"Delenda Est" is a science fiction short story by American writer Poul Anderson, part of his Time Patrol series. It was originally published in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction of December 1955. It was first reprinted in the first edition of the "Time Patrol" series collection Guardians of Time (Ballantine Books; September 1960). It was also a selection in the alternate history anthology Worlds of Maybe (Thomas Nelson; 1970) edited by Robert Silverberg.
Renegade time travelers meddle in the outcome of the Second Punic War, bringing about the premature deaths of Publius Cornelius Scipio and Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Ticinus in 218 BC, and thus creating a new timeline in which Hannibal destroys Rome in 210 BC. This meant that western European civilization came to be based on a Celtic-Carthaginian cultural synthesis (rather than Greco-Roman, as in actual history). This civilization discovered the western hemisphere, and created certain inventions (such as the steam engine) long before the corresponding events happened in actual history (partly since there was nothing corresponding to the fall of the Roman Empire), but overall technological progress has been slow, since most developments are arrived at through ad hoc tinkering (there is no scientific methodology of empirically testing rigorous theories).
At the time of the story, Britain (Brittys), Ireland, France (Gallia) and Spain (Celtan) are under Celtic control, and the Celts also colonised North America, known as Affalon in this timeline. Italy (Cimmeria) is under Germanic domination, Switzerland and Austria exist within Helvetia, Lithuania (Littorn) controls Scandinavia, northern Germany and much of Eastern Europe, while a Carthaginian successor empire (Carthagalann) dominates much of Northern Africa. The Han (Chinese) Empire controls China and Taiwan, as well as encompassing Korea, Japan and eastern Siberia. Punjab comprises western India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The major global powers are Hinduraj, centered on India but also encompassing Southeast Asia, Indonesia, New Guinea and Australasia, and Huy Braseal, which controls much of South America. Technology is at roughly a 19th-century level, and transport is reliant on the steam engine, although rudimentary biplanes exist for the purposes of combat. Christianity, Judaism and Islam do not exist in this polytheistic world. There is greater gender equality in this world, but slavery has also survived — though it is not connected with any particular race or ethnicity.
Manse Everard, 20th-century Time Patrol agent, finds himself in the new timeline, in Catavellaunan (approximately New York), facing the moral dilemma: Should he return to the past before the events that led to Carthaginian victory, and restore his original timeline by negating the assassinations and military upset that led to the new alternative timeline, thus wiping out its billions of inhabitants when the course of human history reverts to his own?
Ad nauseam is a Latin term for argument or other discussion that has continued to the point of nausea. For example, "this has been discussed ad nauseam" indicates that the topic has been discussed extensively and those involved have grown tired of it. The fallacy is also called argumentum ad infinitum (to infinity), and argument from repetition.Carthaginian peace
A Carthaginian peace is the imposition of a very brutal "peace" achieved by completely crushing the enemy. The term derives from the peace imposed on Carthage by Rome. After the Second Punic War, Carthage lost all its colonies, was forced to demilitarize and pay a constant tribute to Rome and could enter war only with Rome's permission. At the end of the Third Punic War, the Romans systematically burned Carthage to the ground and enslaved its population.Carthago delenda est
"Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam", or "Ceterum autem censeo Carthaginem esse delendam" (English: "Furthermore, (moreover) I consider that Carthage must be destroyed"), often abbreviated to "Ceterum censeo", "Carthago delenda est" (English: "Carthage must be destroyed"), is a Latin oratorical phrase. The term originates from the Roman Republic in the 2nd century BC, prior to the Third Punic War between Rome and Carthage. The expression was a call to arms by the party advocating destruction of Rome's ancient rival Carthage, which was thought to be rebuilding its capacity for further warfare. The phrase is particularly associated with the Roman senator Cato the Elder, who is said to have used it as the conclusion to all his speeches.Cato the Elder
Cato the Elder (; Latin: Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born Marcus Porcius Cato and also known as Cato the Censor (Cato Censorius), Cato the Wise (Cato Sapiens), and Cato the Ancient (Cato Priscus), was a Roman senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization. He was the first to write history in Latin.
