to half of the city's water use is unofficial groundwater.[135]
In Delhi, daily domestic solid waste production is 8000 tonnes which is dumped at three landfill locations by MCD.[136] The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD.[137] A large portion of the sewage flows untreated into the Yamuna river.[137]

The city's electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh per capita but the actual demand is higher.[138] In Delhi power distribution is managed by Tata Power Distribution and BSES Yamuna & Rajdhani since 2002. The Delhi Fire Service runs 43 fire stations that attend about 15,000 fire and rescue calls per year.[139] The state-owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and private enterprises such as Vodafone, Airtel, Idea Cellular, Reliance Infocomm, Aircel, Reliance Jio and Tata Docomo provide telephone and cell phone services to the city. Cellular coverage is available in GSM, CDMA, 3G and 4G.


Mudras at Indira Gandhi Delhi 1007
Indira Gandhi International Airport's new terminal in Delhi. It is the busiest airport in South Asia.[140] Shown here is the immigration counter at Terminal 3 of the airport.
Anand Vihar Terminal railway station, opened in 2009
Signature Bridge on Yamuna river, is the tallest structure in Delhi
Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway
The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway, connecting Delhi to the Indira Gandhi International Airport
Delhi underground metro station
A Delhi underground metro station


Indira Gandhi International Airport, situated to the southwest of Delhi, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2015–16, the airport handled more than 48 million passengers,[142] making it the busiest airport in India and South Asia. Terminal 3, which cost 96.8 billion (US$1.3 billion) to construct between 2007 and 2010, handles an additional 37 million passengers annually.[143]

The Delhi Flying Club, established in 1928 with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named Delhi and Roshanara, was based at Safdarjung Airport which started operations in 1929, when it was the Delhi's only airport and the second in India.[144] The airport functioned until 2001; however, in January 2002 the government closed the airport for flying activities because of security concerns following the New York attacks in September 2001. Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport for VIP including the president and the prime minister.[144][145]

Hindon Domestic Airport in Ghaziabad was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi as the second airport for the Delhi-NCR Region on the 8 March 2019.[146]

A second international airport open for commercial flights has been suggested either by expansion of Meerut Airport or construction of a new airport in Greater Noida.[147] The Taj International Airport project in Jewar has been approved by the Uttar Pradesh government.[148]


Delhi has the highest road density of 2103 km/100 km2 in India.[149] It is connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 1, NH 2, NH 8, NH 10 and NH 24. The city's road network is maintained by MCD, NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.[150]

Buses are the most popular means of road transport catering to about 60% of Delhi's total demand.[151] Delhi has one of India's largest bus transport systems. In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ruled that all public transport vehicles in Delhi must be fuelled by compressed natural gas (CNG) to tackle increasing vehicular pollution.[152] The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider which operates the world's largest fleet of CNG-fuelled buses.[153][154] In addition, cluster scheme buses are operated by Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System (DIMTS) with the participation of private concessionaires and DTC.[155][156] In December 2017, the DTC and cluster buses carried over 4.19 million passengers per day.[157] Kashmiri Gate ISBT, Anand Vihar ISBT and Sarai Kale Khan ISBT are the main bus terminals for outstation buses plying to neighboring states. Delhi's rapid rate of economic development and population growth has resulted in an increasing demand for transport, creating excessive pressure on the city's transport infrastructure. To meet the transport demand, the State and Union government constructed a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro.[158] Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.

Personal vehicles especially cars also form a major chunk of vehicles plying on Delhi roads. As of 2007, private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport.[158] Delhi has the highest number of registered cars compared to any other metropolitan city in India.[159] Taxis, auto rickshaws, and cycle rickshaws also ply on Delhi roads in large numbers. As of 2008, the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, Delhi NCR, was 11.2 million (11.2 million).[160] In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents.[161] In 2017, the number of vehicles in Delhi city alone crossed one crore mark with the transport department of Delhi Government putting the total number of registered vehicles at 1,05,67,712 until May 25 of the year.[162]

Important Roads in Delhi

Some roads and expressways serve as important pillars of Delhi's road infrastructure:

National Highways Passing Through Delhi

Delhi is connected by road to various parts of the country through several National Highways: It is connected to other parts of India by five National Highways:


Delhi is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The main railway stations are New Delhi, Old Delhi, Hazrat Nizamuddin, Anand Vihar, Delhi Sarai Rohilla and Delhi Cantt.[158] The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi and the neighbouring cities Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida and Ghaziabad.[165] As of August 2018, the metro consists of eight operational lines with a total length of 296 km (184 mi) and 214 stations, and several other lines are under construction.[166] The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional 216 billion (US$3.0 billion).[167] Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010.[168] Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day.[169] In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.[170]


Delhi Metro - Magenta Line
Delhi Metro is lifeline of Delhi- NCR.

The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro is the world's tenth-largest metro system in terms of length. Delhi Metro was India's second modern public transportation system, which has revolutionised travel by providing a fast, reliable, safe, and comfortable means of transport. The network consists of six lines with a total length of 296 kilometres (184 miles) with 214 stations, which are a mix of underground, at-grade and elevated stations. All stations have escalators, lifts, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. There are 18 designated parking sites at Metro stations to further encourage use of the system. In March 2010, DMRC partnered with Google India (through Google Transit) to provide train schedule and route information to mobile devices with Google Maps. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi–ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi–ROTEM Standard gauge, and CAF Beasain Standard gauge. The Phase-I of Delhi Metro was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional 216 billion (US$3.0 billion).[167] Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010.[168] Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day.[169]

Delhi Metro is being built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from Government of India and Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. However, the organisation is under the administrative control of Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides construction and operation of Delhi Metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail, and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad. The Delhi Metro project was spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan E. Sreedharan, the Managing Director of DMRC and popularly known as the "Metro Man" of India. He famously resigned from DMRC taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse, which took five lives. Sreedharan was awarded the prestigious Legion of Honour by the French Government for his contribution to Delhi Metro.[171]

Metro services are being extended to important hubs in the cities that are close to offices, colleges, and tourist spots. This will facilitate easy conveyance for the citizens, who otherwise have to rely on public buses that are heavily crowded and are often stuck in traffic jams.

Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS)

The 08 RRTS Corridors have been proposed by National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) to facilitate the people travelling from nearby cities in NCR to Delhi.[172] The three main corridors in the first phase are as follows:[173]

  1. Delhi – Alwar via Gurugram – 180.50 km
  2. Delhi – Panipat via Sonipat – 111 km
  3. Delhi – Meerut via Ghaziabad – 92.05 km

Remaining five corridors are also approved by National Capital Region Planning Board but are planned in the second phase.[173]


According to the 2011 census of India, the population of NCT of Delhi is 16,753,235.[174] The corresponding population density was 11,297 persons per km2 with a sex ratio of 866 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 86.34%. In 2004, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate per 1000 population were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08, respectively.[175] In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by 215,000 as a result of natural population growth,[175] which made Delhi one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Dwarka Sub City, Asia's largest planned residential area, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi.[176] Urban expansion has resulted in Delhi's urban area now being considered as extending beyond the NCT boundaries to incorporate the towns and cities of neighbouring states including Gurgaon and Faridabad of Haryana, and Ghaziabad and Noida of Uttar Pradesh, the total population of which is estimated by the United Nations at over 26 million. According to the UN this makes Delhi urban area the world's second-largest, after Tokyo,[9] although Demographia declares the Jakarta urban area to be the second-largest.[177] The 2011 census provided two figures for urban area population: 16,314,838 within the NCT boundary,[178] and 21,753,486 for the Extended Urban Area.[179] The 2021 regional plan released by the Government of India renamed the Extended Urban Area from Delhi Metropolitan Area (DMA) as defined by the 2001 plan[180] to Central National Capital Region (CNCR).[180][181]

The dominant communities in the city according to voter share are as follows - Jats (10%), Punjabis (9%), Vaish (8%), Gujjars (7%), and Sikhs (4%) [182]


Akshardham angled

Swaminarayan Akshardham in Delhi is the largest Hindu temple complexes in the National Capital Territory. Hinduism is the predominant faith in Delhi.[183]

Digambar Jain Lal Mandir, Chandni Chowk, Delhi

Lal Mandir is a historic Jain temple in Old Delhi.

Front view of Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, Delhi

Gurudwara Bangla Sahib is one of the most prominent Sikh Gurdwara in Delhi, and known for its association with the eighth Sikh Guru, Guru Har Krishan.


Northeast entrance to Delhi's Islamic Jama Masjid.

