December 24

December 24 is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are seven days remaining until the end of the year.

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Events

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Holidays and observances

References

  1. ^ Samuel Farmar Jarvis (1845). A Chronological Introduction to the History of the Church: Being a New Inquiry Into the Birth and Death of Our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ; and Containing an Original Harmony of the Four Gospels. Harper & brothers. p. 313.
  2. ^ Richard Thomson (1829). An Historical Essay on the Magna Charta of King John: To which are Added, the Great Charter in Latin and English; the Charters of Liberties and Confirmations, Granted by Henry III. and Edward I.; the Original Charter of the Forests; and Various Authentic Instruments Connected with Them: Explanatory Notes on Their Several Privileges; a Descriptive Account of the Principal Originals and Editions Extant, Both in Print and Manuscript; and Other Illustrations, Derived from the Most Interesting and Authentic Sources. J. Major. p. 461.
  3. ^ Michael Jones (1 July 1988). Creation of Brittany. A&C Black. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-8264-3450-0.
  4. ^ Journal of the American Musicological Society. American Musicological Society. 1970.
  5. ^ Tyll Eulenspiegel (1860). The marvellous adventures and rare conceits of master Tyll Owlglass, newly collected, chronicled and set forth, in our Engl. tongue, by K.R.H. Mackenzie. p. 244.
  6. ^ Philip M. J. McNair (1967). Peter Martyr in Italy: An Anatomy of Apostasy. Clarendon Press.

External links

Chris Pratt

Christopher Michael Pratt (born June 21, 1979) is an American actor. He rose to prominence for his television roles, particularly as Andy Dwyer in the NBC sitcom Parks and Recreation (2009–2015), for which he received critical acclaim and was nominated for the Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series in 2013. He also starred earlier in his career as Bright Abbott in The WB drama series Everwood (2002–2006) and has notable roles in Wanted (2008), Jennifer's Body (2009), Moneyball (2011), The Five-Year Engagement (2012), Zero Dark Thirty (2013), Delivery Man (2013), and Her (2013).

Pratt achieved leading man status in 2014 after starring in two critically and commercially successful films, Warner Animation Group's The Lego Movie as Emmet Brickowski and Marvel Studios' Guardians of the Galaxy as Star-Lord. In 2015, he starred in Jurassic World, the fourth installment in the Jurassic Park franchise, which was his most financially successful film up until the release of Avengers: Infinity War; he reprised the former role in the sequel Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom in 2018. In 2015, Time named Pratt one of the 100 most influential people in the world on the annual Time 100 list.Pratt continued his leading man run in 2016 with The Magnificent Seven and Passengers. He reprises his role as Star-Lord in the Marvel Cinematic Universe in Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 (2017), Avengers: Infinity War (2018) and its upcoming sequel, Avengers: Endgame (2019).

Game of Thrones (season 1)

The first season of the fantasy drama television series Game of Thrones premiered on HBO on April 17, 2011 in the U.S. and concluded on June 19, 2011. It consists of ten episodes, each of approximately 55 minutes. The series is based on A Game of Thrones, the first novel in the A Song of Ice and Fire series by George R. R. Martin, adapted for television by David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. HBO had ordered a television pilot in November 2008; filming began the following year. However, it was deemed unsatisfactory and later reshot with some roles recast. In March 2010, HBO ordered the first season, which began filming in July 2010, primarily in Belfast, Northern Ireland, with additional filming in Malta.

The story takes place in a fictional world, primarily upon a continent called Westeros, with one storyline occurring on another continent to the east known as Essos. Like the novel, the season initially focuses on the family of nobleman Eddard "Ned" Stark, who is asked to become the King's Hand (chief advisor) to his king and longtime friend, Robert Baratheon. Ned must find out who killed his predecessor, Jon Arryn, while trying to protect his family from their rivals, the Lannisters. He uncovers the dark secrets about the Lannisters that his predecessor died trying to expose. Meanwhile, in Essos, the exiled Viserys Targaryen, son of the former king, believes he still has the rightful claim to the throne.