He came from an ancient Plebeian family who were noted for their military service. Like his forefathers, Cato was devoted to agriculture when not serving in the army. Having attracted the attention of Lucius Valerius Flaccus, he was brought to Rome and began to follow the cursus honorum: he was successively military tribune (214 BC), quaestor (204 BC), aedile (199 BC), praetor (198 BC), junior consul (195 BC) together with Flaccus, and censor (184 BC). As praetor, he expelled usurers from Sardinia. As censor, he tried to preserve Rome's ancestral customs and combat "degenerate" Hellenistic influences. His epithet "Elder" distinguishes him from his equally famous great-grandson Cato the Younger, who opposed Julius Caesar.Hannibal's Children
Hannibal's Children is a 2002 alternate history novel by American writer John Maddox Roberts. It is concluded by its sequel, The Seven Hills.Isaac Asimov Presents The Great SF Stories 17 (1955)
Isaac Asimov Presents The Great SF Stories 17 (1955) is the seventeenth volume of Isaac Asimov Presents The Great SF Stories, which is a series of short story collections, edited by Isaac Asimov and Martin H. Greenberg, which attempts to list the great science fiction stories from the Golden Age of Science Fiction. They date the Golden Age as beginning in 1939 and lasting until 1963.
This volume was originally published by DAW books in January 1988.Lemma (morphology)
In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword). In English, for example, run, runs, ran and running are forms of the same lexeme, with run as the lemma. Lexeme, in this context, refers to the set of all the forms that have the same meaning, and lemma refers to the particular form that is chosen by convention to represent the lexeme. In lexicography, this unit is usually also the citation form or headword by which it is indexed. Lemmas have special significance in highly inflected languages such as Arabic, Turkish and Russian. The process of determining the lemma for a given word is called lemmatisation. The lemma can be viewed as the chief of the principal parts, although lemmatisation is at least partly arbitrary.Non-finite clause
In linguistics, a non-finite clause is a dependent or embedded clause whose verbal chain is non-finite; for example, using Priscian's categories for Latin verb forms, in many languages we find texts with non-finite clauses containing infinitives, participles and gerunds. According to non-functionalists, a non-finite clause serves a grammatical role – commonly that of a noun, adjective, or adverb – in a greater clause that contains it. According to functionalists, a dependent non-finite clause either represents a circumstance for some process that is going on (a place, a time, a cause, an effect, a condition, and so on) whereas an embedded one represents a qualification for something that is being represented as in I'm on a street (called Bellevue Avenue) and (playing videogames) is fun, which are more typical alternatives to I'm on a street (that is called Bellevue Avenue) and the activity of (playing videogames) is fun.Paul W. Fairman
Paul Warren Fairman (1909-1969) was an editor and writer in a variety of genres under his own name and under pseudonyms. His detective story "Late Rain" was published in the February 1947 issue of Mammoth Detective. He published his story "No Teeth for the Tiger" in the February 1950 issue of Amazing Stories. Two years later, he was the founding editor of If, but only edited four issues. In 1955, he became the editor of Amazing Stories and Fantastic. He held that dual position until 1958. His science fiction short stories "Deadly City" and "The Cosmic Frame" were made into motion pictures.Poul Anderson bibliography
The following is a list of works by science fiction and fantasy author Poul Anderson.
See also Category:Works by Poul AndersonPretext
A pretext (adj: pretextual) is an excuse to do something or say something that is not accurate. Pretexts may be based on a half-truth or developed in the context of a misleading fabrication. Pretexts have been used to conceal the true purpose or rationale behind actions and words.