Religion in NCT of Delhi (2011)[184]

  Hinduism (81.68%)
  Islam (12.86%)
  Sikhism (3.40%)
  Jainism (0.99%)
  Christianity (0.87%)
  Buddhism (0.11%)
  Other or Not stated (0.09%)

Hinduism is Delhi's predominant religious faith, with 81.68% of Delhi's population, followed by Islam (12.86%), Sikhism (3.40%), Jainism (0.99%), Christianity (0.87%), and Buddhism (0.11%).[185] Other minority religions include Zoroastrianism, Baha'ism and Judaism.[186]


Languages in Delhi (2001)[187]

  Hindi (80.94%)
  Punjabi (7.14%)
  Urdu (6.31%)
  Bengali (1.50%)
  Other (4.11%)

According to the 50th report of the commissioner for linguistic minorities in India, which was submitted in 2014, Hindi is Delhi's most spoken language, with 80.94% speakers, followed by Punjabi (7.14%), Urdu (6.31%) and Bengali (1.50%). 4.11% of the Delhites speak other languages.[187] Hindi is also the official language of Delhi while Urdu and Punjabi have been declared as additional official languages.[187]

According to the Directorate of Education, GNCTD the following languages are taught in schools in Delhi under the three-language formula:[188]

  • First Language
  1. Hindi
  2. Urdu
  3. English
  • Second Language
  1. English
  • Third language
  1. Urdu
  2. Punjabi
  3. Bengali
  4. Sindhi
  5. Tamil
  6. Telugu
  7. Malayalam
  8. Kannada
  9. Gujarati
  10. Marathi
  11. Arabic
  12. Persian
  13. Sanskrit


Around 49% of the population of Delhi lives in slums and unauthorized colonies without any civic amenities.[189] Majority of the slums have inadequate provisions to the basic facilities and according to a DUSIB report, almost 22% of the people do open defecation.[190]


Traditional pottery in Dilli Haat
Traditional pottery on display in Dilli Haat

Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India, Although a strong Punjabi Influence can be seen in language, Dress and Cuisine brought by the large number of refugees who came following the partition in 1947 the recent migration from other parts of India has made it a melting pot. This is exemplified by many significant monuments in the city. Delhi is also identified as the location of Indraprastha, the ancient capital of the Pandavas. The Archaeological Survey of India recognises 1,200 heritage buildings[191] and 175 monuments as national heritage sites.[192]

In the Old City, the Mughals and the Turkic rulers constructed several architecturally significant buildings, such as the Jama Masjid—India's largest mosque[193] built in 1656[194] and the Red Fort. Three World Heritage Sites—the Red Fort, Qutub Minar and Humayun's Tomb—are located in Delhi.[195] Other monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar Mantar—an 18th-century astronomical observatory—and the Purana Qila—a 16th-century fortress. The Laxminarayan temple, Akshardham temple, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, the Bahá'í Lotus Temple and the ISKCON temple are examples of modern architecture. Raj Ghat and associated memorials houses memorials of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities. New Delhi houses several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of British colonial architecture, including the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Secretariat, Rajpath, the Parliament of India and Vijay Chowk. Safdarjung's Tomb is an example of the Mughal gardens style. Some regal havelis (palatial residences) are in the Old City.[196]

Lotus Temple is a Bahá'í House of Worship completed in 1986. Notable for its flowerlike shape, it serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent and has become a prominent attraction in the city. The Lotus Temple has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles. Like all other Bahá'í Houses of Worship, is open to all regardless of religion, or any other distinction, as emphasised in Bahá'í texts. The Bahá'í laws emphasise that the spirit of the House of Worship be that it is a gathering place where people of all religions may worship God without denominational restrictions.[197] The Bahá'í laws also stipulate that only the holy scriptures of the Bahá'í Faith and other religions can be read or chanted inside in any language; while readings and prayers can be set to music by choirs, no musical instruments can be played inside. Furthermore, no sermons can be delivered, and there can be no ritualistic ceremonies practised.[197]

The National Museum and National Gallery of Modern Art are some of the largest museums in the country. Other museums in Delhi include the National Museum of Natural History, National Rail Museum and National Philatelic Museum.

Chandni Chowk, a 17th-century market, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for jewellery and Zari saris.[198] Delhi's arts and crafts include, Zardozi[199]—an embroidery done with gold thread—[200] and Meenakari[201]—the art of enamelling.


Rashtrapati Bhavan and adjacent buildings, illuminated for the Republic Day
Rashtrapati Bhavan lit up for Republic Day of India

Delhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, has amplified the importance of national events and holidays like Republic Day, Independence Day (15 August) and Gandhi Jayanti. On Independence Day, the Prime Minister addresses the nation from the Red Fort. Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom.[202] The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military strength.[203][204] Over the centuries, Delhi has become known for its composite culture, and a festival that symbolises this is the Phool Walon Ki Sair, which takes place in September. Flowers and pankhe—fans embroidered with flowers—are offered to the shrine of the 13th-century Sufi saint Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kaki and the Yogmaya temple, both situated in Mehrauli.[205]

Pragati Maidan, inside hall 18 (3)
The Pragati Maidan in Delhi hosts the World Book Fair biennially

Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of lights), Mahavir Jayanti, Guru Nanak's Birthday, Raksha Bandhan, Durga Puja, Holi, Lohri, Chauth, Krishna Janmastami, Maha Shivratri, Eid ul-Fitr, Moharram and Buddha Jayanti.[204] The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as a backdrop.[206] Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi. The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show,[207] is held in Delhi biennially. The New Delhi World Book Fair, held biennially at the Pragati Maidan, is the second-largest exhibition of books in the world.[208] Delhi is often regarded as the "Book Capital" of India because of high readership.[209] India International Trade Fair (IITF), organised by ITPO is the biggest cultural and shopping fair of Delhi which takes place in November each year and is visited by more than 15 lakh people.[210]


Daulat Chaat in Old Delhi
Daulat Chaat is made using a complicated technique of condensing milk foam on a cold night, this dish is only available during winters.[211]

As India's national capital and centuries old Mughal capital, Delhi influenced the food habits of its residents and is where Mughlai cuisine originated. Along with Indian cuisine, a variety of international cuisines are popular among the residents.[212] The dearth of food habits among the city's residents created a unique style of cooking which became popular throughout the world, with dishes such as Kebab, biryani, tandoori. The city's classic dishes include butter chicken, dal makhani, shahi paneer, aloo chaat, chaat, dahi bhalla, kachori, gol gappe, samosa, chole bhature, chole kulche, gulab jamun, jalebi and lassi.[212][213]:40–50, 189–196

The fast living habits of Delhi's people has motivated the growth of street food outlets.[213]:41 A trend of dining at local dhabas is popular among the residents. High-profile restaurants have gained popularity in recent years, among the popular restaurants are the Karim Hotel, the Punjab Grill and Bukhara.[214] The Gali Paranthe Wali (the street of fried bread) is a street in Chandni Chowk particularly for food eateries since the 1870s. Almost the entire street is occupied by fast food stalls or street vendors. It has nearly become a tradition that almost every prime minister of India has visited the street to eat paratha at least once. Other Indian cuisines are also available in this area even though the street specialises in north Indian food .[213]:40–50[215]


Jantar Delhi
Jantar Mantar

According to Euromonitor International, Delhi ranked as 28th-most visited city in the world and first in India by foreign visitors in 2015.[216] There are numerous tourist attractions in Delhi, both historic and modern. The three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Delhi, Qutb Complex, Red Fort and Humayun's Tomb are among the finest examples of Indo-Islamic architecture.[217] Another prominent landmark of Delhi is India Gate, a 1931 built war memorial to soldiers of British Indian Army who died during First World War.[218] Delhi has several famous places of worship of various religions. One of the largest Hindu temple complexes in the world,[219] Akshardham is a major tourist attraction in the city. Other famous religious sites include Lal Mandir, Laxminarayan Temple, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, Lotus Temple, Jama Masjid and ISKCON Temple. Delhi is also a hub for shopping of all kinds. Connaught Place, Chandni Chowk, Sarojini Nagar, Khan Market and Dilli Haat are some of the major retail markets in Delhi.[220] Major shopping malls include Select Citywalk, DLF Promenade, DLF Emporio, Metro Walk and Ansal Plaza.[221]


Private schools in Delhi—which use either English or Hindi as the language of instruction—are affiliated to one of three administering bodies, the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE)[222] or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). In 2004–05, approximately 15.29 lakh (1.529 million) students were enrolled in primary schools, 8.22 lakh (0.822 million) in middle schools and 6.69 lakh (0.669 million) in secondary schools across Delhi.[223] Female students represented 49% of the total enrolment. The same year, the Delhi government spent between 1.58% and 1.95% of its gross state domestic product on education.[223]

Schools and higher educational institutions in Delhi are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the NCT government or private organisations. In 2006, Delhi had 165 colleges, five medical colleges and eight engineering colleges,[223] seven major universities and nine deemed universities.[223]

The premier management colleges of Delhi such as Faculty of Management Studies (Delhi) and Indian Institute of Foreign Trade rank the best in India. All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi is a premier medical school for treatment and research. National Law University, Delhi is a prominent law school and is affiliated to the Bar Council of India.

