December 23 is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are eight days remaining until the end of the year.
|December 23 in recent years
| 2018 (Sunday)
| 2017 (Saturday)
| 2016 (Friday)
| 2015 (Wednesday)
| 2014 (Tuesday)
| 2013 (Monday)
| 2012 (Sunday)
| 2011 (Friday)
| 2010 (Thursday)
| 2009 (Wednesday)
- 484 – Huneric dies and is succeeded by his nephew Gunthamund, who becomes king of the Vandals. During his reign Christians are protected from persecution.
- 558 – Chlothar I is crowned King of the Franks.
- 562 – Hagia Sophia in Constantinople reopened with a rebuilt dome after a series of earthquakes caused the original to collapse.
- 583 – Maya queen Yohl Ik'nal is crowned ruler of Palenque.
- 679 – King Dagobert II is murdered while hunting.
- 962 – Arab–Byzantine wars: Under the future Emperor Nicephorus Phocas, Byzantine troops storm the city of Aleppo.
- 1572 – Theologian Johann Sylvan is executed in Heidelberg for his heretical Antitrinitarian beliefs.
- 1688 – As part of the Glorious Revolution, King James II of England flees from England to Paris, France after being deposed in favor of his nephew, William of Orange and his daughter Mary.
- 1783 – George Washington resigns as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army at the Maryland State House in Annapolis, Maryland.
- 1793 – The Battle of Savenay: A decisive defeat of the royalist counter-revolutionaries in War in the Vendée during the French Revolution.
- 1815 – The novel Emma by Jane Austen is first published.
- 1876 – First day of the Constantinople Conference which resulted in agreement for political reforms in the Balkans.
- 1893 – The opera Hansel and Gretel by Engelbert Humperdinck is first performed.
- 1913 – The Federal Reserve Act is signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson, creating the Federal Reserve System.
- 1914 – World War I: Australian and New Zealand troops arrive in Cairo, Egypt.
- 1916 – World War I: Battle of Magdhaba: Allied forces defeat Turkish forces in the Sinai Peninsula.
- 1919 – Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act 1919 becomes law in the United Kingdom.
- 1936 – Colombia becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
- 1941 – World War II: After 15 days of fighting, the Imperial Japanese Army occupies Wake Island.
- 1947 – The transistor is first demonstrated at Bell Laboratories.
- 1948 – Seven Japanese military and political leaders convicted of war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East are executed by Allied occupation authorities at Sugamo Prison in Tokyo, Japan.
- 1954 – First successful kidney transplant is performed by J. Hartwell Harrison and Joseph Murray.
- 1968 – The 82 sailors from the USS Pueblo are released after eleven months of internment in North Korea.
- 1970 – The North Tower of the World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York, New York is topped out at 1,368 feet (417 m), making it the tallest building in the world.
- 1970 – The Democratic Republic of the Congo officially becomes a one-party state.
- 1972 – A 6.5 magnitude earthquake strikes the Nicaraguan capital of Managua killing more than 10,000.
- 1972 – The 16 survivors of the Andes flight disaster are rescued after 73 days, having reportedly survived by cannibalism.
- 1979 – Soviet–Afghan War: Soviet Union forces occupy Kabul, the Afghan capital.
- 1986 – Voyager, piloted by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, lands at Edwards Air Force Base in California becoming the first aircraft to fly non-stop around the world without aerial or ground refueling.
- 1990 – History of Slovenia: In a referendum, 88.5% of Slovenia's overall electorate vote for independence from Yugoslavia.
- 2002 – A U.S. MQ-1 Predator is shot down by an Iraqi MiG-25 in the first combat engagement between a drone and conventional aircraft.
- 2003 – PetroChina Chuandongbei natural gas field explosion, Guoqiao, Kai County, Chongqing, China, killing at least 234.
- 2007 – An agreement is made for the Kingdom of Nepal to be abolished and the country to become a federal republic with the Prime Minister becoming head of state.
- 2015 – A bomb explodes at Istanbul's Sabiha Gökçen Airport, killing one airport cleaner. The Kurdistan Freedom Hawks claim responsibility for the attack four days later.
