Defence Strategic Policy and Intelligence Group

The Defence Strategic Policy and Intelligence Group (SP&I) of the Australian Government Department of Defence is responsible for defence diplomacy, strategic policy, international security, and military intelligence co-ordination and advice to the Prime Minister of Australia, Minister for Defence, Secretary of the Department of Defence, and Chief of the Defence Force.[1] The Defence Strategic Policy and Intelligence Group is led by the Deputy Secretary for Strategic Policy and Intelligence and comprises three policy divisions and two intelligence agencies.

The Group has existed in various forms since the Cold War within the Department of Defence with responsibilities for defence policy, strategy, intelligence, and international policy. It has been known as the Defence Strategy and Intelligence Group, the Defence Strategy Executive, the Defence Intelligence and Security Group, the Defence Intelligence, Security and International Policy Group, and the Defence Intelligence Group. The current SP&I Group was established on 8 February 2016 as a key recommendation of the First Principles Review of the Australian Defence Organisation, integrating all policy, strategy and intelligence functions of the Australian Government Department of Defence.[2]

The Deputy Secretary for Strategic Policy and Intelligence can be seen as the Australian combined equivalent of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence and the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy of the United States Department of Defense.

Deputy Secretaries

The current position of Deputy Secretary for Strategic Policy and Intelligence traces its origins back to the position of Deputy Secretary "B", the principal policy official within the Department of Defence. Under the tenure of Secretary of Defence Arthur Tange from 1970 to 1979, the position of Deputy Secretary "B" was responsible for force development and analysis, strategic and international policy, and intelligence and security.

The inaugural Deputy Secretary "B" was Gordon Blakers from 1966 to 1978, followed by William Pritchett from 1978 to 1979, George Cawsey from 1979 to 1981, Alan Wrigley from 1982 to 1985, and John M. Moten from 1985 to 1988.

Deputy Secretary "B" was changed to Deputy Secretary for Strategy and Intelligence in 1998 with the tenure of Paul Dibb from 1988 to 1991, followed by Allan Hawke from 1991 to 1993, Ric Smith from 1994 to 1995, and Hugh White from 1995 to 2000.

In 2000, the Department of Defence went through a restructure with the separation of the policy and intelligence functions. Richard Brabin-Smith was the Deputy Secretary for Strategic Policy from 2000 to 2002 whilst Shane Carmody was Deputy Secretary for Intelligence and Security from 2001 to 2002. Shane Carmody also served as the Deputy Secretary for Strategy from 2003 to 2006 whilst Ron Bonighton served as Deputy Secretary for Intelligence and Security from 2002 to 2005, with Shane Carmody concurrently serving as Deputy Secretary for Intelligence and Security and Deputy Secretary for Strategy from 2005 to 2006. From 2006, Stephen Merchant was Deputy Secretary for Intelligence until 2011 alongside Mike Pezzullo as Deputy Secretary for Strategy until 2009. Peter Jennings was as Deputy Secretary for Strategy from 2009 to 2012, whilst Steve Meekin was Deputy Secretary for Intelligence and Security from 2012 to 2016 and Peter Baxter as Deputy Secretary for Strategy from 2013 to 2016.

Following the First Principles Review of Defence, Peter Baxter became the first Deputy Secretary for Strategic Policy and Intelligence in 2016 and was succeeded by Rebecca Skinner later that year.[3]

Intelligence Agencies

The Defence Strategic Policy and Intelligence Group also coordinates the policy parameters of the three Australian military intelligence agencies, staffed by civilian and Australian Defence Force personnel, of the Australian Intelligence Community.

Defence Intelligence Organisation

The Defence Intelligence Organisation (DIO) is the national military intelligence and intelligence assessment agency that provides services and advice at the national security level with the mandate to support the Australian Defence Force, Department of Defence and the Australian Government and national security decision-making and to assist with the planning and conduct of Australian Defence Force operations.[4]

Australian Geospatial-Intelligence Organisation

The Australian Geospatial-Intelligence Organisation (AGO) was established by amalgamating the Australian Imagery Organisation, the Directorate of Strategic Military Geographic Information, and the Defence Topographic Agency to provide geospatial intelligence, from imagery and other sources, in support of the Australian Defence Force and national security interests.[5]

Policy Divisions

The Defence Strategic Policy and Intelligence Group also combines the strategic, international, and industry policy functions of the Australian Government Department of Defence.