Delhi Technological University (formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University and National Law University, Delhi are the only state universities.[224] University of Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Jamia Millia Islamia are the central universities, and Indira Gandhi National Open University is for distance education.[225] As of 2008, about 16% of all Delhi residents possessed at least a college graduate degree.[226]


Pitampura TV Tower, Delhi, India
Pitampura TV Tower broadcasts programming to Delhi

As the capital of India, Delhi is the focus of political reportage, including regular television broadcasts of Parliament sessions. Many national media agencies, including the state-owned Press Trust of India, Media Trust of India and Doordarshan, is based in the city. Television programming includes two free terrestrial television channels offered by Doordarshan, and several Hindi, English, and regional-language cable channels offered by multi system operators. Satellite television has yet to gain a large quantity of subscribers in the city.[227]

Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Delhi. The city's Hindi newspapers include Navbharat Times, Hindustan Dainik, Punjab Kesari, Pavitra Bharat, Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Prayukti, Amar Ujala and Dainik Desbandhu. Amongst the English language newspapers, The Hindustan Times, with a daily circulation of over a million copies, is the single largest daily.[228] Other major English newspapers include Times of India, The Hindu, Indian Express, Business Standard, The Pioneer, The Statesman, and The Asian Age. Regional language newspapers include the Malayalam daily Malayala Manorama and the Tamil dailies Dinamalar and Dinakaran.

Radio is a less popular mass medium in Delhi, although FM radio has gained popularity[229] since the inauguration of several new stations in 2006.[230] A number of state-owned and private radio stations broadcast from Delhi.[231][232]


The 2010 Commonwealth Games opening ceremony in Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium is one of the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India.

Delhi has hosted many major international sporting events, including the first and also the ninth Asian Games,[233] the 2010 Hockey World Cup, the 2010 Commonwealth Games and the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Delhi lost bidding for the 2014 Asian Games,[234] and considered making a bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[235] However, sports minister Manohar Singh Gill later stated that funding infrastructure would come before a 2020 bid.[236] There are indications of a possible 2028 bid.

The 2010 Commonwealth Games, which ran from 3 to 14 October 2010, was one of the largest sports event held in India.[237][238] The opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event, in New Delhi at 7:00 pm Indian Standard Time on 3 October 2010.[239] The ceremony featured over 8,000 performers and lasted for two and a half hours.[240] It is estimated that 3.5 billion (US$49 million) were spent to produce the ceremony.[241] Events took place at 12 competition venues. 20 training venues were used in the Games, including seven venues within Delhi University.[242] The rugby stadium in Delhi University North Campus hosted rugby games for Commonwealth Games.[242][243] The mess left behind after the Commonwealth Games prompted Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to replace Sports and Youth Affairs minister Manohar Singh Gill with Ajay Maken in 19 January 2011 Cabinet reshuffle.[244]

Cricket and football are the most popular sports in Delhi.[245] There are several cricket grounds, or maidans, located across the city. The Feroz Shah Kotla Ground (known commonly as the Kotla) is one of the oldest cricket grounds in India and is a venue for international cricket matches. It is the home ground of the Delhi cricket team, which represents the city in the Ranji Trophy, the premier Indian domestic first-class cricket championship.[246] The Delhi cricket team has produced several world-class international cricketers such as Virender Sehwag, Virat Kohli,[247] Gautam Gambhir, Madan Lal, Chetan Chauhan, Ishant Sharma and Bishan Singh Bedi to name a few. The Railways and Services cricket teams in the Ranji Trophy also play their home matches in Delhi, in the Karnail Singh Stadium and the Harbax Singh Stadium, respectively. The city is also home to the Indian Premier League team Delhi Capitals, who play their home matches at the Kotla.

Ambedkar Stadium, a football stadium in Delhi which holds 21,000 people, was the venue for the Indian football team's World Cup qualifier against UAE on 28 July 2012.[248] Delhi hosted the Nehru Cup in 2007[249] and 2009, in both of which India defeated Syria 1–0.[250] In the Elite Football League of India, Delhi's first professional American football franchise, the Delhi Defenders played its first season in Pune.[251] Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida, a suburb of Delhi, formerly hosted the Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix.[252] The Indira Gandhi Arena is also in Delhi.

Delhi is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21.

Current Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Delhi

Team/Club Tournament/League Sport Venue Established
Delhi cricket team Ranji Trophy

Vijay Hazare Trophy Syed Mushtaq Ali Trophy

Cricket Feroz Shah Kotla Stadium 1934
Delhi football team Santosh Trophy Football Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium 1941
Delhi Capitals Indian Premier League Cricket Feroz Shah Kotla Stadium 2008
Delhi Waveriders Hockey India League Field Hockey Shivaji Stadium 2012
Delhi Dynamos FC Indian Super League Football Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium 2014
Dabang Delhi Pro Kabaddi League Kabaddi Thyagaraj Sports Complex 2014
Delhi Dreams Champions Tennis League Tennis R.K. Khanna Tennis Complex 2014
Indian Aces International Premier Tennis League Tennis Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium 2014
Delhi Hurricanes RFC All India & South Asia Rugby Tournament Rugby Union B-7 Vasant Kunj 110070 Delhi 2004
Delhi Defenders Elite Football League of India American Football - 2012
Delhi Wizards World Series Hockey Field Hockey Dhyan Chand National Stadium 2011
Delhi Capitals UBA Pro Basketball League Basketball - 2015

Former Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Delhi

Team/Club Tournament/League Sport Venue Established Ceased
Delhi Giants Indian Cricket League Cricket N/A 2007 2009

International relations

Sister cities[253]