- 968 – Zhen Zong, emperor of the Song Dynasty (d. 1022)
- 1173 – Louis I, duke of Bavaria (d. 1231)
- 1513 – Thomas Smith, English scholar and diplomat (d. 1577)
- 1525 – John Albert I, duke of Mecklenburg (d. 1576)
- 1573 – Giovanni Battista Crespi, Italian painter, sculptor and architect (d. 1632)
- 1582 – Severo Bonini, Italian organist and composer (d. 1663)
- 1544 – Anna of Saxony, only child and heiress of Maurice, Elector of Saxony (d. 1577)
- 1597 – Martin Opitz, German poet and composer (d. 1639)
- 1605 – Tianqi Emperor, Chinese emperor (d. 1627)
- 1613 – Carl Gustaf Wrangel, Swedish field marshal and politician, Lord High Constable of Sweden (d. 1676)
- 1621 – Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Nottingham, English lawyer and politician, Lord Chancellor of England (d. 1682)
- 1621 – Edmund Berry Godfrey, English lawyer and judge (d. 1678)
- 1689 – Joseph Bodin de Boismortier, French composer (d. 1755)
- 1690 – Pamheiba, Indian emperor (d. 1751)
- 1713 – Maruyama Gondazaemon, Japanese sumo wrestler, the 3rd Yokozuna (d. 1749)
- 1732 – Richard Arkwright, English businessman and inventor, invented the Water frame and Spinning frame (d. 1792)
- 1745 – John Jay, American jurist and politician, 1st Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1829)
- 1750 – Frederick Augustus I of Saxony (d. 1827)
- 1758 – Nathan Wilson, American soldier and politician (d. 1834)
- 1766 – Wilhelm Hisinger, Swedish physicist and chemist (d. 1852)
- 1777 – Alexander I of Russia (d. 1825)
- 1790 – Jean-François Champollion, French philologist, orientalist, and scholar (d. 1832)
- 1793 – Dost Mohammad Khan, emir of Afghanistan (d. 1863)
- 1804 – Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, French author, critic, and academic (d. 1869)
- 1805 – Joseph Smith, American religious leader, 1st President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1844)
- 1804 – Anthony Mary Claret, Spanish Roman Catholic archbishop and missionary (d. 1870)
- 1810 – Edward Blyth, English zoologist (d. 1873)
- 1810 – Karl Richard Lepsius, German Egyptologist (d. 1884)
- 1812 – Samuel Smiles, Scottish-English author (d. 1904)
- 1812 – Henri-Alexandre Wallon, French historian and statesman (d. 1904)
- 1819 – Jan Jakob Lodewijk ten Kate, Dutch pastor and poet (d. 1889)
- 1822 – Wilhelm Bauer, German engineer (d. 1875)
- 1828 – Mathilde Wesendonck, German poet and author (d. 1902)
- 1839 – János Murkovics, Slovene-Hungarian author and educator (d. 1917)
- 1843 – Richard Conner, American sergeant, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 1924)
- 1854 – Henry B. Guppy, English botanist and author (d. 1926)
- 1867 – Madam C. J. Walker, American businesswoman and philanthropist, founded the Madame C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company (d. 1919)
- 1870 – John Marin, American architect and painter (d. 1953)
- 1878 – Stephen Timoshenko, Ukrainian-American engineer and academic (d. 1972)
- 1885 – Pierre Brissaud, French illustrator, painter, and engraver (d. 1964)
- 1894 – Arthur Gilligan, English cricketer (d. 1976)
- 1895 – Nola Luxford, New Zealand-American actress and broadcaster (d. 1994)
- 1896 – Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa, Italian lieutenant and author (d. 1957)
- 1900 – Merle Barwis, American-Canadian supercentenarian (d. 2014)
- 1900 – Marie Bell, French actress and stage director (d. 1985)
- 1900 – Otto Soglow, American cartoonist (d. 1975)
- 1902 – Norman Maclean, American author and academic (d. 1990)
- 1902 – Charan Singh, Indian lawyer and politician, 5th Prime Minister of India (d. 1987)
- 1907 – Manuel Lopes, Cape Verdean author and poet (d. 2005)
- 1907 – James Roosevelt, American general and politician (d. 1991)
- 1907 – Avraham Stern, Polish Zionist leader (d. 1942)
- 1908 – Yousuf Karsh, Armenian-Canadian photographer (d. 2002)
- 1910 – Kurt Meyer, German general (d. 1961)
- 1911 – James Gregory, American actor (d. 2002)
- 1911 – Niels Kaj Jerne, English-Danish physician and immunologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1994)
- 1912 – Anna J. Harrison, American organic chemist and academic (d. 1998)
- 1912 – Woodrow Borah, American historian of Spanish America (d. 1999)
- 1916 – Dino Risi, Italian director and screenwriter (d. 2008)
- 1918 – José Greco, Italian-American dancer and choreographer (d. 2000)
- 1918 – Helmut Schmidt, German soldier, economist, and politician, 5th Chancellor of Germany (d. 2015)
- 1919 – Kenneth M. Taylor, American general and pilot (d. 2006)