Strategic Policy Division

The Strategic Policy Division develops policy, military strategy and strategic planning and advice for the Australian Government, senior Defence leaders and other government agencies on the strategic implications of defence and national security matters.[6] The Division comprises 5 branches.

Military Strategy Branch

The Military Strategy Branch implements strategic policy and provides the necessary strategic guidance including shaping and influencing, strategic reviews and papers, deliberate planning guidance for operations, strategic war gaming and the production of products that direct the deployment, employment and development of the ADF, including capability, through military strategies, future warfare concepts, strategic doctrine and military strategic policy.[7]

Strategic Policy Branch

The Strategic Policy Branch develops high-level strategic policy guidance for ADF capability development, ADF readiness and Australia's international defence interests; and develops high-level strategic guidance documents, such as the Defence Planning Guidance and Defence Updates.[8]

Strategic Capability and Security Policy Branch

International Policy Division

The International Policy Division provides strategic-level foreign policy advice to the Australian Government on the central issues of Australia's defence policy with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region, including international defence relations and Australian Defence Force operations overseas.[9] The Division comprises 4 branches and numerous overseas postings.

South and South-East Asia Branch

The South and South-East Asia Branch provides policy guidance on Australia's defence interests in South Asia and South East Asia, and manages bilateral defence relationships within the region and engagement with ASEAN. The Branch also manages international engagement on counter-terrorism and multilateral regional issues.[10]

Global Interests Branch

The Global Interests Branch provides policy guidance on Australia's defence interests, peacekeeping operations, and relationships with Afghanistan, countries in the Middle East including Israel, African countries, Canada, European countries, and multilateral institutions such as the European Union, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, and the United Nations.[11]

Major Powers Branch

The Major Powers Branch provides policy guidance on Australia's interests with the United States of America and in North Asia and bilateral defence relationships with the United States of America through the US Alliance Policy Section,[12] and Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the People's Republic of China. The Branch also provides policy guidance on joint facilities and technical programs, such as the Pine Gap defence facility with the United States.[13]

Pacific and Timor-Leste Branch

The Pacific and Timor-Leste Branch provides policy advice on the implications of developments in the Pacific for Australia's security interests, and manages bilateral defence relationships with Pacific Island countries as well as engagement with the Pacific Islands Forum and the management of the Defence Cooperation Program in the Pacific, including the Pacific Boat Program.[14]

Directorate of International Training and Visits

The Directorate of International Training and Visits provides protocol advice and logistical support regarding high-profile visits by foreign officials to Australia and by Australian officials overseas as well as international training coordination. Some responsibilities were previously managed by the Defence Cooperation Liaison Office which provided policy advice and liaison with the Australian Defence Force's defence co-operation program involving the Defence Cooperation Scholarship Program, the Pacific Patrol Boat Program, and other initiatives.

Directorate of Planning, Innovation and Assessment

The Directorate of Planning, Innovation and Assessment is responsible for strategic planning, performance assessment, and innovation development across the International Policy Division.

Directorate of Attaché and Overseas Management

The Australian Government Department of Defence maintains military attachés and Australian Defence Force staff officers to develop Australia's international defence relationships, usually co-located with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade diplomatic missions around the world. In Commonwealth of Nations countries, Australian defence officers posted to Australian High Commissions are titled as Defence Advisers. Otherwise for all other Australian diplomatic missions, defence officers are titled Defence Attachés. Defence Attachés/Advisers are usually of the rank of Colonel or Lieutenant Colonel (or naval and air equivalents). Uniquely, the Australian Defence Organisation maintains major staffs in Indonesia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Each Defence Staff is composed of permanent attachés/advisers from the Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, and Royal Australian Air Force.

