Defence Science and Technology Group

Defence Science and Technology (DST) is part of the Australian Department of Defence dedicated to providing science and technology support for Australia's defence and national security needs. It is Australia's second largest government-funded science organisation after the CSIRO. The agency's name was changed from Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) to Defence Science and Technology on 1 July 2015.[1]

To achieve its mission, DST provides scientific and technical support to current defence operations, investigates future technologies for defence and national security applications, advises on the purchase and smart use of defence equipment, develops new defence capabilities, and enhances existing systems by improving performance and safety and reducing the cost of owning defence assets.

The Chief Defence Scientist leads DST. The position is supported by an independent Advisory Board with representatives from defence, industry, academia and the science community. DST has an annual budget of approximately $440 million and employs over 2500 staff, predominantly scientists, engineers, IT specialists and technicians.

DST has establishments in all Australian states and the Australian Capital Territory with posted representatives in Washington, London and Tokyo. DST collaborates with science and technology organisations around the world to strengthen its technology base and works closely with Australian industry and universities to enhance defence capability. International engagement allows DST to explore potential technological opportunities at significantly less cost and provides access to overseas capabilities otherwise not available to the ADF. DST is a member of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) with the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand. It also has bilateral defence science agreements with USA, UK, France, Sweden, Netherlands, Norway and Singapore. In February 2012, DST was given the whole-of-government responsibility to co-ordinate research and development for Australia's national security.

Defence Science and Technology Group
Australia Defence Science and Technology Group horizontal crest logo
Agency overview
JurisdictionCommonwealth of Australia
HeadquartersFairbairn, Canberra, Australia
Annual budget$408 million (2014–15)
Minister responsible
Agency executive
Parent agencyDepartment of Defence (Australia)


A new research body, called Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), was created in 1974 by amalgamating the Australian Defence Scientific Service with the Science Branch of the Department of Defence. Over the next 20 years various other Australian Defence laboratories were integrated with DSTO, including what remained of the Weapons Research Establishment, responsible for the Woomera test range.