See also


  1. ^ a b "The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956". Ministry of Law and Justice (India). 1956. Archived from the original on 1 May 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  2. ^ a b "The States Reorganisation Act, 1956" (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice (India). 1956. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  3. ^ a b c "The Constitution (Sixty-Ninth Amendment) Act, 1991". Government of India. National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
  4. ^ "Anil Baijal takes over as new Lt Governor of Delhi". Times of India. Delhi. 31 December 2016. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
  5. ^ "Senior IAS officer Vijay Kumar Dev to be next Delhi Chief Secretary". The Financial Express (India). 23 November 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  6. ^ "Amulya Kumar Patnaik Officially Takes Charge As Delhi Police Commissioner". Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
  7. ^ a b c Delhi Metropolitan/City Population section of "Delhi Population Sex Ratio in Delhi Literacy rate Delhi NCR". 2011 Census of India. Archived from the original on 26 January 2017.
  8. ^ a b "Delhi (India): Union Territory, Major Agglomerations & Towns – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". City Population. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  9. ^ a b c "The World's Cities in 2016" (PDF). United Nations. October 2016. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 January 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  10. ^ a b "Official Language Act 2000" (PDF). Government of Delhi. 2 July 2003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  11. ^ a b "Delhi Budget Analysis 2019-20" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  12. ^ a b c "Global city GDP rankings 2008-2025". PwC. Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
  13. ^ a b c "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  14. ^ a b c Lewis, Clara. "Delhi, not Mumbai, India's economic capital". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  15. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  16. ^ a b "Census 2011 (Final Data) – Demographic details, Literate Population (Total, Rural & Urban)" (PDF). Planning Commission, Government of India. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  17. ^ "The Constitution (Sixty-Ninth Amendment) Act, 1991". Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  18. ^ Habib, Irfan (1999). The agrarian system of Mughal India, 1556–1707. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-562329-1. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. ... The current Survey of India spellings are followed for place names except where they vary rather noticeably from the spellings in our sources: thus I read "Dehli" not "Delhi ...
  19. ^ "This study settles the Delhi versus Mumbai debate: The Capital's economy is streets ahead".
  20. ^ a b "The Most Dynamic Cities of 2025". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 28 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  21. ^ "Mumbai richest Indian city with total wealth of $820 billion, Delhi comes second: Report". The Indian Express. 27 February 2017. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  22. ^ a b Asher, Catherine B (2000) [2000]. "Chapter 9:Delhi walled: Changing Boundaries". In James D. Tracy. City Walls. Cambridge University Press. pp. 247–281. ISBN 978-0-521-65221-6. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  23. ^ "Rationale". NCR Planning Board. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. The National Capital Region (NCR) in India was constituted under the NCRPB Act, 1985
  24. ^ "Census 2011" (PDF). National Capital Region Planning Board. National Informatics Centre. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g "Chapter 1: Introduction" (PDF). Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 1–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  26. ^ Bakshi, S.R. (1995) [2002]. Delhi Through Ages. Whispering Eye Bangdat. p. 2. ISBN 978-81-7488-138-0.
  27. ^ a b Smith, George (1882). The Geography of British India, Political & Physical. J. Murray. pp. 216–217. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  28. ^ "Our Pasts II, History Textbook for Class VII". NCERT. Archived from the original on 23 June 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2007.
  29. ^ Delhi City Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 11, p. 236..
  30. ^ "A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English". Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  31. ^ Cohen, Richard J. (October–December 1989). "An Early Attestation of the Toponym Dhilli". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 109 (4): 513–519. doi:10.2307/604073. JSTOR 604073.
  32. ^ Austin, Ian; Thhakur Nahar Singh Jasol. "Chauhans (Cahamanas, Cauhans)". The Mewar Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 14 November 2006. Retrieved 22 December 2006.
  33. ^ "Why developers charge a premium for upper storeys in Delhi/NCR region". Economic Times. 5 August 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  34. ^ John Murray (1924). "A handbook for travellers in India, Burma and Ceylon". J. Murray, 1924. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. ... "Dilli hanoz dur ast" ("Delhi is still far off") – has passed into the currency of a proverb ...
  35. ^ a b S.W. Fallon; Dihlavi Fakir Chand (1886). "A dictionary of Hindustani proverbs". Printed at the Medical hall press, 1886. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. ... Abhi Dilli dur hai ...
  36. ^ "India today, Volume 31, Issues 13–25". Thomson Living Media India Ltd., 2006. 2006. Archived from the original on 13 June 2013. ... As the saying in Hindustani goes: "Dilli dilwalon ki (Delhi belongs to those with a heart)". So shed your inhibitions and try out your hand ...
  37. ^ Prabha Chopra (1976). Delhi Gazetteer. The Unit. p. 1078.
  38. ^ Finbarr Barry Flood, 2003, "Pillar, palimpsets, and princely practices", Res, Xliii, New York University, p. 97.
  39. ^ Mittal, J.P. (2006), History of Ancient India (4250 BCE to 637 CE) p. 675, ISBN 978-81-269-0616-1 (This author considers King Agrasen an actual historical figure)
  40. ^ Mukherji, Anisha Shekhar (2002). The red fort of Shahjahanabad. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-19-565775-3.
  41. ^ "India: Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi" (PDF). State of Conservation of the World Heritage Properties in the Asia-Pacific Region: : Summaries of Periodic Reports 2003 by property, Section II. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. pp. 71–72. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2006. Retrieved 22 December 2006.
  42. ^ "Under threat: The Magnificent Minaret of Jam". The New Courier No 1. UNESCO. October 2002. Archived from the original on 22 May 2006. Retrieved 3 May 2006.
  43. ^ "Battuta's Travels: Delhi, capital of Muslim India". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
  44. ^ Travel Delhi, India. History section. p. 10. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2012 – via Google books.
  45. ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Timurid Empire)". Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
  46. ^ Genocide: a history Archived 1 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. W.D. Rubinstein (2004). p. 28. ISBN 978-0-582-50601-5
  47. ^ "Sher Shah – The Lion King". India's History: Medieval India. Archived from the original on 12 December 2006. Retrieved 22 December 2006.
  48. ^ Akbar the Great, Srivastva, A.L. Vol. 1, pp. 24–26
  49. ^ Himu-a forgotten Hindu Hero," Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan, p100
  50. ^ Kar, L. Colonel H.C. Military History of India Calcutta 1980, p. 283
  51. ^ Travel Delhi, India. p. 12. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016 – via Google Books.
  52. ^ Thomas, Amelia. Rajasthan, Delhi and Agra. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-690-8.
  53. ^ Later Mughal. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  54. ^ Territories and States of India. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  55. ^ "Iran in the Age of the Raj". Archived from the original on 13 January 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
  56. ^ Soul and Structure of Governance in India. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  57. ^ Gordon, Stewart (1993). The Marathas 1600–1818, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7.
  58. ^ "In 1761, battle of Panipat cost Marathas Rs 93 lakh, say papers". The Times of India. 17 December 2011.
  59. ^ Cole, Juan Ricardo; Momen, Moojan (1984). From Iran East and West. ISBN 978-0-933770-40-9. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  60. ^ Mayaram, Shail (2003). Against history, against state: counter perspective from the margins Cultures of history. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12731-8.
  61. ^ "Shifting pain". Times of India. 11 December 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  62. ^ "Lutyens' Delhi in race for UN heritage status". Hindustan Times. 11 June 2012. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  63. ^ Travel Delhi. 2007-01-01. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-60501-051-9 – via Google books.
  64. ^ "Fall in Delhi birth rate fails to arrest population rise". The Hindu. Chennai. 3 January 2005. Archived from the original on 4 June 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2006.
  65. ^ "Terrorists attack Parliament; five intruders, six cops killed". 13 December 2001. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
  66. ^ "India and Pakistan: Who will strike first?". Economist. 20 December 2001. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
  67. ^ Tripathi, Rahul (14 September 2008). "Serial blasts rock Delhi; 30 dead, 90 injured-India-The Times of India". Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  68. ^ a b "State Animals, Birds, Trees and Flowers of India". ENVIS Centre on Forestry. 2 July 2015. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  69. ^ "Symbols of Delhi". Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  70. ^ "Symbols of Delhi" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  71. ^ "State Trees of India". Archived from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  72. ^ Mohan, Madan (April 2002). "GIS-Based Spatial Information Integration, Modeling and Digital Mapping: A New Blend of Tool for Geospatial Environmental Health Analysis for Delhi Ridge" (PDF). Spatial Information for Health Monitoring and Population Management. FIG XXII International Congress. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2007.
  73. ^ "Hazard profiles of Indian districts" (PDF). National Capacity Building Project in Disaster Management. UNDP. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 May 2006. Retrieved 23 August 2006.
  74. ^ a b "Average weather for New Delhi, India". Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  75. ^ "Climate of Delhi". Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  76. ^ "Fog continues to disrupt flights, trains". The Hindu. Chennai. 7 January 2005. Archived from the original on 4 March 2006.
  77. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  78. ^ "Mercury touches new high for July, Met predicts rain relief". 3 July 2012. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013.
  79. ^ "Weatherbase entry for Delhi". Canty and Associates LLC. Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2007.
  80. ^ Kurian, Vinson (28 June 2005). "Monsoon reaches Delhi two days ahead of schedule". The Hindu Business Line. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2007.
  81. ^ "New Delhi (SFD) 1971-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
  82. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). Indian Meteorological Department. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
  83. ^ "Delhi, Blanketed in Toxic Haze, 'Has Become a Gas Chamber'". New York Times. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  84. ^ "Delhi is most polluted city in world, Beijing much better: WHO study". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  85. ^ Kumar, Rahul (July 2016). "Fancy Schemes for a Dirty Business". Digital Development Debates. Archived from the original on 15 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  86. ^ a b "Delhi's Air Has Become a Lethal Hazard and Nobody Seems to Know What to Do About It". Time magazine. 10 February 2014. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  87. ^ a b "India's Air Pollution Triggers Comparisons with China". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  88. ^ "A Delhi particular". The Economist. 6 November 2012. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  89. ^ "Pollution level in Delhi: Day after Diwali, Delhi's air turns 'hazardous".
  90. ^ "Delhi breathed easier from January to April".
  91. ^ "Air pollution: Delhi enjoys cleanest February in three years".
  92. ^ "How Crop Burning Affects Delhi's Air". Wall Street Journal. 15 February 2014. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  93. ^ a b Harris, Gardiner (25 January 2014). "Beijing's Bad Air Would Be Step Up for Smoggy Delhi". New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  94. ^ a b Bearak, Max (7 February 2014). "Desperate for Clean Air, Delhi Residents Experiment with Solutions". New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  95. ^ Madison Park (8 May 2014). "Top 20 most polluted cities in the world". CNN. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016.
  96. ^ "Children in Delhi have lungs of chain-smokers!". India Today. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  97. ^ "Pollution increasing lung cancer in Indian women". DNA. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  98. ^ "Delhi blanketed in thick smog, transport disrupted". Reuters. 18 December 2013. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  99. ^ January days getting colder, tied to rise in pollution Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Times of India, 27 January 2014
  100. ^ "Usual suspects: Vehicles, industrial emissions behind foul play". Times of India. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  101. ^ "UA vicious nexus". Down to Earth. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  102. ^ Impose 30% cess on diesel cars, panel tells Supreme Court Archived 4 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Times of India, 11 February 2014
  103. ^ Gardiner Harris (14 February 2015). "Delhi Wakes Up to an Air Pollution Problem It Cannot Ignore". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  104. ^ "Delhi 'third greenest' city". Archived from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
  105. ^ a b c "Express India". Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
  106. ^ Delhi Metro helps reduce vehicular air pollution, indicates research Archived 1 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, India Today, 28 April 2013
  107. ^ R. Kumari; A.K. Attri; L. Int Panis; B.R. Gurjar (April 2013). "Emission estimates of Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals from Mobile sources in Delhi (India)". J. Environ. Science & Engg. 55 (2): 127–142. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014.
  108. ^ "What is the status of air pollution in Delhi?". CSE, India. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  109. ^ "Delhi's air quality deteriorating due to burning of agriculture waste". Economic Times. 6 November 2014.
  110. ^ "Thick blanket of smog envelopes Delhi, northern India". India Today. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014.
  111. ^ "Circles of Sustainability Urban Profile Process". The Cities Programme. 27 July 2012. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  112. ^ M.S.A. Rao (1970). Urbanization and Social Change: A Study of a Rural Community on a Metropolitan Fringe. Orient Longmans. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018.
  113. ^ "Table 3.1: Delhi Last 10 Years (1991–2001) – Administrative Set Up" (PDF). Economic Survey of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 July 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
  114. ^ "Introduction". The New Delhi Municipal Council Act, 1994. New Delhi Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
  115. ^ "The Delhi Municipal Corporation (Amendment) Act 2011(Delhi Act 12 of 2011)". Department of Law, Justice & Legislative Affairs. 29 December 2011. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017.
  116. ^ "From 9 to 11 districts for better governance in city". 17 July 2012. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013.
  117. ^ Nair, Ajesh. "Annual Survey of India's City-Systems" (PDF). Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  118. ^ "Poile Stations". Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. Archived from the original on 10 January 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2006.
  119. ^ "Delhi: Assembly Constituencies". Compare Infobase Limited. Archived from the original on 1 January 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2006.
  120. ^ "Lok Sabha constituencies get a new profile". The Hindu. Chennai. 7 September 2006. Archived from the original on 4 January 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2006.
  121. ^ "Politics of Delhi". INDFY. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  122. ^ "Arvind Kejriwal to be Delhi Chief Minister, swearing-in at Ramleela Maidan". timesofindia-economictimes. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  123. ^ Mohammad Ali; Vishal Kant; Sowmiya Ashok (14 February 2014). "Arvind Kejriwal quits over Jan Lokpal". The Hindu. Chennai. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  124. ^ "President's rule imposed in Delhi". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 19 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  125. ^ Niharika Mandhana (10 February 2015). "Upstart Party Wins India State Elections – WSJ". WSJ. Archived from the original on 9 August 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  126. ^ PTI (30 May 2011). "Delhi govt decides to split MCD into three parts". Archived from the original on 28 July 2013.
  127. ^ Hindustan Ties (29 May 2017). "MCD results 2017: BJP rides on Modi wave; AAP routed, Kejriwal accepts defeat". Archived from the original on 6 November 2017.
  128. ^ "Delhi Budget Analysis 2017–18" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. 8 March 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  129. ^ "Chapter 2: State Income" (PDF). Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 8–16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007.