The Australian Defence Staff in Washington DC is led by a two-star rank officer and works to build relationships with the United States and promote Australian defence and security interests. It is composed of attaches from each service of the Australian Defence Force. The Royal Australian Navy Naval Attaché serves as the Chief of Navy's representative in North America and provides maritime force advice. The Australian Army Military Attaché serves as the Chief of Army's representative in North America and provides land force advice. The Royal Australian Air Force Air Attaché serves as the Chief of Air Force's representative in North America and provides airpower and aerospace force advice. The Staff is also composed of the Defence Policy Counsellor responsible for international and strategic policy and intelligence functions, the Defence Science Counsellor serving as the Chief Defence Scientist's representative in North America and providing research and development advice, and the Defence Materiel Counsellor serving as the Capability Acquisition and Sustainment Group's representative and providing acquisition advice.

There is also a Defence Liaison at the Australia Consulate-General in Honolulu, Hawaii, responsible for managing relations with the United States Pacific Command.

The Australian Defence Staff in London is led by a one-star rank officer. It is composed of advisers from each service of the Australian Defence Force. The Royal Australian Navy Naval Adviser is responsible for managing all RAN personnel in the UK, maritime force advice, and liaison with the Royal Navy. The Australian Army Adviser is responsible for military advice, liaison with the British Army, and is the Formation Commander for all Australian Army personnel serving in the UK. The Royal Australian Air Force Adviser is responsible for managing all RAAF personnel in the UK, aerospace force advice, and liaison with the Royal Air Force. The Assistant Defence Adviser for Strategy is responsible for liaison with the Ministry of Defence, strategic interests, and the development of Australia–United Kingdom relations. The Assistant Defence Adviser for Joint Capability and Support is responsible for capability acquisition and joint development. The Defence Science Counsellor is the Chief Defence Scientist's representative and is responsible for liaising and adviser on science and technology. The Defence Materiel Counsellor represents the Capability Acquisition and Sustainment Group and works on procurement and defence industry.

The Australian Defence Staff in Jakarta is led by a one-star rank officer. It is composed of attaches from each service of the Australian Defence Force. The Royal Australian Navy Naval Attaché provides maritime force advice. The Australian Army Attaché provides land force advice. The Royal Australian Air Force Air Force Attaché provides airpower and aerospace force advice.

For multilateral relations, there are Australian defence officers at the African Union (Defence Attache), the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and the European Union (Defence Attache), and the United Nations in New York (Military Adviser).

For bilateral relations, there are Australian defence officers in Cambodia (Defence Attaché), Canada (Defence Adviser), the People's Republic of China (Defence Attaché), East Timor (Defence Attaché), Fiji (Defence Adviser, also to Kiribati, Nauru, Samoa, Tonga, and Tuvalu), France (Defence Attaché), Germany (Defence Attaché), India (Defence Adviser, also to South Africa), Indonesia (Australian Defence Staff), Iraq (Defence Attaché), Japan (Defence Attaché), the Republic of Korea (Defence Attaché), Malaysia (Defence Adviser), New Zealand (Defence Adviser, also to the Cook Islands), Pakistan (Defence Adviser), Papua New Guinea (Defence Adviser), Philippines (Defence Attaché), Saudi Arabia (Defence Attaché also to Bahrain, Oman, Kuwait, and Jordan), Singapore (Defence Adviser, also to Brunei), Solomon Islands (Defence Adviser, also to Vanuatu, Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of Marshall Islands), in Madrid for Southern Europe (Defence Attaché), Thailand (Defence Attaché, also to Myanmar), the United Arab Emirates (Defence Attaché, also to Qatar), the United Kingdom (the Australian Defence Staff, also to Ireland), in Washington DC for United States of America (the Australian Defence Staff), and Vietnam (Defence Attaché, also to Laos).

Defence Industry Policy Division

The Defence Industry Policy Division has responsibility for the implementation of defence industry policy, engagement and innovation as well as Australian export controls.[15]

Defence Industry Branch

The Defence Industry Branch is responsible for Defence industry policy and industry capability development.