Game of Thrones features a large ensemble cast, including established actors such as Sean Bean, Mark Addy, Peter Dinklage, Lena Headey, Nikolaj Coster-Waldau, Michelle Fairley, and Iain Glen. Newer actors were cast as the younger generation of characters, such as Emilia Clarke, Kit Harington, Sophie Turner, and Maisie Williams.

Critics praised the show's production values and cast; Dinklage's portrayal of Tyrion Lannister received specific accolades, as did Bean and Clarke, as well as Ramin Djawadi for music.

The first season won two of the thirteen Emmy Awards for which it was nominated: Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series (Dinklage) and Outstanding Main Title Design. It was also nominated for Outstanding Drama Series. U.S. viewership rose by approximately 33% over the course of the season, from 2.2 million to over 3 million by the finale.

Gold standard

A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold. Three types can be distinguished: specie, bullion, and exchange.

In the gold specie standard the monetary unit is associated with the value of circulating gold coins, or the monetary unit has the value of a certain circulating gold coin, but other coins may be made of less valuable metal.

The gold bullion standard is a system in which gold coins do not circulate, but the authorities agree to sell gold bullion on demand at a fixed price in exchange for the circulating currency.

The gold exchange standard usually does not involve the circulation of gold coins. The main feature of the gold exchange standard is that the government guarantees a fixed exchange rate to the currency of another country that uses a gold standard (specie or bullion), regardless of what type of notes or coins are used as a means of exchange. This creates a de facto gold standard, where the value of the means of exchange has a fixed external value in terms of gold that is independent of the inherent value of the means of exchange itself.Most nations abandoned the gold standard as the basis of their monetary systems at some point in the 20th century, although many hold substantial gold reserves. A 2012 survey of leading American economists showed that they unanimously reject that a return to the gold standard would benefit the average American.

Kacey Musgraves

Kacey Lee Musgraves (born August 21, 1988) is an American country music singer and songwriter. She has won six Grammy Awards, four Country Music Association Awards and an Academy of Country Music Award. Musgraves self-released three albums before appearing on the fifth season of the USA Network's singing competition Nashville Star in 2007, where she placed seventh. In 2008, Kacey recorded two singles for Triple Pop in Austin, Texas.She later signed to Mercury Nashville in 2012 and released her critically acclaimed debut album Same Trailer Different Park in 2013, winning the Grammy Award for Best Country Album. The album's lead single "Merry Go 'Round" won her the Grammy Award for Best Country Song. It also featured the platinum certified single "Follow Your Arrow" which won her the Country Music Association Award for Song of the Year. In 2015, she released her second studio album Pageant Material (2015) which also received critical acclaim and a Best Country Album Grammy nomination. Musgraves also released a Christmas-themed album, A Very Kacey Christmas in 2016.Her fourth studio album Golden Hour (2018) was released to widespread critical acclaim and won all four of its nominated Grammy Awards categories, including Album of the Year and Best Country Album. The album's first two singles, "Butterflies" and "Space Cowboy", won Best Country Solo Performance and Best Country Song, respectively. Golden Hour also won the Country Music Association Award for Album of the Year.

Kwanzaa

Kwanzaa () is a celebration held in the United States and in other nations of the African diaspora in the Americas and lasts a week. The celebration honors African heritage in African-American culture and is observed from December 26 to January 1, culminating in a feast and gift-giving. Kwanzaa has seven core principles (Nguzo Saba). It was created by Maulana Karenga and was first celebrated in 1966–67.

LeSean McCoy

LeSean Kamel "Shady" McCoy (born July 12, 1988) is an American football running back for the Buffalo Bills of the National Football League (NFL). He was drafted by the Philadelphia Eagles in the second round of the 2009 NFL Draft. He played college football at Pittsburgh.