  130. ^ a b c d "Chapter 5: Employment and Unemployment" (PDF). Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 59–65. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2016.
  131. ^ "Industries in Delhi". Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
  132. ^ "Delhi hot favourite retail destination in India – Corporate Trends – News By Company -News". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  133. ^ "Chapter 9: Industrial Development" (PDF). Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 94–107. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007.
  134. ^ a b "Chapter 13: Water Supply and Sewerage" (PDF). Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 147–162. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2006.
  135. ^ Birkinshaw, Matt (July 2016). "Unequal, Unreliable and Running Out". Digital Development Debates. Archived from the original on 15 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  136. ^ Joshi, Sandeep (19 June 2006). "MCD developing new landfill site". The Hindu. Chennai. Archived from the original on 19 November 2006. Retrieved 19 December 2006.
  137. ^ a b Gadhok, Taranjot Kaur. "Risks in Delhi: Environmental concerns". Natural Hazard Management. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2006.
  138. ^ "Chapter 11: Energy" (PDF). Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 117–129. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2006.
  139. ^ "About Us". Delhi Fire Service. Govt. of NCT of Delhi. Archived from the original on 22 January 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2007.
  140. ^ "Delhi Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGI)". 2 May 1986. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
  141. ^ "Delhi's CNG success inspiring many countries: Naik". Outlook Publishing (India) Private Limited. Press Trust of India. 11 December 2002. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
  142. ^ "Traffic Statistics – Domestic & International Passengers" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. p. 3. Archived from the original (jsp) on 27 May 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  143. ^ "India begins $1.94b Delhi airport revamp". 18 February 2007. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  144. ^ a b "Mecca for young aviators". Hindustan Times. 23 September 2011. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015.
  145. ^ "Ministries in row over Safdarjung Airport land". The Times of India. 13 April 2011.
  146. ^ PTI (8 March 2019). "PM Narendra Modi inaugurates civil enclave at Hindon airport". The Economic Times. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  147. ^ "Search". India News Analysis Opinions on Niti Central. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  148. ^ Shah, Pankaj (23 February 2018). "Jewar airport will now be a full-fledged aviation hub". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  149. ^ Pritha Chatterjee (6 April 2015). "The road that larger particles travel". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  150. ^ I.Prasada Rao; Dr. P.K. Kanchan; Dr. P.K. Nanda. "GIS Based Maintenance Management System (GMMS) For Major Roads of Delhi". Map India 2006: Transportation. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2007.
  151. ^ Dipak K. Dash (5 February 2017). "Delhi traffic chaos costs Rs 60,000 crore annually". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  152. ^ Armin Rosencranz; Michael Jackson. "Introduction" (PDF). The Delhi Pollution Case: The Supreme Court of India and the Limits of Judicial Power. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2007.
  153. ^ "Citizen Charter". Delhi Transport Corporation. Archived from the original on 10 January 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2006.
  154. ^ "DTC records highest single-day collection". NDTV. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  155. ^ "Cluster buses to be back on road today". New Delhi: The Times of India. TNN. 18 March 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  156. ^ "Cabinet sets ball rolling to procure 1,000 cluster buses". New Delhi: The Times of India. TNN. 10 January 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  157. ^ "Upswing in DTC, Cluster buses daily ridership, 41.90 passengers carried per day: Sisodia". PTI. 22 March 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  158. ^ a b c "Chapter 12: Transport" (PDF). Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 130–146. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2006.
  159. ^ Aparajita Ray (16 June 2016). "Bengaluru retains second place after Delhi with most vehicles on roads". Bengaluru: The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  160. ^ "Traffic snarl snaps 42 Cr man-hour from Delhi, NCR workers at iGovernment". Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  161. ^ "Every 12th Delhiite owns a car- Automobiles-Auto-News By Industry-News-The Economic Times". 2 January 2008. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  162. ^ "Vehicle numbers cross one crore mark in Delhi". New Delhi: The Times of India. PTI. 4 June 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  163. ^ "Noida: An idea that has worked". The Times of India. 4 June 2003. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.
  164. ^ "DND Flyway". DND Flyway. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  165. ^ "Faridabad Metro Corridor – Press Brief". Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  166. ^ Barman, Sourav Roy (10 August 2018). "Since 2013, 99% of Delhi Metro trips have been on time". The Indian Express. New Delhi.
  167. ^ a b " Opinion". Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  168. ^ a b "Get ready for revolution on wheels- Shipping / Transport-Transportation-News By Industry-News-The Economic Times". 6 August 2008. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  169. ^ a b "10 years of Delhi Metro". 24 January 2013. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013.
  170. ^ "Changing Delhi map makes Ring Railway redundant". Indian Express. 22 February 2011. Archived from the original on 28 February 2011.
  171. ^ Staff Reporter (23 November 2005). "French award presented to Sreedharan". New Delhi: The Hindu. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  172. ^ "Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS)". Urban Mass Transit Company Limited. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  173. ^ a b "Project Details". National Capital Region Transport Corporation. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  174. ^ a b "Census of India: Provisional Population Totals for Census 2011: NCT of Delhi". Archived from the original on 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
  175. ^ a b "Chapter 3: Demographic Profile" (PDF). Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 17–31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2006.
  176. ^ Can't afford to fall ill in Dwarka Archived 27 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Hindustan Times, 16 July 2009
  177. ^ Demographia (2016). Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (12th ed.). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  178. ^ "Urban agglomerations/cities having population 1 million and above" (PDF). Provisional population totals, census of India 2011. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
  179. ^ "India Stats : Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011". Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  180. ^ a b "Evaluation Study of DMA Towns in National Capital Region" (PDF). Town and Country Planning Organisation. Ministry of Urban Development. September 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  181. ^ "Regional Plan 2021, Chapter 4, Demographic Profile and Settlement Pattern" (PDF). NCR Planning Board. p. 28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  182. ^ Kant, Vishal (2013-11-21). "Delhi polls: Caste to play crucial role". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
  183. ^ Jha, Preeti (26 December 2007). "Guinness comes to east Delhi: Akshardham world's largest Hindu temple". Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-02.
  184. ^ "Delhi Religion Census 2011". Census 2011 India. Archived from the original on 3 November 2017.
  185. ^ "Religion PCA". Government of India. Archived from the original on 7 July 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  186. ^ "Data on Religion". Census of India 2001. p. 1. Archived from the original on 12 August 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2006.
  187. ^ a b c "50th REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). Ministry of Minority Affairs. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  188. ^ "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). Ministry of Minority Affairs. p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  189. ^ Dhananjay Mahapatra (4 October 2012). "'Half of Delhi's population lives in slums'". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  190. ^ Mayura Janwalkar (20 April 2015). "Delhi: Slum shame". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  191. ^ PTI  (27 February 2009). "Promote lesser-known monuments of Delhi'-Delhi-Cities". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
  192. ^ "Delhi Circle (NCT of Delhi)". List of Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains of National Importance. Archaeological Survey of India. Archived from the original on 14 May 2007. Retrieved 27 December 2006.
  193. ^ "Jama Masjid, India's largest mosque". Terra Galleria. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
  194. ^ "Know India". Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2010.
  195. ^ "Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List: India". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
  196. ^ Jacob, Satish (July 2002). "Wither, the walled city". Seminar (web edition) (515). Archived from the original on 12 December 2006. Retrieved 19 January 2007.
  197. ^ a b Rafati, V.; Sahba, F. (1989). "Bahai temples". Encyclopædia Iranica.
  198. ^ "Shopping in Delhi". Delhi Tours. About Palace on Wheels. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2007.
  199. ^ The Textile Book. 2002-05-01. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-85973-512-1 – via Google Books.
  200. ^ "Ancient and modern metal craft works attract visitors". Times of India. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  201. ^ "Delhi Handicrafts". Indian Handicrafts suppliars. Archived from the original on 1 June 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  202. ^ "Independence Day". Compare Infobase Limited. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2007.
  203. ^ Ray Choudhury, Ray Choudhury (28 January 2002). "R-Day parade, an anachronism?". The Hindu Business Line. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
  204. ^ a b "Fairs & Festivals of Delhi". Delhi Travel. India Archived from the original on 19 March 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
  205. ^ Delhi: a portrait, by Khushwant Singh, Raghu Rai, Published by Delhi Tourism Development Corp., 1983. ISBN 978-0-19-561437-4. p. 15.
  206. ^ Tankha, Madhur (15 December 2005). "It's Sufi and rock at Qutub Fest". The Hindu. Chennai. Archived from the original on 13 May 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
  207. ^ "The Hindu: Front Page: Asia's largest auto carnival begins in Delhi tomorrow". Thehindu. Chennai. 9 January 2008. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  208. ^ "Delhi Metro records 10% rise in commuters-Delhi-Cities-The Times of India". 1 July 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  209. ^ Sunil Sethi / New Delhi 9 February 2008. "Sunil Sethi: Why Delhi is India's Book Capital". Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  210. ^ "Report of IITF 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2015.
  211. ^ "Daulat Ki Chaat: In search of Delhi's secret delicacy". Archived from the original on 5 September 2015.
  212. ^ a b Swamy, M.R.Narayan (2006). New Delhi. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 14–17. ISBN 978-981-232-996-7. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  213. ^ a b c Singh, Chetananand (2010). "Commonwealth games guide to Delhi" (PDF). Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation Ltd. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  214. ^ Duncan, Fiona (6 March 2011). "Delhi, India: hotels, restaurants and transport". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  215. ^ Brown, Lindsay; Thomas, Amelia (2008). Rajasthan, Delhi and Agra (second ed.). Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet. pp. 20–31. ISBN 978-1-74104-690-8.
  216. ^ Bremner, Caroline. "Top 100 City Destinations Ranking" (PDF). Euromonitor International. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  217. ^ "Indo–Islamic Architecture". Centre for Cultural Resources and Training. Archived from the original on 9 May 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  218. ^ "India Gate". Delhi Tourism. Archived from the original on 24 January 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  219. ^ "Akshardham Temple". Delhi Tourism. Archived from the original on 2 April 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  220. ^ "Shopping in Delhi". Delhi Tourism. Archived from the original on 8 December 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  221. ^ "6 Best Shopping Malls in Delhi for Shopping". Traveljee. Archived from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  222. ^ "Schools in Delhi". Archived from the original on 21 September 2012.
  223. ^ a b c d "Chapter 15: Education" (PDF). Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 173–187. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2006.
  224. ^ "List of State Universities". Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
  225. ^ "THE INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ACT, 198" (PDF). Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  226. ^ " | wired". Archived from the original on 4 November 2005. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  227. ^ Rediff Business Desk (5 September 2006). "What is CAS? What is DTH?". rediff news: Business. Archived from the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
  228. ^ "Biographical Data of Vir Sanghvi". Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  229. ^ Naqvi, Farah (14 November 2006). "Chapter4: Towards a Mass Media Campaign: Analysing the relationship between target audiences and mass media" (PDF). Images and icons: Harnessing the Power of Mass Media to Promote Gender Equality and Reduce Practices of Sex Selection. BBC World Service Trust. pp. 26–36. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
  230. ^ "Delhi: Radio Stations in Delhi, India". ASIAWAVES: Radio and TV Broadcasting in South and South-East Asia. Alan G. Davies. 15 November 2006. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
  231. ^ "All India Radio". Indian government. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  232. ^ "Radio Stations in Delhi, India". Asiawaves Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  233. ^ "India to bid for 2014 Asian Games". South Asia. BBC. 29 March 2005. Archived from the original on 15 December 2006. Retrieved 21 December 2006.
  234. ^ "New Delhi loses bid". The Hindu. Chennai. 18 April 2007. Archived from the original on 20 April 2007. Retrieved 18 April 2007.
  235. ^ "Delhi To Bid For 2020 Summer Games". Menscerto Inc. 28 April 2007. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  236. ^ "India Won't Bid For 2020 Games". Archived from the original on 5 September 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
  237. ^ Burke, Jason (3 October 2010). "'India has arrived': spectacular ceremony opens Commonwealth Games". London: The Guardian, UK. Archived from the original on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
  238. ^ Hart, Simon (3 October 2010). "Commonwealth Games 2010: India opens doors to the world at opening ceremony". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
  239. ^ PTI  (3 October 2010). "Biggest ever Commonwealth Games begins in Delhi – The Times of India". Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  240. ^ "CWG: 8,000 artists to show 5,000-year-old culture". One India News. 3 October 2010. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
  241. ^ "The CWG opening show reality: Rs 350 crore". Times of India. 5 October 2010. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
  242. ^ a b "Non-Competition Venues". Commonwealth Games Organising Committee. Archived from the original on 27 September 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  243. ^ "Commonwealth Games hit by more bad luck after giant scoreboard collapse". London: Daily Mail. 8 October 2012. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  244. ^ "New Sports Minister". 19 January 2011. Archived from the original on 21 January 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
  245. ^ Cricinfo staff. "A Brief History: The Ranji Trophy". Cricinfo. The Wisden Group. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2007.
  246. ^ "Virat Kohli: Delhi's golden boy since 2002 – Times of India". Archived from the original on 27 April 2016.
  247. ^ "Ambedkar stadium to host India's World Cup qualifier". Times of Inia. 28 June 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  248. ^ "Bob Houghton's Boys made India proud with a superb victory over Syria". 17 May 2012. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013.
  249. ^ "India vs Syria Nehru Cup 2009 Football Final Results, Highlights". CLbuzz. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  250. ^ 'They Need TV Product': Why American Football Is Coming To India – TIME NewsFeed Archived 25 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (4 August 2011). Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  251. ^ "India company says on track for 2011 F1 race". Reuters. 15 April 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
  252. ^ "Sister-City Agreements/ Memorandum". Department of Urban Development, Government of Delhi. Archived from the original on 1 June 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  253. ^ a b c Arun Kumar Das (7 July 2002). "Delhi to London, it's a sister act". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  254. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  255. ^ "Partner cities". Official Website of Yerevan Municipality. Retrieved 2018-04-18.