  • 1907 – Defence science begins in Australia.
  • 1910 – The start of explosives research at a guardhouse (called the Chemical Adviser's Laboratory) at Victoria Barracks, Melbourne.
  • 1911 – Defence Explosive Factory Maribyrnong established at Maribyrnong.
  • 1912 – Small Arms Factory established at Lithgow.
  • 1921 – Munitions Supply Board created within Department of Defence.
  • 1922 – Chemical Adviser's Laboratory became the Munitions Supply Laboratories (MSL) of the Munitions Supply Board.
  • 1929 – Proof Range established at Port Wakefield.
  • 1939 – Aeronautical & Engine Research Test Laboratory established at Fishermans Bend as part of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Division of Aeronautics.
  • 1940 – Department of Munitions established. Salisbury Explosives Factory and Finsbury Munitions Factory built within rural environs of Adelaide.
  • 1946 – Munitions Supply Laboratories (MSL) established at Finsbury, South Australia (later known as Woodville North when the suburb name was changed) as a branch of MSL at Maribyrnong.
  • 1946 – Anglo-Australian Joint Project established at Woomera, with aviation support at RAAF Base Mallala.
  • 1947 – Long Range Weapons Establishment (LRWE) formed in Salisbury, South Australia to support the guided weapons facility at Woomera.
  • 1948 – Munitions Supply Laboratories changes its name to Defence Research Laboratories.
  • 1949 – Fishermans Bend laboratory transferred from CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research) to the Department of Supply & Development; renamed Aeronautical Research Laboratories (ARL). Australian Defence Scientific Service established, incorporating LRWE and the Defence Research Laboratories.
  • 1949 – Laboratory established in Alexandria, NSW as part of Defence Research Laboratories to undertake research in physical metallurgy and metallurgical chemistry areas.
  • 1949 – Three new laboratories formed in Salisbury – High Speed Aerodynamics Laboratory, Propulsion Research Laboratory and the Electronics Research Laboratory, collectively known as the Chemistry & Physics Research Laboratory.
  • 1953 – Defence Research Laboratories changes its name to Defence Standards Laboratories.
  • 1955 – LRWE and all the Salisbury laboratories amalgamated to form the Weapons Research Establishment (WRE). RAAF Base Edinburgh established near Salisbury, superseding Mallala.
  • 1956 – The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) Experimental Laboratory established.
1985 ABC news report interviewing David Warren about his invention of the 'Black Box'.
  • 1957 – Black Box flight recorder invented by Dr David Warren – originally named the ARL Flight Memory Unit. Its descendants are now installed in large airline aircraft and most military aircraft.[2]
  • 1958 – The Army Food Research Laboratories were formally established at Scottsdale, Tasmania under the Quartermaster General Branch, Army Headquarters. The Laboratories' role included research and development of foods for the three Services. Laboratories renamed Defence Food Research Establishment-Vegetable Dehydration Division in 1958.
  • 1960 – The Defence Food Research Establishment-Vegetable Dehydration Division renamed The Army Food Science Establishment.
  • 1961 – The Army Food Science Establishment renamed The Army Food Research Station.
  • 1962 – Joint Tropical Research Unit (JTRU) established in Innisfail, Queensland and operated jointly with the British Ministry of Defence.
  • 1967 – Built and launched WRESAT, Australia's first artificial satellite.
  • 1969 – RAN Experimental Laboratory changes name to RAN Research Laboratory (RANRL).
  • 1971 – The Army Food Science Establishment renamed the Armed Forces Food Science Establishment.
  • 1972 – ARL transferred to the Department of Manufacturing Industry.
  • 1974 – As a result of Defence restructuring, the Defence Science & Technology Organisation (DSTO) is created by integrating the Australian Defence Scientific Service, the in-house R&D units of the Armed Services and the Science Branch of the Department of Defence. Defence Standards Laboratories becomes the Materials Research Laboratories (MRL).
  • 1975 – Official transfer of all Defence R&D activities to DSTO in the Department of Defence. The Armed Forces Food Science Establishment (AFFSE) became part of the Service Laboratories and Trials (SLT) division of DSTO.
  • 1977 – Joint Tropical Trials and Research Establishment established (JTTRE), merging JTRU and Tropical Trials Establishment situated at Cowley Beach, Queensland.
  • 1977 – MRL, Woodville North transferred to CSIRO Division of Materials Science.
  • 1978 – WRE split into four smaller laboratories: Weapons Systems Research Laboratory (WSRL), Electronics Research Laboratory (ERL), Trials Research Laboratory (TRL) and Advanced Engineering Laboratory (AEL). The four laboratories were collectively known as the Defence Research Centre Salisbury (DRCS).
  • 1982 – The Armed Forces Food Science Establishment became a part of Materials Research Laboratories (MRL).
  • 1984 – RAN Research Laboratory transferred to WSRL.
  • 1985 – Materials Research Laboratories, Alexandria, NSW transferred to Army.
  • 1987 – Five year restructuring of DSTO laboratories begins. New Surveillance Research Laboratory created and WRE's Electronics Research Laboratory reorganised. RANRL transferred to MRL and renamed.
  • 1989 – Control of Cowley Beach was returned to the Army and Innisfail became MRL, Qld.
  • 1992 – The UK-Australia Tropical Research agreement terminated.
  • 1991 – WSRL abolished to leave four laboratories in DSTO.
  • 1994 – ARL and MRL merge to form the Aeronautical & Maritime Research Laboratory (AMRL) headquartered in Fishermans Bend. Surveillance Research Laboratory and Electronics Research Laboratory merge to form the Electronics & Surveillance Research Laboratory (ESRL) headquartered in Salisbury, leaving only two laboratories in DSTO.
  • 1994 – The Armed Forces Food Science Establishment was renamed The Defence Food Science Centre (DFSC).
  • 1997 – ESRL complex rationalised and new "Knowledge Systems Building" in Edinburgh, South Australia, (the newly renamed part of Salisbury containing DSTO), officially opened. The Defence Food Science Centre (DFSC) was renamed Defence Nutrition Research Centre (DNRC). Port Wakefield Proof Range became the Proof and Experimental Establishment.
  • 2002 – DSTO restructured, resulting in three laboratories: Platforms Sciences Laboratory, Systems Sciences Laboratory and Information Sciences Laboratory.
  • 2002 – DSTO, along with the Royal Australian Air Force and the Canadian Forces, wins the prestigious ICAS von Karman Award for International Cooperation in Aeronautics for its international program assessing the fatigue life of the F/A-18 A/B Hornet aircraft.[3][4]
  • 2003 – Maritime Operational Analysis Centre (MOAC) opened at Garden Island, Sydney
  • 2004 – H A Wills Structures and Materials Test Centre officially opened at Fishermans Bend.
  • 2004 – CBRN functions transferred from Maribyrnong to Fishermans Bend.
  • 2004 – Torpedo Systems Centre and Maritime Experimentation Laboratory opened at DSTO Edinburgh
  • 2005 – Laboratory Directors renamed to DCDS (Deputy Chief Defence Scientist):
Director, Platforms Sciences Laboratory renamed DCDS(Platforms & Human Systems),
Director, Systems Sciences Laboratory renamed DCDS(Policy & Programs),
Director, Information Sciences Laboratory renamed DCDS(Information & Weapon Systems) and
First Assistant Secretary, Science Policy renamed Chief, Science Planning & Coordination Division.
Air Operations Division to report to DCDS(Platforms & Human Systems).
New stand-alone Information Integration Branch created in Edinburgh under DCDS(Information & Weapon Systems).
  • 2006 – DSTO and US Air Force sign agreement on Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program.
  • 2007 – DSTO Maribyrnong shut down in May with all personnel moved to a new facility within the existing DSTO Fishermans Bend site.
  • 2007 – DSTO establishes Brisbane laboratory to undertake hypersonics research.
  • 2007 – DSTO celebrates 100 Years of Defence Science and Technology in Australia
  • 2007 – Personnel at DSTO Canberra Fern Hill Park moved to new facilities at Fairbairn.
  • 2008 – DSTO Pyrmont commenced move to Eveleigh.
  • 2008 – Professor Robert Clark appointed Chief Defence Scientist, the first external appointment to the post since 1991.[5]
  • 2009 – DSTO and US Air Force complete first successful launch under the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program, confirming that the test vehicle turned onto the correct heading and elevation for re-entry into the atmosphere as designed.[6]
  • 2010 – DSTO organises the Multi Autonomous Ground-robotic International Challenge with US Army.
  • 2012 – DSTO, along with the US Air Force Research Laboratory, Boeing Research & Technology and the University of Queensland, wins the prestigious ICAS von Karman Award for International Cooperation in Aeronautics for collaboration on the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program.[3]
  • 2012 – Dr Alex Zelinsky appointed Chief Defence Scientist in March 2012.[7]
  • 2015 – DSTO becomes DST.
  • 2019 – Professor Tanya Monro appointed Chief Defence Scientist, first woman in this position.[8][9]