McCoy attended Bishop McDevitt High School in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, from 2002 to 2006. In his senior year of high school, McCoy suffered a major ankle injury, which threatened his career. In his first year at Pittsburgh in 2007, McCoy rushed for over 1,300 yards and recorded 14 touchdowns. In 2008, McCoy was selected as a second-team All-American. His 21 rushing touchdowns were third in the nation, only one behind the two leaders. McCoy made his NFL debut on September 13, 2009, against the Carolina Panthers. He rushed for 637 yards that year.In 2010, McCoy took over as the starting running back for the Eagles, and broke the 1,000 yard rushing barrier. In 2011, McCoy was named First team All-Pro by the Associated Press. In 2012, McCoy suffered a concussion that limited him to only twelve games. In 2013, McCoy led the NFL in rushing yards with 1,607, shattering the team's individual single-season rushing yards record that stood for 34 years. McCoy went on to become the all-time leading rusher for the Eagles after the 2014 season, breaking the record previously held by Wilbert Montgomery. In the 2015 offseason, he was traded to the Bills for linebacker Kiko Alonso. After the trade, he signed a new five-year contract worth $40 million.

Lee Daniels

Lee Louis Daniels (born December 24, 1959) is an American film and television writer, director, and producer. He produced Monster's Ball and directed Precious, which received six Academy Award nominations, including Best Director; it won two of the awards.

In 2012, Daniels directed The Butler, a historical fiction drama featuring an ensemble cast portraying unique events on the 20th century presidents of the United States at the White House. Daniels is also a co-creator, executive producer, and director of the television series Empire and Star, which debuted in 2015 and 2016, respectively.

Manhattan Bridge

The Manhattan Bridge is a suspension bridge that crosses the East River in New York City, connecting Lower Manhattan at Canal Street with Downtown Brooklyn at the Flatbush Avenue Extension. The main span is 1,470 ft (448 m) long, with the suspension cables being 3,224 ft (983 m) long. The bridge's total length is 6,855 ft (2,089 m). It is one of four toll-free bridges spanning the East River; the other three are the Queensboro, Williamsburg, and Brooklyn Bridges.

The bridge opened to traffic on December 31, 1909. It was built by The Phoenix Bridge Company and designed by Leon Moisseiff, and is noted for its innovative design. As the first suspension bridge to employ Josef Melan's deflection theory for the stiffening of its deck, it is considered to be the forerunner of modern suspension bridges, and this design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges built in the first half of the twentieth century. The Manhattan Bridge was also the first suspension bridge to utilize a Warren truss in its design.

Martha Stewart

Martha Helen Stewart (née Kostyra; Polish pronunciation: [kɔ'stɨra]; born August 3, 1941) is an American retail executive businesswoman, writer, television personality, and former model. As founder of Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, she gained success through a variety of business ventures, encompassing publishing, broadcasting, merchandising, and e-commerce. She has written numerous bestselling books, is the publisher of Martha Stewart Living magazine, and hosted two syndicated television programs, Martha, which ran from 2005 to 2012, and Martha Stewart Living, which ran from 1993 to 2004.

In 2004, Stewart was convicted of charges related to the ImClone stock trading case. There was speculation that the incident would effectively end her media empire, but in 2005 Stewart began a comeback campaign and her company returned to profitability in 2006. Stewart rejoined the board of directors of Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia in 2011 and became chairwoman of her namesake company again in 2012. The company was acquired by Sequential Brands in 2015.

Matthew Perry

Matthew Langford Perry (born August 19, 1969) is a Canadian-American actor, comedian and playwright who gained worldwide recognition for his role as Chandler Bing on the NBC television sitcom Friends. which ran from 1994 to 2004. By 2002, due to the vast popularity of the sitcom, the cast, including Perry, were making $1 million per episode.