Further reading

  • Economic Survey of Delhi 2005–2006. Planning Department. Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. Retrieved on 12 February 2007
  • Dalrymple, W (2003). City of Djinns (1 ed.). Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-200100-4.
  • Dalrymple, W (2003). Vidhya Society, (2009). Vidhya Society (NGO) is a leading charitable organization of Uttar Pradesh (India) established under society registration act 21-1860 on the special occasion of World Disable Year 2009. Director Mr. Pavan Upadhyay (1 ed.). Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-200100-4.
  • Prager, D (2013). Delirious Delhi (1 ed.). Arcade Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61145-832-9.
  • Brown, L (2011). Lonely Planet Rajasthan, Delhi & Agra (5 ed.). Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 978-1-74179-460-1.
  • Rowe, P; Coster, P (2004). Delhi (Great Cities of the World). World Almanac Library. ISBN 978-0-8368-5197-7.
  • Four-part series on Delhi (30 May – 2 June 2012). "Metrocity Journal: Delhi's Changing Landscape". The Wall Street Journal.

External links


General information

2012 Delhi gang rape

The 2012 Delhi gang rape case involved a rape and fatal assault that occurred on 16 December 2012 in Munirka, a neighbourhood in South Delhi. The incident took place when a 23-year-old female physiotherapy intern, Jyoti Singh Pandey, was beaten, gang raped, and tortured in a private bus in which she was travelling with her friend, Awindra Pratap Pandey. There were six others in the bus, including the driver, all of whom raped the woman and beat her friend.

Eleven days after the assault, she was transferred to a hospital in Singapore for emergency treatment but died from her injuries two days later. The incident generated widespread national and international coverage and was widely condemned, both in India and abroad. Subsequently, public protests against the state and central governments for failing to provide adequate security for women took place in New Delhi, where thousands of protesters clashed with security forces. Similar protests took place in major cities throughout the country. Since Indian law does not allow the press to publish a rape victim's name, the victim has become widely known as Nirbhaya, meaning "fearless", and her life and death have come to symbolise women's struggle to end the rape culture in India and the long-held practice of either denial of its existence within the country, or otherwise blaming the victim rather than the perpetrator.

All the accused were arrested and charged with sexual assault and murder. One of the accused, Ram Singh, died in police custody from possible suicide on 11 March 2013 in the Tihar Jail. According to some published reports, the police say Ram Singh hanged himself, but defense lawyers and his family suspect he was murdered. The rest of the accused went on trial in a fast-track court; the prosecution finished presenting its evidence on 8 July 2013. Juvenile convicted of rape and murder and given the maximum sentence of three years' imprisonment in a reform facility. On 10 September 2013, the four remaining adult defendants were found guilty of rape and murder and three days later were sentenced to death by hanging. In the death reference case and hearing appeals on 13 March 2014, Delhi High Court upheld the guilty verdict and the death sentences.As a result of the protests, in December 2012, a judicial committee was set up to study and take public suggestions for the best ways to amend laws to provide quicker investigation and prosecution of sex offenders. After considering about 80,000 suggestions, the committee submitted a report which indicated that failures on the part of the government and police were the root cause behind crimes against women. In 2013, the Criminal Law (Amendment) Ordinance, 2013 was promulgated by President Pranab Mukherjee, several new laws were passed, and six new fast-track courts were created to hear rape cases. Critics argue that the legal system remains slow to hear and prosecute rape cases, but most agree that the case has resulted in a tremendous increase in the public discussion of crimes against women and statistics show that there has been an improvement in the number of women willing to file a crime report.