DST has its headquarters at Fairbairn in Canberra with sites in each state of Australia:

It also has a presence in the Russell Offices in Canberra, in the Australian Capital Territory.[13]

Previous sites have included:

  • Fern Hill Technology Park in Bruce, a suburb of Canberra
  • Pyrmont, on the shore of Sydney harbour
  • Maribyrnong in Melbourne

Chief Defence Scientist

The Chief Defence Scientist of Australia leads the Defence Science & Technology Group (DST Group).[14] Prof. Tanya Monro is the current Chief Defence Scientist, having taken up the role in March 2019.[15]

Chief Defence Scientists Period in office
Dr Alan Butement 1949–1967
H A Wills 1968–1971
Dr J L Farrands 1971–1977
Prof Tom Fink 1978–1986
Henry d'Assumpcao 1987–1990
Dr R G Ward 1991–1992
Dr R G Brabin-Smith 1993–2000
Dr Ian Chessell 2000–2003
Dr Roger Lough 2003–2008
Prof Robert Clark 2008–2011
Dr Alex Zelinsky 2012–2018
Prof Tanya Monro 2019–

Capability and Technology Demonstrator (CTD) Program

The Capability and Technology Demonstrator (CTD) Program was established in 1997 to allow Australian industry to demonstrate new technologies (or the novel use of technology) with the potential to significantly enhance Defence capability.[16][17] The CTD Program is managed by the Defence Science and Technology Group (DST Group) and funded by the Capability Development Group.

Each year Defence invites Australian industry to submit technology proposals aimed at advancing defence capability in areas of priority. Promising proposals are funded to develop the concept to the demonstration stage so that Defence can evaluate the technology's potential for military service and the risks of acquisition. A CTD project is demonstrated to a Defence evaluation team after 2 to 3 years of funded development. Selected successful projects are identified for further development before they can be transitioned into fielded capability.