Along with starring in the short-lived television series Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip, Perry has appeared in a number of films, including Fools Rush In (1997), The Whole Nine Yards (2000), and 17 Again (2009). In 2010, he expanded his resume to include both video games and voice-over work when he voiced Benny in the video game Fallout: New Vegas.Perry was the co-creator, co-writer, executive producer, and star of the ABC sitcom Mr. Sunshine, which ran from February to April 2011. In August 2012, Perry began starring as Ryan King, a sportscaster, on the NBC sitcom Go On. The series was canceled on May 10, 2013. Perry co-developed and starred in the 2015 CBS sitcom The Odd Couple portraying Oscar Madison. The series was renewed for a second season on May 11, 2015 and for a third season on May 16, 2016.

Minnesota Vikings

The Minnesota Vikings are a professional American football team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Vikings joined the National Football League (NFL) as an expansion team in 1960, and first took the field for the 1961 season. The team competes in the National Football Conference (NFC) North division.During the 1960s, the Vikings' record was typical for an expansion franchise, but improved over the course of the decade, resulting in a Central Division title in 1968. In 1969, their dominant defense led to the Vikings' league championship, the last NFL championship prior to the merger of the NFL with the AFL.

The team plays its home games at U.S. Bank Stadium in the Downtown East section of Minneapolis.

Nochebuena

Nochebuena is a Spanish word referring to the night of Christmas Eve and celebrated on December 24 every year.

North Carolina's 3rd congressional district

North Carolina's 3rd congressional district is located on the Atlantic coast of North Carolina. It covers the Outer Banks and the counties adjacent to the Pamlico Sound.

The district is currently vacant, having been most recently represented by the late Walter B. Jones Jr., a Republican. Jones had been the district's representative from 1995 until his death in February 2019. In 2008, he defeated Democrat Craig Weber for reelection, and was challenged in 2010 by former Chair of the Pitt County Democratic Party Johnny Rouse, whom he defeated by a vote of 72% to 26% (141,978 votes to 50,600). In 2012, he was challenged by Frank Palombo, the former New Bern Police Chief, for the Republican Party nomination. The winner of the Republican primary then faced Marine Corps Veteran Erik Anderson in the general election.

Peyton Manning

Peyton Williams Manning (born March 24, 1976) is a former American football quarterback who played 18 seasons in the National Football League (NFL), primarily with the Indianapolis Colts. Considered to be one of the greatest quarterbacks of all time due to his numerous career achievements, he spent 14 seasons with the Colts and was a member of the Denver Broncos in his last four seasons. Manning played college football for the University of Tennessee, leading the Tennessee Volunteers to the 1997 SEC Championship in his senior season. He is the second son of former NFL quarterback Archie Manning and older brother of New York Giants quarterback Eli Manning.

Manning was selected by the Colts as the first overall pick in the 1998 NFL Draft. From 1998 to 2010, he improved the fortunes of the struggling Colts franchise and helped transform them into consistent playoff contenders. During his tenure as starting quarterback, Manning led the team to eight division championships, two AFC championships, and one Super Bowl title, the franchise's first in over three decades, as well as their first since relocating to Indianapolis.

After undergoing neck surgery that forced him to miss the entire 2011 season, Manning was released by the Colts and signed with the Broncos. Serving as the team's starting quarterback from 2012 to 2015, he contributed to the Broncos reaching the top of their division each year and his playing career concluded with a victory in Super Bowl 50.

Manning holds many NFL records, including touchdown passes (539), AP MVP awards (5), Pro Bowl appearances (14), 4,000-yard passing seasons (14), single-season passing yards (5,477 in 2013), single-season passing touchdowns (55 in 2013), tied for most First-Team All Pros for a quarterback with 7, and is second in career passing yards (71,940). A two-time Super Bowl winner and the most valuable player of Super Bowl XLI, Manning is also the only quarterback to start the Super Bowl for two franchises more than once each, with different coaches at each Super Bowl start (Dungy, Caldwell, Fox, Kubiak), and the only starting quarterback to win a Super Bowl with two franchises. At 39 years of age, Manning was the oldest quarterback to start in and win a Super Bowl until Tom Brady surpassed him by winning a Super Bowl at 41.During a 2009 Monday Night Football game, Manning received the nickname "The Sheriff" from color commentator Jon Gruden due to his tendency to audible prior to the snap, and he was one of the most recognizable and parodied players in the NFL. Teams led by Manning typically utilized the hurry-up offense in place of the standard huddle.