However, in December 2014, the second anniversary of the attack, the victim's father called the promises of reform unmet and said that he felt regret in that he had not been able to bring justice for his daughter and other women like her.A BBC documentary titled India's Daughter based on the attack was broadcast in the UK on 4 March 2015. Indian-Canadian filmmaker Deepa Mehta's 2016 film Anatomy of Violence was also based on the incident, exploring the social conditions and values in Indian society that made it possible. 2019 Netflix original TV series Delhi Crime is based on the Delhi Police's search for the culprits of this case.

2019 Indian general election

The 2019 Indian general election is scheduled to be held in seven phases from 11 April to 19 May 2019 to constitute the 17th Lok Sabha. The counting of votes will be conducted on 23 May, and on the same day the results will be declared.Legislative Assembly elections in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha and Sikkim will be held simultaneously with the general election.

Arun Jaitley

Arun Jaitley (born 28 December 1952) is an Indian politician and advocate, who is the current Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs of the Government of India. A member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, Jaitley previously held the cabinet portfolios of Finance, Defence, Corporate Affairs, Commerce and Industry and Law and Justice in the Vajpayee government and Narendra Modi government. From 2009 to 2014 he served as the Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha. He is a Senior Advocate of the Supreme Court of India. He is currently a member of Rajya Sabha after losing the Lok Sabha elections from Amritsar Lok Sabha constituency.

Arvind Kejriwal

Arvind Kejriwal (born 16 August 1968) is an Indian politician and a former bureaucrat who is the current and 7th Chief Minister of Delhi since February 2015. Previously he worked in the Indian Revenue Service as a Joint Commissioner of Income Tax in New Delhi. Kejriwal is a graduate in mechanical engineering from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur.

He is the national convener of the Aam Aadmi Party. He had previously served as Chief Minister of Delhi from December 2013 to February 2014, stepping down after 49 days. His party won the 2015 Delhi Assembly elections with a majority, obtaining 67 out of 70 assembly seats.

In 2006, Kejriwal was awarded the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Emergent Leadership in recognition of his involvement in the grassroots level movement Parivartan using right to information legislation in a campaign against corruption. The same year, after resigning from the IRS, he donated his Magsaysay award money as a corpus fund to found the Public Cause Research Foundation, a non-governmental organisation (NGO).

In 2012, he launched the Aam Aadmi Party, which won in the 2013 Delhi Legislative Assembly election. Following the election, he took office as the Chief Minister of Delhi on 28 December 2013. He resigned 49 days later, on 14 February 2014, stating he did so because of his minority government's inability to pass his proposed anti-corruption legislation due to a lack of support from other political parties.On 14 February 2015, he was sworn in as Chief Minister for a second term after his party's victory in the Delhi Legislative Assembly election.

Blue Line (Delhi Metro)

The Blue Line (Line 3 & Line 4) of the Delhi Metro system in Delhi consists of 50 metro stations from Dwarka Sector 21 to Noida Electronic City, (Line 3), with a length of 56.61 kilometres (35.18 miles) and a branch line consisting of 8 stations from Vaishali to Yamuna Bank, (Line 4), with a length of 8.74 kilometres (5.43 miles).

Delhi Capitals

The Delhi Capitals are a franchise cricket team that represents the city of Delhi in the Indian Premier League (IPL). Founded in 2008 as Delhi Daredevils (DD), the franchise is owned by the GMR Group and JSW Group. The team's home ground is Feroz Shah Kotla Ground which is in New Delhi.

Ahead of the 2018 IPL, 60% of the franchise ownership was transferred to the JSW Group. In December 2018, the team changed its name from the Delhi Daredevils to the Delhi Capitals. Giving the rationale behind the change of the team's name, Co-Owner and Chairman Parth Jindal said, "Delhi is the power centre of the country, it is the capital, therefore the name Delhi Capitals." Co-Owner Kiran Kumar Grandhi said, "The new name symbolizes Delhi’s identity and just like the city, we are aiming to be the centre of all action going forward."The Delhi Capitals have never appeared in an Indian Premier League final, and last qualified for the IPL playoffs in 2012. The leading run-scorer for the Capitals is Virender Sehwag, while the leading wicket-taker is Amit Mishra.

Delhi Metro

The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi and its satellite cities of Bahadurgarh, Ballabhgarh, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gurugram, and Noida in the National Capital Region of India. By far the largest and busiest metro in India, and second oldest after the Kolkata Metro it is the world's 8th longest metro system and 16th largest by ridership. The network consists of eight colour-coded regular lines, running 343.36 kilometres (213.35 mi) serving 250 stations. The system has a mix of underground, at-grade, and elevated stations using both broad-gauge and standard-gauge. Delhi Metro operates over 2,700 trips daily, starting at around 05:00 and ending at 23:30 hrs.Construction started in 1998 and the first elevated section (Shahdara - Tis Hazari) on the Red Line opened on 24 December 2002, while the first underground section (Vishwa Vidyalaya - Kashmere Gate) on Yellow Line opened on 20 December 2004. The development of the network was divided into phases, Phase I containing 3 lines was completed by 2006, and Phase II in 2011. Phase III is in the finishing stage, and is scheduled to be mostly complete by 2019. Phase IV having received approval, construction is expected to start in 2019.

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a company with equal equity participation from the Government of India and the Government of Delhi, built and operates the Delhi Metro. DMRC was certified by the United Nations in 2011 as the first metro rail and rail-based system in the world to get carbon credits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, reducing carbon emission levels in the city by 630,000 tonnes every year.Delhi Metro also interchanges with the Rapid Metro Gurgaon, with a shared ticketing system. On 5 February 2019, the DMRC took over the operations of the financially troubled Rapid Metro Gurgaon as part of its own network. Making it the second time the DMRC has taken over a privately operated line after absorbing the Delhi Airport Metro Express.

Delhi Sultanate

The Delhi Sultanate (Persian: دهلی سلطان‎, Urdu: دہلی سلطنت‎) was a sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongols (from the Chagatai Khanate), and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former Turkic Mamluk slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi, and his Mamluk dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent. The sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent. This was followed by decline due to Hindu reconquests, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire and Mewar asserting independence, and new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off.During and in the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization, and the further integration of the Indian subcontinent with a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society, as well as the wider world. The time of their rule included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture, increased growth rates in India's population and economy, and the emergence of the Hindi-Urdu language. The Delhi Sultanate was also responsible for repelling the Mongol Empire's potentially devastating invasions of India in the 13th and 14th centuries. However, the Delhi Sultanate also caused large scale destruction and desecration of temples in the Indian subcontinent. In 1526, the Sultanate was conquered and succeeded by the Mughal Empire.

Feroz Shah Kotla Ground

The Feroz Shah Kotla Ground (Hindi: फिरोज शाह कोटला ग्राउंड, Urdu: فیروز شاہ کوٹلہ سٹیڈیم‎) is a cricket ground located at Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi. It was established in 1883 and is the second oldest international cricket stadium still functional in India, after the Eden Gardens in Kolkata.

Delhi and District Cricket Association (DDCA) has decided to name the Gate No. 3 and 4 of the Feroz shah Kotla stadium after the cricketer-turned-commentator, Anjum Chopra.

The DDCA led by retired Justice Vikramajit Sen, has also planned to host its first Annual Conclave on 29 November 2017.

In addition to that, the DDCA has planned to name two stands of the stadium after former India captain Bishan Singh Bedi and former India all-rounder Mohinder Amarnath. It has also been decided to name the home team's dressing room after Raman Lamba and the opposition's dressing room after Prakash Bhandari.As of 2016, the India national cricket team has been undefeated for over 28 years in Test matches and for over 10 years in ODI matches at this ground.Formerly Sunil Gavaskar hit his 29th test ton in this ground to equal Don Bradman's then record tally of 29 centuries. The ground is also known for Anil Kumble's 10 wickets in an innings against Pakistan and Sachin Tendulkar's 35th test ton to overcome Gavaskar to become the batsman with the most international Test centuries. As of 1 Nov, 2017 it has hosted 32 Tests, 20 ODIs and 2 T20I.