CTD proposals are evaluated against a number of criteria including the potential to contribute to defence capability development, the potential to transition into service and the level of innovation in the proposed technology.

Organisational structure

Following the launch of its five-year Strategic Plan 2013–18,[18] DST Group streamlined its organisational structure to better reflect Defence priorities and align with the 2013 Defence White Paper.[19]

The new structure came into effect from 1 July 2013 was endorsed by the Defence Committee. It provides three Corporate Divisions: Science Strategy and Program Division, Science Partnerships and Engagement Division and Research Services Division along with seven Research Divisions: Maritime Division, Land Division, Aerospace Division, Joint and Operations Analysis Division, National Security and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Division, Cyber and Electronic Warfare Division, and Weapons and Combat Systems Division.[20]

See also

  • ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) – Australia's national nuclear organisation and the centre of Australian nuclear expertise
  • CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) – the national government body for scientific research in Australia
  • NICTA (National ICT Australia) – Australia's national information and communication technology research centre
  • South Australian Aviation Museum – repository of DST Group's historic rocket collection from the period 1950 – 1980.
  • TTCP (The Technical Cooperation Program) – An international defence science and technology collaboration between Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States.


  1. ^ "Stop Press! Name Change" (Press release). 31 July 2015. Archived from the original on 19 September 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015. As part of the First Principles Review implementation, from 1 July 2015 the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) has been renamed as the Defence Science and Technology Group.
  2. ^ Each country defines which aircraft are required to carry "Black Boxes". For example: Australia: CAO 20.18, para 6.1; USA: §121.343, §121.344 and §135.152 of Chapter 14 of the US Code of Federal Aviation Regulations; etc.
  3. ^ a b International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences.
  4. ^ DSTO wins international award for aeronautical work Archived 22 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ Professor Robert Clark appointed as new CDS – 2008 Archived 19 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ Trialling hypersonic flight at Woomera Archived 10 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Dr Alex Zelinsky appointed as new CDS – 2012 Archived 3 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ "New Chief Defence Scientist announced". 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  9. ^ "Academy Fellow appointed Chief Defence Scientist | Australian Academy of Science". Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  10. ^ The area in South Australia occupied by DSTO was renamed from Salisbury to Edinburgh in 2002.
  11. ^ The DSTO Maribyrnong site was shut down in May 2007 and all remaining personnel were moved to a new facility within the existing DSTO Fishermans Bend site.
  12. ^ DSTO Pyrmont commenced moving to Redfern in 2008.
  13. ^ Personnel at the DSTO Canberra Fern Hill Park site moved to new facilities at Fairbairn during 2007 & 2008. DSTO staff are also located in Russell Offices, Campbell Park Offices, Brindebella Business Park and various scientific liaison officers are located "on the south side of the lake".
  14. ^ DST website,
  15. ^ "Our leadership". Defence Science and Technology. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  16. ^ Donovan, Peter. Anticipating Tomorrow's Defence Needs: A Century of Australian Defence Science Archived 10 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, p. 136.
  17. ^ See About the CTD Program Archived 9 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine on DSTO website.
  18. ^ "DSTO Strategic Plan 2013–2018". Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  19. ^ "Defence White Paper 2013". Department of Defence. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  20. ^ "Our Structure". DST Group. Archived from the original on 13 June 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2017.

External links

ARC Training Centre for Automated Manufacture of Advanced Composites

The ARC Training Centre for Automated Manufacture of Advanced Composites (AMAC) established under the Industrial Transformation Research Program (ITRP) began its operations on 29 May 2017. With University of New South Wales as the administering node, AMAC operates across two other university nodes (Australian National University and Technical University of Munich) located both locally and internationally. AMAC has nine industry partners on board to support the Centre's aim to lower barriers for Australian industry to access, engage, adopt and propagate automated composite manufacturing innovations. The partnering industries include Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Australian Institute of Sports, Advanced Composite Structures Australia, the Defence Science and Technology Group (DST-G), Omni Tankers, Carbonix, AFPT, FEI, and Ford Motor Company.

