Delayed open-access journal

Delayed open-access journals are traditional subscription-based journals that provide free online access upon the expiry of an embargo period following the initial publication date.


The embargo period before an article is made available for free can vary from a few months to two or more years. In a 2013 study, 77.8% of delayed open access journals analyzed had an embargo of 12 months or less. 85.4% had an embargo period of 24 months or less.[1][2] A journal subscription or an individual article purchase fee would be required to access the materials before this embargo period ends. Some delayed access journals also deposit their publications in open repositories when the author is bound by a delayed open-access mandate.

The rationale for the access delay is to provide eventual access to all would-be users while still requiring the institutions of researchers who need immediate access to keep paying the subscriptions that cover the costs of publication. The marginal costs of distributing an electronic journal to additional users are trivial in comparison to distributing printed copies of the publication. Delayed access publishers spend little or no additional funds while marketing their publications to a broader population than those with personal subscriptions or those affiliated with institutions that have institutional subscriptions or other forms of institutional access.

The assumptions underlying delayed access are that (1) active researchers have sufficient access through institutional subscriptions or licenses, that (2) researchers at institutions that cannot afford subscription access to a journal can use interlibrary loan or direct purchases to access the articles they need, and that (3) students and others affiliated with institutions that cannot afford subscription access to a given journal do not generally need to access articles as urgently as researchers do. It is not clear whether these assumptions are valid.

As a remedy for the fact that in the online era immediate access to research continues to be denied to those who need it most—i.e., researchers—if their institutions cannot afford to pay for it, researchers do have the option of providing open access to their own published research immediately, by self-archiving it in their institutional repositories. A growing number of research institutions and research funders worldwide are now beginning to adopt open-access mandates to ensure that their researchers self-archive.


Many scholarly society journals have adopted the delayed access model. A 2013 study looked at more than 110,000 articles from 492 journals with delayed open access and found the impact factor of articles in delayed open access journals was twice as high as traditional closed access journals (and three times as high as gold open access journal).[1][3]

Delayed access does increase access to scholarly research literature for many, but subscribing institutions continue to pay for immediate access during the embargo period. The wide range in embargo lengths – and the fact that open access is both defined and intended as the state of immediate access – limits the meaningfulness of classifying journals as "delayed open-access" journals. For example, Molecular Biology of the Cell has a one-month embargo,[4] whereas Journal of the Physical Society of Japan[5] has a 6-year embargo period. Hence delayed access journals are not included in the lists of open-access journals, such as the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).[6] In January 2017, the Journal of Experimental Medicine announced that it will now be charging Article Processing Charges for delayed open access. [7][8]

See also


  1. ^ a b Laakso, Mikael; Björk, Bo-Christer (2013). "Delayed open access: An overlooked high-impact category of openly available scientific literature" (PDF). Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64 (7): 1323–1329. doi:10.1002/asi.22856.
  2. ^ Harnad, S. (2013) Defining OA: The Green/Gold and Immediate/Delayed Distinction. Open Access Archivangelism 1086.
  3. ^ Harnad, S. (2013) OA's Real Battle-Ground in 2014: The One-Year Embargo. Open Access Archivangelism 1084.
  4. ^ Molecular Biology of the Cell
  5. ^ Publications - Top
  6. ^ "DOAJ - Directory of Open Access Journals". Archived from the original on 29 June 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
  7. ^ "JExpMed on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2017-01-26.
  8. ^ "Publication Fees and Choices | The Rockefeller University Press". Retrieved 2017-01-26.
Canadian Field-Naturalist

The Canadian Field-Naturalist is a quarterly scientific journal publishing original scientific papers related to natural history in North America. It accepts submissions by both amateur and professional naturalists and field biologists. It is a delayed open access journal.

Clinical Microbiology Reviews

Clinical Microbiology Reviews (CMR) is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes scholarly works of interest in the areas of clinical microbiology, immunology, medical microbiology, infectious diseases, veterinary microbiology, and microbial pathogenesis. It is a delayed open access journal, full content is accessible via PubMed Central and the journal's website after a 12-month embargo. In April 2015, the journal transitioned to a continuous online publication model for CMR (whereby articles are published as they become ready, before the issue in which they will appear has been finalized). There is still a quarterly print issue. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2014 impact factor of 17.406, ranking it 2nd out of 119 journals in the category "Microbiology". CMR was established in January 1988. The founding editor was Josephine A. Morello (University of Chicago Medical Center). Editorial board structure changed in 1992 and Morello became editor-in-chief. Betty Ann Forbes (State University of New York) was appointed editor-in-chief in 1997. Irving Nachamkin (University of Pennsylvania) was appointed editor-in-chief in 2002 until 2012. Jo-Anne H. Young's (University of Minnesota) term as editor-in-chief ends in 2017. It is the ninth journal established and published by the American Society for Microbiology.


Fornvännen ("Friend of the Past") is a Swedish academic journal in the fields of archaeology and Medieval art. It is published quarterly by the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities in Stockholm, Sweden. The journal's contributions are written in the Scandinavian languages, English, or German with summaries in English. Fornvännen has the alternate title Journal of Swedish Antiquarian Research. The editor-in-chief is Lars Larsson.

Fornvännen began publication in 1906 when it replaced two earlier journals, Svenska Fornminnesföreningens Tidskrift and Vitterhetsakademiens Månadsblad. Early contributors included noted archaeologists Oscar Montelius and Hans Hildebrand. Since 2000 it has an online version, since 2007 its first 100 annual volumes have been available on-line, and since 2009 Fornvännen is published as a delayed open-access journal with the online version of each issue appearing six months after the paper version.