Indira Gandhi International Airport

Indira Gandhi International Airport (IATA: DEL, ICAO: VIDP) serves as the primary civilian aviation hub for the National Capital Region of Delhi, India. The airport, spread over an area of 5,106 acres (2,066 ha), is situated in Palam, 15 km (9.3 mi) south-west of the New Delhi railway station and 16 km (9.9 mi) from New Delhi city centre. Named after former Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi, it is the busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic since 2009. It is also the busiest airport in the country in terms of cargo traffic, overtaking Mumbai during late 2015. In the calendar year 2018, it was the 12th busiest airport in the world and 7th busiest airport in Asia by passenger traffic handling over 63.4 million passengers. It is the world's busiest airport for Airbus A320 aircraft. The planned expansion program will increase the airport's capacity to handle 100 million passengers by 2030.The airport was operated by the Indian Air Force before its management was transferred to the Airports Authority of India. In May 2006, the management of the airport was passed over to Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL), a consortium led by the GMR Group. In September 2008, the airport inaugurated a 4,430 m (14,530 ft) runway. With the commencement of operations at Terminal 3 in 2010, it became India's and South Asia's largest aviation hub. The Terminal 3 building has a capacity to handle 34 million passengers annually and is the world's 8th largest passenger terminal. The airport uses an advanced system called Airport Collaborative Decision Making (A-CDM) to help keep takeoffs and landings timely and predictable.In 2010, IGIA was conferred the fourth best airport award in the world in the 15–25 million category, and Best Improved Airport in the Asia-Pacific Region by Airports Council International. The airport was rated as the Best airport in the world in the 25–40 million passengers category in 2015, by Airports Council International. Delhi Airport was awarded The Best Airport in Central Asia and Best Airport Staff in Central Asia at the Skytrax World Airport Awards 2015. IGI also stood first in the new rankings for 2015 Airport Service Quality (ASQ) Awards conducted by Airports Council International. The airport, along with Mumbai Airport was adjudged "World's Best Airport" at Airport Service Quality Awards 2017 in the highest category of airports handling more than 40 million passengers annually.

List of constituencies of the Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India, is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). Each MP, represents a single geographic constituency. There are currently 543 constituencies.

The maximum size of the Lok Sabha as outlined in the Constitution of India is 552 members made up of up to 530 members representing people of the states of India and up to 20 members representing people from the Union Territories on the basis of their population and 2 Anglo-Indians are nominated by President.


New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV) is an Indian television media company founded in 1988 by Radhika Roy, a journalist. In a talk on the 25th anniversary of NDTV, her husband Prannoy Roy said that he joined NDTV a few weeks after Radhika had founded it. NDTV is an acronym for the original name of the company, New Delhi Television.

NDTV's first show, The World This Week began in November 1988.

New Delhi

New Delhi ( (listen)) is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India.

The foundation stone of the city was laid by Emperor George V during the Delhi Durbar of 1911. It was designed by British architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin.

Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi. The National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire NCT along with adjoining districts in neighboring states.

Northern Railway zone

The Northern Railway (abbreviated NR and उरे) is one of the 18 Railway zones of India and the northernmost zone of the Indian Railways. Its headquarter is New Delhi Baroda House near India Gate.

Rahul Gandhi

Rahul Gandhi pronunciation [ˈraːɦʊl ˈɡaːnd̪ʱiː] (born 19 June 1970) is an Indian politician. He hails from a long line of politicians, known as the Nehru-Gandhi family, which has occupied a prominent place in the politics of India ever since the country gained independence in 1947. His great-grandfather was Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India and also the longest serving Prime Minister of India having served for a total of seventeen years. Gandhi's grandmother Indira was the first woman Prime Minister of India and his father Rajiv Gandhi was the youngest prime minister of India to be sworn in to office. The son of Sonia and Rajiv Gandhi, he is the President of the Indian National Congress and serves such additional offices as the Chairperson of the Indian Youth Congress and the National Students Union of India. A member of the Indian Parliament, Gandhi represents the constituency of Amethi, Uttar Pradesh in the 16th Lok Sabha.Gandhi stayed away from the public sphere for much of his childhood and early youth; he attained primary education in New Delhi and Dehradun but was later homeschooled because of security concerns. He later attended Rollins College under a pseudonym, his identity being known only to a select few individuals, which included certain university officials and security agencies. After obtaining degrees in International Relations and Development Studies at the universities of Rollins and Cambridge, Gandhi worked at the Monitor Group, a management consulting firm in London. He established the Mumbai-based technology outsourcing firm, Backops Services Private Ltd.

Gandhi entered politics in 2004 and successfully contested the general elections held that year from Amethi, a seat that was earlier held by his father; he won again from the constituency in 2009 and 2014. Amidst calls from Congress party veterans for his greater involvement in party politics and national government, Gandhi was elected Congress Vice-President in 2013, having served as the General Secretary previously. Gandhi led the INC's campaign in the 2014 Indian general elections; the party suffered its worst electoral result in its history, winning only 44 seats compared to 206 seats won previously in the 2009 general election. As of May 2018, Gandhi trails behind incumbent Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi as the popular choice for Prime Minister in the 2019 general elections.Gandhi took over as the president of the Congress in December 2017. He is also a trustee of Rajiv Gandhi Foundation and Rajiv Gandhi Charitable Trust.

Red Fort

The Red Fort is a historic fort in the city of Delhi in India. It was the main residence of the emperors of the Mughal dynasty for nearly 200 years, until 1856. It is located in the centre of Delhi and houses a number of museums. In addition to accommodating the emperors and their households, it was the ceremonial and political center of the Mughal state and the setting for events critically impacting the region.Constructed in 1639 by the fifth Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan as the palace of his fortified capital Shahjahanabad, the Red Fort is named for its massive enclosing walls of red sandstone and is adjacent to the older Salimgarh Fort, built by Islam Shah Suri in 1546 AD. The imperial apartments consist of a row of pavilions, connected by a water channel known as the Stream of Paradise (Nahr-i-Bihisht). The fort complex is considered to represent the zenith of Mughal creativity under Shah Jahan, and although the palace was planned according to Islamic prototypes, each pavilion contains architectural elements typical of Mughal buildings that reflect a fusion of Persian, Timurid and Hindu traditions. The Red Fort's innovative architectural style, including its garden design, influenced later buildings and gardens in Delhi, Rajasthan, Punjab, Kashmir, Braj, Rohilkhand and elsewhere.The fort was plundered of its artwork and jewels during Nadir Shah's invasion of the Mughal Empire in 1747. Most of the fort's precious marble structures were subsequently destroyed by the British following the Revolt of 1857. The forts's defensive walls were largely spared, and the fortress was subsequently used as a garrison. The Red Fort was also the site where the British put the last Mughal Emperor on trial before exiling him to Yangon in 1858.Every year on the Independence day of India (15 August), the Prime Minister hoists the Indian "tricolour flag" at the main gate of the fort and delivers a nationally broadcast speech from its ramparts.It was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007 as part of the Red Fort Complex.

Sushma Swaraj

Sushma Swaraj (pronunciation ) (born 14 February 1952) is an Indian politician and a former Supreme Court lawyer. A senior leader of Bharatiya Janata Party, Swaraj is serving as the Minister of External Affairs of India since 26 May 2014; she is the second woman to hold the office, after Indira Gandhi. She has been elected seven times as a Member of Parliament and three times as a Member of the Legislative Assembly. At the age of 25 in 1977, she became the youngest cabinet minister of north Indian state of Haryana. She also served as 5th Chief Minister of Delhi from 13 October 1998 to 3 December 1998.In the 2014 Indian general election, she won the Vidisha constituency in Madhya Pradesh for a second term, retaining her seat by a margin of over 400,000 votes. She became the Minister of External Affairs in the union cabinet on 26 May 2014. Swaraj was called India's 'best-loved politician' by the US daily Wall Street Journal.

Union territory

A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India. Unlike the states of India, which have their own governments, union territories are federal territories ruled directly by the union government (central government), hence the name "union territory"

University of Delhi

The University of Delhi, informally known as Delhi University (DU), is a collegiate public central university, located in New Delhi, India. It was founded in 1922 by an Act of the Central Legislative Assembly. As a collegiate university, its main functions are divided between the academic departments of the university and affiliated colleges. Consisting of three colleges, two faculties, and 750 students at its founding, the University of Delhi has since become India's largest institution of higher learning and among the largest in the world. The university currently consists of 16 faculties and 86 departments distributed across its North and South campuses. It has 77 affiliated colleges and 5 other institutes with an enrollment of over 132,000 regular students and 261,000 non-formal students. The Vice-President of India serves as the University's chancellor.

DU is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, Association of Indian Universities, and Universitas 21, a global network of research-intensive universities.

DU has graduated many notable alumni, including seven heads of state or government and two Nobel laureates.

Climate data for Delhi (Safdarjung) 1971–1990
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.0
Average high °C (°F) 21.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.3
Average low °C (°F) 7.6
Record low °C (°F) −0.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 19
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.7 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.8 5.5 13.0 12.1 5.7 1.7 0.6 1.6 51.7
Average relative humidity (%) 63 55 47 34 33 46 70 73 62 52 55 62 54
Mean monthly sunshine hours 214.6 216.1 239.1 261.0 263.1 196.5 165.9 177.0 219.0 269.3 247.2 215.8 2,684.6
Source #1: NOAA[81]
Source #2: Indian Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[82]
Population Growth of Delhi 
† Huge population rise in 1951 due to large
scale migration after Partition of India in 1947.
Places adjacent to Delhi

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.