AMAC had its official opening on 27 November 2017 at UNSW Sydney

Alex Zelinsky

Alexander ‘Alex’ Zelinsky, (born 5 March 1960) is an Australian computer scientist, systems engineer and roboticist. His career spans innovation, science and technology, research and development, commercial start-ups and education. Prof Zelinsky is Vice-Chancellor and President of the University of Newcastle joining the university in November 2018. He was the Chief Defence Scientist of Australia from March 2012 until November 2018. As Chief Defence Scientist he led Defence Science and Technology for Australia's Department of Defence.

Australian Defence Organisation

The Australian Defence Organisation (abbreviated as ADO and commonly referred to simply as Defence) is an Australian Government organisation that consists of both the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and the civilian Department of Defence personnel supporting the ADF whose two purposes are to "defend Australia and its national interests" and "protect and advance Australia's strategic interests".

Australian Intelligence Community

The Australian Intelligence Community (AIC) and the National Intelligence Community (NIC) or National Security Community of the Australian Government are the collectives of statutory intelligence agencies, policy departments, and other government agencies concerned with protecting and advancing the national security and national interests of the Commonwealth of Australia. The intelligence and security agencies of the Australian Government have evolved since the Second World War and the Cold War and saw transformation and expansion during the Global War on Terrorism with military deployments in Afghanistan, Iraq and against ISIS in Syria. Key international and national security issues for the Australian Intelligence Community include terrorism and violent extremism, cybersecurity, transnational crime, the rise of China, and Pacific regional security.The National Security Committee of Cabinet (NSC) is a Cabinet committee and the peak Australian Government decision-making body for national security, intelligence, foreign policy, and defence matters. It is chaired by the Prime Minister and is composed of the Deputy Prime Minister, Attorney-General, Treasurer, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minister for Defence, and Minister for Home Affairs.

Australian Multicam Camouflage Uniform

The Australian Multicam Camouflage Uniform (AMCU) is the combat uniform camouflage pattern for the Australian Defence Force, general issued from 2014 onwards. The AMCU is replacing the previously used Disruptive Pattern Camouflage Uniform (DPCU) and Australian Multicam Pattern - Operational Combat Uniform (AMP-OCU) camouflage patterns.The AMCU has the base pattern of the MultiCam camouflage pattern with a colour palette based on the Disruptive Pattern Camouflage Uniform.

Current senior Australian Defence Organisation personnel

The Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) is composed of the armed forces of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF), and the Australian Public Service government department, the Department of Defence which is composed of a range of civilian support organisations.

The Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) leads the Australian Defence Force and the Secretary of Defence leads the Department of Defence though both jointly manage the Australian Defence Organisation under a diarchy, and both report directly to the Minister for Defence.

The highest active rank in the Australian Defence Force is reserved for the Chief of the Defence Force. This is a four-star rank and the CDF is the only Australian military officer at that level. As a result of the diarchy, the Secretary of the Department of Defence is of the equivalent civilian four-star level in the Senior Executive Service of the Australian Public Service.

DST (disambiguation)

DST is an abbreviation for daylight saving time.

DST may also refer to:

Data Storage Technology, a magnetic tape data storage format from Ampex

Decision support tool, see Decision support system

Defence School of Transport, Leconfield, Yorkshire, England

Defence Science and Technology Group, provides science and technology support for Australia's defence and national security needs

Delaware statutory trust

Delta Sigma Theta, organization of college-educated women

Dempster–Shafer theory, a mathematical theory of evidence

Department of Science and Technology (South Africa)

Department of Science and Technology (India)

Descriptive set theory

Developmental systems theory

Dexamethasone suppression test

Dialogical self theory

Digital signature transponder, Texas Instruments RFID device

Digital Signature Trust Company, a root certificate authority now owned by IdenTrust

Digital Sky Technologies, a Russian investment firm

Direct Stream Transfer, lossless compression; part of MPEG-4; used for SACD

Direction de la surveillance du territoire (Directorate of Territorial Surveillance), French intelligence agency merged into DCRI

Direction générale de la surveillance du territoire, Moroccan intelligence agency.

Discrete sine transform, a variant of the discrete Fourier transform

Disturbance storm time index, pertinent to space weather conditions

Doctor of Sacred Theology

Douglas Sleeper Transport, initial version of Douglas DC-3 aircraft

Drill stem test, for testing during oil drilling

DST Systems, a United States technology company.