Defence Export Controls Branch

The Defence Export Controls Branch is responsible for administering controls on the export of defence and strategic goods and technologies and the granting of authorisations to export, in the form of permits and licenses. The Branch also contributes to Australia's international efforts to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction through participation in multilateral non-proliferation and export control regimes.[16]

Defence Capability and Innovation Branch

The Defence Capability and Innovation Branch is responsible for managing a consolidated portfolio of innovation investment under the Defence Innovation Hub.

References

  1. ^ [1] Defence Strategic Policy and Intelligence Group
  2. ^ [2] Defence Strategic Policy and Intelligence Group
  3. ^ Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainability Australia's Participation in the Pine Gap Enterprise by Desmond Ball
  4. ^ [3] Defence Intelligence Organisation About
  5. ^ AGO About
  6. ^ [4] Defence Strategic Policy and Intelligence Group
  7. ^ [5] Archived 21 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine Australian Government Directory information on the Military Strategy Branch
  8. ^ [6] Archived 21 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine Australian Government Directory information on the Strategic Policy Branch
  9. ^ [7] Defence Strategic Policy and Intelligence Group
  10. ^ [8] Archived 21 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine Australian Government Directory information on the South East Asia Branch
  11. ^ [9] Archived 21 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine Australian Government Directory information on the Global Interests Branch
  12. ^ [10] Department of Defence statement on the Australia-United States Ministerial Consultations
  13. ^ [11] Department of Defence response to the Senate Continuing Order for Indexed List of Departmental or Agency Files
  14. ^ [12] Archived 21 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine Australian Government Directory information on the Pacific and Timor-Leste Branch
  15. ^ [13] Defence Strategic Policy and Intelligence Group
  16. ^ http://www.defence.gov.au/ExportControls/

See also

Australian Defence Force

The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. It consists of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and a number of 'tri-service' units. The ADF has a strength of just under 80,000 full-time personnel and active reservists, and is supported by the Department of Defence and several other civilian agencies.

During the first decades of the 20th century, the Australian Government established the armed services as separate organisations. Each service had an independent chain of command. In 1976, the government made a strategic change and established the ADF to place the services under a single headquarters. Over time, the degree of integration has increased and tri-service headquarters, logistics and training institutions have supplanted many single-service establishments.

The ADF is technologically sophisticated but relatively small. Although the ADF's 58,206 full-time active-duty personnel and 21,694 active reservists make it the largest military in Oceania, it is smaller than most Asian military forces. Nonetheless, the ADF is supported by a significant budget by worldwide standards and is able to deploy forces in multiple locations outside Australia.

Australian Defence Organisation

The Australian Defence Organisation (abbreviated as ADO and commonly referred to simply as Defence) is an Australian Government organisation that consists of both the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and the civilian Department of Defence personnel supporting the ADF whose two purposes are to "defend Australia and its national interests" and "protect and advance Australia's strategic interests".

Australian Intelligence Community

The Australian Intelligence Community (AIC) and the National Intelligence Community (NIC) or National Security Community of the Australian Government are the collectives of statutory intelligence agencies, policy departments, and other government agencies concerned with protecting and advancing the national security and national interests of the Commonwealth of Australia. The intelligence and security agencies of the Australian Government have evolved since the Second World War and the Cold War and saw transformation and expansion during the Global War on Terrorism with military deployments in Afghanistan, Iraq and against ISIS in Syria. Key international and national security issues for the Australian Intelligence Community include terrorism and violent extremism, cybersecurity, transnational crime, the rise of China, and Pacific regional security.The National Security Committee of Cabinet (NSC) is a Cabinet committee and the peak Australian Government decision-making body for national security, intelligence, foreign policy, and defence matters. It is chaired by the Prime Minister and is composed of the Deputy Prime Minister, Attorney-General, Treasurer, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minister for Defence, and Minister for Home Affairs.