Ryan Seacrest

Ryan John Seacrest (born December 24, 1974) is an American radio personality, television host, and producer. Seacrest is known for hosting the competition show American Idol, the syndicated countdown program American Top 40, and iHeartMedia's KIIS-FM morning radio show On Air with Ryan Seacrest.In 2006 Seacrest became co-host and executive producer of Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve. Seacrest remained a co-host and executive producer following Clark's death in 2012.He began co-hosting Live with Kelly and Ryan on a permanent basis May 1, 2017.Seacrest received Emmy Award nominations for American Idol from 2004 to 2013, and again in 2016. He won an Emmy for producing Jamie Oliver's Food Revolution in 2010 and was nominated again in 2012. In 2018, Seacrest received nominations for Live with Kelly and Ryan in Outstanding Talk Show Entertainment as well as Outstanding Entertainment Talk Show Host.

Salem witch trials

The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. More than 200 people were accused, 19 of whom were found guilty and executed by hanging (14 women and five men). One other man, Giles Corey, was crushed to death for refusing to plead, and at least five people died in jail. It was the deadliest witch hunt in the history of the United States.

Twelve other women had previously been executed in Massachusetts and Connecticut during the 17th century. Despite being generally known as the Salem witch trials, the preliminary hearings in 1692 were conducted in several towns: Salem Village (now Danvers), Salem Town, Ipswich, and Andover. The most infamous trials were conducted by the Court of Oyer and Terminer in 1692 in Salem Town.

The episode is one of Colonial America's most notorious cases of mass hysteria. It has been used in political rhetoric and popular literature as a vivid cautionary tale about the dangers of isolationism, religious extremism, false accusations, and lapses in due process. It was not unique, but a Colonial American example of the much broader phenomenon of witch trials in the early modern period, which took place also in Europe. Many historians consider the lasting effects of the trials to have been highly influential in subsequent United States history. According to historian George Lincoln Burr, "the Salem witchcraft was the rock on which the theocracy shattered."At the 300th anniversary events in 1992 to commemorate the victims of the trials, a park was dedicated in Salem and a memorial in Danvers. In November 2001, an act passed by the Massachusetts legislature exonerated five people, while another one, passed in 1957, had previously exonerated six other victims. As of 2004, there was still talk about exonerating all the victims, though some think that happened in the 19th century as the Massachusetts colonial legislature was asked to reverse the attainders of "George Burroughs and others". In January 2016, the University of Virginia announced its Gallows Hill Project team had determined the execution site in Salem, where the 19 "witches" had been hanged. The city owns the site and is planning to establish a memorial to the victims.

Solar eclipse of December 24, 1973

An annular solar eclipse occurred on December 24, 1973. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun's, blocking most of the Sun's light and causing the Sun to look like an annulus (ring). An annular eclipse appears as a partial eclipse over a region of the Earth thousands of kilometres wide. Annularity was visible from southern Mexico, southwestern Nicaragua, Costa Rica including the capital city San José, Panama, Colombia including the capital city Bogotá, southern Venezuela, Brazil, southern Guyana, southern Dutch Guiana (today's Suriname), southern French Guiana, Portuguese Cape Verde (today's Cape Verde) including the capital city Praia, Mauritania including the capital city Nouakchott, Spanish Sahara (today's Western Sahara), Mali, and Algeria.

The duration of annularity at maximum eclipse (closest to but slightly shorter than the longest duration) was 12 minutes, 2.5 seconds in the Atlantic Ocean near the Brazilian coast. It was the longest annular solar eclipse until January 14, 3080, but the Solar eclipse of December 14, 1955 lasted longer.

Solar eclipse of December 24, 1992

A partial solar eclipse occurred on December 24, 1992. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A partial solar eclipse occurs in the polar regions of the Earth when the center of the Moon's shadow misses the Earth.

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