Dynamical systems theory, a branch of mathematics used to describe the behavior of complex dynamical systems

Gene encoding the dystonin protein

DST Group

DST Group may refer to:

DataStream Technology Group, Brunei (e.g. DST Group Building)

Defence Science and Technology Group, Australia's Defence research agency

Department of Defence (Australia)

The Department of Defence is a department of the Government of Australia charged with the responsibility to defend Australia and its national interests. Along with the Australian Defence Force (ADF), it forms part of the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) and is accountable to the Commonwealth Parliament, on behalf of the Australian people, for the efficiency and effectiveness with which it carries out the Government's defence policy.

The head of the Department, who leads it on a daily basis, is the Secretary of the Department of Defence (SECDEF), currently Greg Moriarty. The Secretary reports to the Minister of Defence, currently The Hon. Linda Reynolds MP, following appointment by Prime Minister Scott Morrison in May 2019.

EM Solutions

EM Solutions Pty Ltd is a satellite communications component company based in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Founded in 1998, it is involved in the research, design, and production of differentiated microwave and radiofrequency products and systems for satellite and broadband communications. EM Solutions provides components for both commercial and military customers with its subsidiary, EMClarity, specialising in solutions for the broadcast industry.The company has partnered with the Defence Science and Technology Group (DSTO), the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), and the University of Queensland.

Elizabeth South, South Australia

Elizabeth South is a northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia in the City of Playford.

It was established in the late 1950s as one of the earliest residential suburbs of the planned City of Elizabeth. As for its neighbours including Elizabeth and Elizabeth North, it was configured as a local community around a small shopping centre containing a supermarket, bank, hotel and service station along with other shops.

The western boundary is the Gawler railway line, with predominantly current and former Defence land on the other side, including the South Australian branch of the Defence Science and Technology Group opposite Elizabeth South railway station. The suburb is situated on both sides of Philip Highway. The northern part of the suburb (north of Hogarth Road) is a residential suburb, with corresponding schools, shops and other community services. South of Hogarth Road, the suburb is industrial, including automotive and Defence manufacturing, dominated by the large Holden factory, which opened in 1960 and closed in 2017.The water tower near the railway line is 44.2 metres (145 ft) tall and the tank holds 250,000 imperial gallons (1,100,000 l; 300,000 US gal). It was built around 1940 (before Elizabeth was established) to supply the munitions factory that is now repurposed as Defence Science and Technology.

Janis Cocking

Janis Louise Cocking is an Australian metallurgist serving as Chief Science Strategy and Program at Defence Science and Technology Group, a branch of the Department of Defence.

Krishnaswamy Nandakumar

Krishnaswamy Nandakumar is the Cain Endowed Chair and Professor of Chemical Engineering at the Louisiana State University, USA.

Malaysia Airlines Flight 370

Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (also referred to as MH370 or MAS370) was a scheduled international passenger flight operated by Malaysia Airlines that disappeared on 8 March 2014 while flying from Kuala Lumpur International Airport to its destination, Beijing Capital International Airport. The crew of the Boeing 777-200ER aircraft last communicated with air traffic control (ATC) around 38 minutes after takeoff when the flight was over the South China Sea. The aircraft was lost from ATC radar screens minutes later, but was tracked by military radar for another hour, deviating westwards from its planned flight path, crossing the Malay Peninsula and Andaman Sea. It left radar range 200 nautical miles (370 km) northwest of Penang Island in northwestern Malaysia. With all 227 passengers and 12 crew aboard presumed dead, the disappearance of Flight 370 was the deadliest incident involving a Boeing 777 and the deadliest in Malaysia Airlines' history, until it was surpassed in both regards by Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 that was shot down while flying over eastern Ukraine, four months later. The combined loss caused significant financial problems for Malaysia Airlines, which was renationalised by the Malaysian government in December 2014.

The search for the missing airplane, which became the most costly in aviation history, focused initially on the South China and Andaman seas, before analysis of the aircraft's automated communications with an Inmarsat satellite identified a possible crash site somewhere in the southern Indian Ocean. The lack of official information in the days immediately after the disappearance prompted fierce criticism from the Chinese public, particularly from relatives of the passengers; most people on board Flight 370 were of Chinese origin. Several pieces of marine debris confirmed to be from the aircraft washed ashore in the western Indian Ocean during 2015 and 2016. After a three-year search across 120,000 square kilometres (46,000 sq mi) of ocean failed to locate the aircraft, the Joint Agency Coordination Centre heading the operation suspended their activities in January 2017. A second search launched in January 2018 by the private contractor Ocean Infinity also ended without success after six months.