Fornvännen is an ERIH category B journal a category now known as INT2. According to Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, it is indexed in Anthropological Index Online, Anthropological Literature, British & Irish Archaeological Bibliography (Online Edition), Nordic Archaeological Abstracts, and FRANCIS. It was previously also indexed in Internationale Bibliographie der Rezensionen Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlicher Literatur and Linguistic Bibliography.


Gradhiva is an anthropological and museological journal, founded in 1986 by the poet and social scientist Michel Leiris and by the anthropologist Jean Jamin. It is since 2005 published by the Musée du Quai Branly in Paris.Its title derives from a novel by W. Jensen (Gradiva) which was the basis for a famous investigation by Sigmund Freud, and that strongly inspired the Surrealists. Leiris ans Jamin inserted an "H" in the word to highlight that the journal focused on the History of anthropology, and that the editing was done at the Musée de l'Homme in Paris. The title thus became the acronym "Groupe de Recherches et d'Analyses Documentaires sur l'HIstoire et les Variations de l'Anthropologie}" ("Research and Documentary Analysis Group, History and Variations of Anthropology). It was edited by Jean Jamin between 1986 and 1996, by Françoise Zonabend from 1996 to 2006, and by Erwan Dianteill from 2006 until 2008.

Initially dedicated to the history and the archives of anthropology, it maintained its original mission, yet latterly opened up to a greater extent to contemporary developments of anthropology and museology. Based on original examinations and the publication of archives, 'Gradhiva was open to a variety of disciplines: ethnology, aesthetics, history, art history, sociology, literature and even music. Finally, it sought to develop an interaction between the text and images through high-quality and original iconography.

In 2007, the anthropologist Sally Price ended her review article on Gradhiva in The Museum Anthropology Review by saying:

Gradhiva was published by the French publisher Jean Michel Place until 2004.

In 2009, the journal was retitled as Anthropology of Art, with a new direction.

Journal of Clinical Microbiology

The Journal of Clinical Microbiology is a monthly medical journal published by the American Society for Microbiology. The journal was established in 1975. The editor-in-chief is Alexander J. McAdam (Boston Children's Hospital). It is a delayed open access journal full text content is available free after a six-month embargo.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (often abbreviated PNAS or PNAS USA) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scientific journal. It is the official journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915, and publishes original research, scientific reviews, commentaries, and letters. According to Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 9.504. PNAS is the second most cited scientific journal, with more than 1.9 million cumulative citations from 2008-2018. In the lay press, PNAS has been described variously as "prestigious", "sedate", "renowned", and "high impact".PNAS is a delayed open access journal, with an embargo period of 6 months that can be bypassed for an author fee (hybrid open access). Since September 2017, open access articles are published under a Creative Commons license. Since January 2019, PNAS is online-only, although print issues are available on-demand.

Public Libraries (journal)

Public Libraries is the official publication of the Public Library Association (PLA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA). It is devoted exclusively to public libraries. The print edition is published six times a year and is a delayed open access journal, with older issues available as PDF files on the journal's website.

Public Library Association

The Public Library Association (PLA), a division of the American Library Association, is a professional association of public librarians and supporters dedicated to the "development and effectiveness of public library staff and public library services." In keeping with this mission, the PLA provides continuing education to members, hosts a biennial professional conference, publishes a trade journal, and advocates for public libraries and literacy. The PLA has over 9,000 members. It was founded in 1944.

Roger Stritmatter

Roger A. Stritmatter (born 21 October 1958) is a professor of Humanities at Coppin State University and the general editor of Brief Chronicles, a delayed open access journal covering the Shakespeare authorship question. He was a founder of the modern Shakespeare Fellowship, an organization that promotes Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, as the true author of the works of William Shakespeare. He is one of the leading modern-day advocates of the Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship, and has been called the “first professional Oxfordian scholar”.He was educated at Evergreen State College (B.A. 1981) and the New School for Social Research (M.A., 1988). In 2001 he was awarded a PhD in comparative literature from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst on the basis of a dissertation that assumed the authorship of Edward de Vere and accepted the work of Oxfordians J. Thomas Looney, B. M. Ward, and Charlton Ogburn, Jr., as sources on a par with peer-reviewed academic scholarship. It comprised a study of 1,043 marked passages found in de Vere's Geneva Bible, which is now owned by the Folger Shakespeare Library. Stritmatter found that 246 of those (23.6 percent) appear in Shakespeare's works as a theme, an allusion, or a quotation, which is presented as evidence for the Oxfordian theory.In 2007, Stritmatter and writer Lynne Kositsky published a treatise in the Review of English Studies proposing that William Strachey’s eyewitness account of the 1609 Sea Venture shipwreck on the island of Bermuda, A True Reportory of the Wracke and Redemption of Sir Thomas Gates, Knight, was misdated and largely plagiarized, and arguing that sources earlier than Strachey's letter account for Shakespeare's imagery and wording. The narrative, dated 1610 but not published until 1625, is generally accepted as a source for Shakespeare’s The Tempest, and a composition date later than the first recorded performance of the play would disqualify it as a possible source for the play.

Terrain (journal)

Terrain is a French academic journal of ethnology, social and cultural anthropology (the three terms are not clearly distinguished in France). Each issue is entirely devoted to a specific theme. It aims to address both specialists and the educated general public; it was initially focused on contemporary France society and then extended on Europe; it also addresses theoretical considerations but with a language accessible to the general public.

The Analysis of Verbal Behavior

The Analysis of Verbal Behavior (TAVB) is a scientific journal that was established in 1982 as a peer-reviewed psychology journal. It publishes research in conceptual and empirical analysis of verbal behavior and problems of social importance.

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