Defence Intelligence Organisation

The Defence Intelligence Organisation (DIO) is an Australian government military intelligence agency responsible for strategic intelligence and technical intelligence assessments, advising defence and government decision-making on national security and international security issues, and the planning and conduct of Australian Defence Force operations. The DIO does not collect intelligence or conduct covert action, but works on defence economics, transnational terrorism, and WMD.

The DIO is an agency of the Australian Intelligence Community and is part of the Defence Strategic Policy and Intelligence Group with the Australian Geospatial-Intelligence Organisation (AGO) and the Australian Signals Directorate (ASD). The head of DIO is the Director of the Defence Intelligence Organisation, currently Major General Matthew Hall.

Defense Intelligence Agency

The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), an external intelligence service of the United States federal government, specializes in defense and military intelligence.

A component of the Department of Defense (DoD) and the United States Intelligence Community (IC), DIA informs national civilian and defense policymakers about the military intentions and capabilities of foreign governments and non-state actors. It also provides intelligence assistance, integration and coordination across uniformed military service intelligence components, which remain structurally separate from DIA. The agency's role encompasses the collection and analysis of military-related foreign political, economic, industrial, geographic, and medical and health intelligence. DIA produces approximately one-fourth of all intelligence content that goes into the President's Daily Brief.DIA's intelligence operations extend beyond the zones of combat, and approximately half of its employees serve overseas at hundreds of locations and in U.S. Embassies in 140 countries. The agency specializes in the collection and analysis of human-source intelligence (HUMINT), both overt and clandestine, while also handling U.S. military-diplomatic relations abroad. DIA concurrently serves as the national manager for the highly technical measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) and as the Defense Department manager for counterintelligence programs. The agency has no law-enforcement authority, contrary to occasional portrayals in American popular culture.

DIA is a national-level intelligence organization that does not belong to a single military element or within the traditional chain of command, instead answering to the Secretary of Defense directly through the USDI. Three-quarters of the agency's 17,000 employees are career civilians who are experts in various fields of defense and military interest or application; although no formal military background is required, 48% of agency employees have some past military service. DIA has a tradition of marking unclassified deaths of its employees on the organization's Memorial Wall.

Established in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy by Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, DIA was involved in U.S. intelligence efforts throughout the Cold War and rapidly expanded, both in size and scope, after the September 11 attacks. Because of the sensitive nature of its work, the spy organization has been embroiled in numerous controversies, including those related to its intelligence-gathering activities, to its role in torture, as well as to attempts to expand its activities on U.S. soil.

Department of Defence (Australia)

The Department of Defence is a department of the Government of Australia charged with the responsibility to defend Australia and its national interests. Along with the Australian Defence Force (ADF), it forms part of the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) and is accountable to the Commonwealth Parliament, on behalf of the Australian people, for the efficiency and effectiveness with which it carries out the Government's defence policy.

The head of the Department, who leads it on a daily basis, is the Secretary of the Department of Defence (SECDEF), currently Greg Moriarty. The Secretary reports to the Minister of Defence, currently The Hon. Linda Reynolds MP, following appointment by Prime Minister Scott Morrison in May 2019.

Joint Intelligence Organisation (Australia)

The Joint Intelligence Organisation (JIO) was an Australian government intelligence agency that existed between 1969 and 1990 and which was responsible for the analysis of defence and foreign intelligence.

The JIO was staffed by civilian officers of the Department of Defence, foreign service officers of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, and service personnel from the Australian Army, the Royal Australian Navy, and the Royal Australian Air Force. The JIO also maintained the National Assessments Staff (NAS) which supported the National Intelligence Committee (the predecessor to the National Intelligence Coordination Committee) until 1977 when it was assumed by the Office of National Assessments. The NAS was responsible for preparing long–range analytical assessments of international issues.

The foreign intelligence assessment functions of JIO were assumed by the Office of National Assessments (ONA) in 1977 and the JIO was fully replaced by the Defence Intelligence Organisation (DIO) in 1990.

Vice Chief of the Defence Force (Australia)

The Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF) is the military deputy to the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) of Australia, and acts as the CDF in his absence under standing acting arrangements. Vice Admiral David Johnston, the incumbent VCDF, has held the position since 5 July 2018.

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