The disappearance of Flight 370 has been dubbed one of the greatest aviation mysteries of all time. Relying mostly on analysis of data from the Inmarsat satellite with which the aircraft last communicated, the Australian Transport Safety Bureau proposed initially that a hypoxia event was the most likely cause given the available evidence, although there has not been any consensus concerning this theory among investigators. At various stages of the investigation, possible hijacking scenarios were considered, including crew involvement, and suspicion of the airplane's cargo manifest; many unofficial theories have also been proposed by the media. The Malaysian Ministry of Transport's final report from July 2018 was inconclusive, but highlighted Malaysian air traffic controllers' failures to attempt to communicate with the aircraft shortly after its disappearance. In the absence of a definitive cause of disappearance, those air transport industry safety recommendations and regulations citing Flight 370 have been intended mostly to prevent a repetition of the circumstances associated with the loss. These include increased battery life on underwater locator beacons, lengthening of recording times on flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders, and new standards for aircraft position reporting over open ocean.

Navy Strategic Command

The Navy Strategic Command (formerly the Navy Systems Command) is the command responsible for training, personnel, resources, engineering and capability development of the Royal Australian Navy. As such the Navy Strategic Command works with the Capability Acquisition and Sustainment Group, the Defence Science and Technology Group, and the Joint Capabilities Group to ensure the personal, materiel and logistical capabilities of the Royal Australian Navy.

Penfield, South Australia

Penfield is a northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia, in the City of Playford.

William Penfold, one of the first settlers in the area, subdivided land he had bought in the Hundred of Munno Para in 1856 to create the township of Penfield. The area was commonly known as Peachey Belt or Peachy Belt. The boundaries have changed over the years, and much of what is now Penfield is industrial today.

The remaining part of the Zoar Bible Christian Church, built in 1855, is the small cemetery.

Peter Lambert (brigadier)

Brigadier Peter Lambert is an Australian public servant and former senior officer in the Australian Army.

Lambert had a lengthy career with the Australian Defence Force, where he rose to the rank of brigadier, and later worked with the Defence Materiel Organisation (DMO). In January 2013 he joined the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) where he was Deputy Chief Defence Scientist (Corporate) and CIO. Following restructures and name changes, he became Chief of Research Services Division of the Defence Science and Technology Group.

Senior Australian Defence Organisation Positions

The Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) is composed of the armed forces of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF), and the Australian Public Service government department, the Department of Defence which is composed of a range of civilian support organisations.

The Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) leads the Australian Defence Force and the Secretary of Defence leads the Department of Defence though both jointly manage the Australian Defence Organisation under a diarchy, and both report directly to the Minister for Defence.

The highest active rank in the Australian Defence Force is reserved for the Chief of the Defence Force. This is a four-star rank and the CDF is the only Australian military officer at that level. As a result of the diarchy, the Secretary of the Department of Defence is of the equivalent civilian four-starlevel in the Senior Executive Service of the Australian Public Service.

Tanya Monro

Professor Tanya Mary Monro FAA FTSE FOSA FAIP GAICD (born 1973) is an Australian physicist known for her work in photonics. She has been Australia's Chief Defence Scientist since 8 March 2019. Prior to that she was the Deputy Vice Chancellor, Research and Innovation (DVCR&I) at the University of South Australia. She was awarded the ARC Georgina Sweet Australian Laureate Fellowship in 2013. She was the inaugural chair of photonics, the inaugural director of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale Biophotonics and the inaugural director of the Institute for Photonics & Advanced Sensing (IPAS), and the inaugural director of the Centre of Expertise in Photonics (CoEP) within the School of Chemistry and Physics at the University of Adelaide (now known as the School of Physical Sciences). Monro has remained an adjunct professor of physics at the University of Adelaide following her departure from the institution.

External roles include membership of the Australian Prime Minister's Commonwealth Science Council, the Board of the CSIRO, the South Australian Economic Development Board in which she chairs the Arts subcommittee, and the Defence SA board.Monro took up the role of Chief Defence Scientist in March 2019, the first woman in this position.

Australian Defence Organisation
Australian Defence Force
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