In US law, a pretext usually describes false reasons that hide the true intentions or motivations for a legal action. If a party can establish a prima facie case for the proffered evidence, the opposing party must prove that these reasons were "pretextual" or false. This can be accomplished by directly demonstrating that the motivations behind the presentation of evidence is false, or indirectly by evidence that the motivations are not "credible". In Griffith v. Schnitzer, an employment discrimination case, a jury award was reversed by a Court of Appeals because the evidence was not sufficient that the defendant's reasons were "pretextual". That is, the defendant's evidence was either undisputed, or the plaintiff's was "irrelevant subjective assessments and opinions".A "pretextual" arrest by law enforcement officers is one carried out for illegal purposes such as to conduct an unjustified search and seizure.
As one example of pretext, in the 1880s, the Chinese government raised money on the pretext of modernizing the Chinese navy. Instead, these funds were diverted to repair a ship-shaped, two-story pavilion which had been originally constructed for the mother of the Qianlong Emperor. This pretext and the Marble Barge are famously linked with Empress Dowager Cixi. This architectural folly, known today as the Marble Boat (Shifang), is "moored" on Lake Kunming in what the empress renamed the "Garden for Cultivating Harmony" (Yiheyuan).Another example of pretext was demonstrated in the speeches of the Roman orator Cato the Elder (234–149 BC). For Cato, every public speech became a pretext for a comment about Carthage. The Roman statesman had come to believe that the prosperity of ancient Carthage represented an eventual and inevitable danger to Rome. In the Senate, Cato famously ended every speech by proclaiming his opinion that Carthage had to be destroyed (Carthago delenda est). This oft-repeated phrase was the ultimate conclusion of all logical argument in every oration, regardless of the subject of the speech. This pattern persisted until his death in 149, which was the year in which the Third Punic War began. In other words, any subject became a pretext for reminding his fellow senators of the dangers Carthage represented.Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum
Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum (c.206 – c.141 BC) was a politician of the Roman Republic. Born into the illustrious family of the Cornelii Scipii, he was one of the most important Roman statesmen of the second century BC, being consul two times in 162 and 155 BC, censor in 159 BC, pontifex maximus (chief priest) in 150 BC, and finally princeps senatus (leader of the Senate) in 147 BC. Apart from his family network, he owed his success to his military skills, as he played a decisive role during the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC, and later won a triumph over the Dalmatae in 155 BC. Corculum was remembered as a staunch conservative, defender of the ancestral Roman customs against political and cultural innovations, notably Hellenism. In spite of his political influence, he could not prevent his rival Cato the Elder from gathering enough support in the Senate to declare the final war on Carthage in 149 BC. At this occasion, Corculum clashed with his famous cousin Scipio Aemilianus, who destroyed Carthage in 146 BC.Radio Paris
Radio Paris was a French radio broadcasting company best known for its Axis propaganda broadcasts in Vichy France during World War II.
Radio Paris evolved from the first private radio station in France, called Radiola, founded by pioneering French engineer Émile Girardeau in 1922. It became Radio Paris on March 29, 1924, and remained so through June 17, 1940, transitioning to state ownership in December 1933 as the premier station in the country. It kept its name from July 1940 until August 1944, but the station was then run by Nazis and French collaborators.
From 1940, collaborationist voices on Radio Paris included Jacques Doriot and Philippe Henriot. From 1942, Jean Hérold-Paquis broadcast daily news reports on Radio Paris, in which he regularly called for the "destruction" of the United Kingdom. His catch phrase was "England, like Carthage, shall be destroyed!", echoing Cato the Elder's slogan Carthago delenda est.
September 19, 1941, Maurice Chevalier just sing in Le Poste Parisien his last success, Notre Espoir, composed by her accompanist Henri Betti.
Its broadcasts were pitched directly against the BBC broadcasts of Radio Londres by Free French figures like Pierre Dac, who sang the taunting refrain, Radio Paris ment, Radio Paris ment, Radio Paris est allemand ("Radio Paris lies, Radio Paris lies, Radio Paris is German"), to the tune of La Cucaracha. On 8 May 1942 its transmitter in Bourges was blown up by the Resistance.
The station was shut down on the evening of 15 August 1944 by a trained police commando action, as part of the liberation of Paris.Saturday Review (London newspaper)
The Saturday Review of politics, literature, science, and art was a London weekly newspaper established by A. J. B. Beresford Hope in 1855.
The first editor was the Morning Chronicle's ex-editor John Douglas Cook (1808?–1868), and many of the earlier contributors had worked on the Chronicle. Cook was a Scotsman who had lived in India: he had a house in Tintagel, Cornwall, and is buried there. A stained-glass window in the parish church commemorates him. The politics of the Saturday Review was Peelite liberal Conservatism. The paper, benefitting from the recent repeal of the Stamp Act, aimed to combat the political influence of The Times. The first issue appeared on 3 November 1855.
Frank Harris was editor from 1894 to 1898.
Contributors included Dorothy Richardson, Lady Emilia Dilke, Anthony Trollope., H. G. Wells, George Bernard Shaw, Eneas Sweetland Dallas, Max Beerbohm, Walter Bagehot, James Fitzjames Stephen, Charles Kingsley, Max Müller, Guy Thorne, George Birkbeck Hill, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Oscar Wilde and future Prime Minister Lord Salisbury.The paper was later owned by Lucy, Lady Houston.Svetovid
Svetovid, Svantovit or Sventovit is a Slavic deity of war, fertility and abundance primarily venerated on the island of Rügen into the 12th century. He is often considered a local Rugian variant of the pan-Slavic god Perun.
Sometimes referred to as Beli (or Byali) Vid (Beli = white, bright, shining), Svetovid is associated with war and divination and depicted as a four-headed god with two heads looking forward and two back. A statue portraying the god shows him with four heads, each one looking in a separate direction, a symbolical representation of the four directions of the compass, and also perhaps the four seasons of the year. Each face had a specific colour. The northern face of this totem was white (hence White Ruthenia / Belarus and the White Sea), the western, red (hence Red Ruthenia), the southern, black (hence the Black Sea) and the eastern, green (hence Zeleny klyn).The Office gallery
The Office is a contemporary art gallery located in the centre of the old town of Nicosia in Cyprus near the boundaries of the Green Line, which makes Nicosia the last divided capital in Europe. The location is a stimulus for some artists who have exhibited their work in the Office gallery. It was founded in 2009 by the Greek Anastasios Gkekas. To date the gallery has mounted 20 exhibitions by both European and non-European artists. In 2015 and 2016 the gallery, along with solo shows, mounted two group shows with works by local and international artists. The 2015 show titled "Investment Opportunities" consisted solely of works from the gallery's collection, and the 2016 show "To Express the Feelings of a Chair When We Sit on it" included works that were loaned for the purposes of this exhibition, accompanied by pieces from the gallery's collection.Third Punic War
The Third Punic War (Latin: Tertium Bellum Punicum) (149–146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage and the Roman Republic. The Punic Wars were named because of the Roman name for Carthaginians: Punici, or Poenici.This war was a much smaller engagement than the two previous Punic Wars and focused on Tunisia, mainly on the Siege of Carthage, which resulted in the complete destruction of the city, the annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population. The Third Punic War ended Carthage's independent existence.Thurmont, Maryland
Thurmont is a town in Frederick County, Maryland, United States. The population was 6,170 at the 2010 census. The town is located in the northern part of Frederick County (north of Frederick, Maryland, the county seat), approximately ten miles from the Pennsylvania border, along U.S. Highway 15. It is very close to Cunningham Falls State Park and Catoctin Mountain Park, which contains the presidential retreat of Camp David. Thurmont is also home to Catoctin Colorfest, an arts and crafts festival that draws in about 125,000 people each autumn.In 2005, Thurmont was designated as a "Main Street Maryland Community."Worlds
Worlds is a collection of science fiction and fantasy short stories by Eric Flint. It was first published in hardcover and ebook format by Baen Books on February 1, 2009; a paperback edition was issued by the same publisher in October 2011.The collection consists of ten short works of fiction, together with a preface, introductory notes introducing the individual stories and a bibliography of the author's works.