- 1921 – Guy Beaulne, Canadian actor and director (d. 2001)
- 1922 – Micheline Ostermeyer, French discus thrower, shot putter, and pianist (d. 2001)
- 1923 – Onofre Marimón, Argentinian race car driver (d. 1954)
- 1923 – Günther Schifter, Austrian journalist and radio host (d. 2008)
- 1923 – James Stockdale, American admiral and pilot, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 2005)
- 1924 – Bob Kurland, American basketball player and politician (d. 2013)
- 1925 – Duncan Hallas, English author and politician (d. 2002)
- 1925 – Rayner Unwin, English publisher (d. 2000)
- 1926 – Robert Bly, American poet and essayist
- 1926 – Harold Dorman, American rock & roll singer-songwriter (d. 1988)
- 1929 – Chet Baker, American jazz trumpet player, flugelhorn player, and singer (d. 1988)
- 1929 – Dick Weber, American professional bowler (d. 2005)
- 1932 – Richard Clark Barkley, American soldier, academic, and diplomat, United States Ambassador to East Germany (d. 2015)
- 1933 – Akihito, Japanese emperor
- 1933 – Noella Leduc, American baseball player (d. 2014)
- 1935 – Paul Hornung, American football player and sportscaster
- 1935 – Johnny Kidd, English rock & roll singer-songwriter (d. 1966)
- 1935 – Abdul Ghani Minhat, Malaysian footballer and manager (d. 2012)
- 1935 – Esther Phillips, American R&B singer (d. 1984)
- 1936 – Bobby Ross, American football player and coach
- 1936 – Willie Wood, American football player
- 1937 – Barney Rosenzweig, American screenwriter and producer
- 1937 – Nelson Shanks, American painter, historian, and educator (d. 2015)
- 1938 – Bob Kahn, American computer scientist and engineer, co-developed the Transmission Control Protocol
- 1939 – Nancy Graves, American sculptor and painter (d. 1995)
- 1940 – Mamnoon Hussain, Pakistani businessman and politician, 12th President of Pakistan
- 1940 – Jorma Kaukonen, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 1940 – Robert Labine, Canadian politician
- 1940 – Kevin Longbottom, Australian rugby league player (d. 1986)
- 1940 – Eugene Record, American soul singer-songwriter (d. 2005)
- 1941 – Peter Davis, English businessman
- 1941 – Tim Hardin, American folk singer-songwriter and musician (d. 1980)
- 1942 – Quentin Bryce, Australian lawyer and politician, 25th Governor-General of Australia
- 1943 – Ron Allen, American baseball player
- 1943 – Mikhail Leonidovich Gromov, Russian-French mathematician and academic
- 1943 – Harry Shearer, American actor, voice artist, and comedian
- 1943 – Queen Silvia of Sweden
- 1944 – Wesley Clark, American general
- 1945 – Adly Mansour, Egyptian lawyer, judge, and politician, President of Egypt
- 1945 – Geoffrey Wheatcroft, English journalist and author
- 1946 – Robbie Dupree, American singer-songwriter
- 1946 – Edita Gruberová, Slovak soprano and actress
- 1946 – Susan Lucci, American actress
- 1946 – John Sullivan, English screenwriter, producer, and composer (d. 2011)
- 1947 – Bill Rodgers, American runner
- 1948 – David Davis, English politician, Minister of State for Europe
- 1948 – Jim Ferguson, American guitarist, composer, and journalist
- 1948 – Jack Ham, American football player and sportscaster
- 1948 – Rick Wohlhuter, American runner
- 1949 – Adrian Belew, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 1949 – Reinhold Weege, American screenwriter and producer (d. 2012)
- 1950 – Michael C. Burgess, American obstetrician and politician
- 1950 – Richard Dannatt, Baron Dannatt, English general
- 1950 – Vicente del Bosque, Spanish footballer and manager
- 1950 – Ilchi Lee, South Korean author and educator
- 1951 – Anthony Phillips, English guitarist and songwriter
- 1952 – William Kristol, American journalist, publisher, and political activist/pundit
- 1953 – Andres Alver, Estonian architect and academic
- 1953 – Gerrit W. Gong, American religious leader and academic
- 1954 – Raivo Järvi, Estonian radio host and politician (d. 2012)
- 1955 – Carol Ann Duffy, Scottish poet and playwright
- 1955 – Grace Knight, English-Australian singer-songwriter
- 1956 – Michele Alboreto, Italian race car driver (d. 2001)
- 1956 – Dave Murray, English guitarist and songwriter
- 1957 – Dan Bigras, Canadian singer-songwriter
- 1957 – Peter Wynn, Australian rugby league player and businessman
- 1958 – Joan Severance, American actress
- 1958 – Victoria Williams, American singer-songwriter
- 1961 – Ezzat el Kamhawi, Egyptian journalist and author
- 1961 – Ketan J. Patel, Kenyan-English biologist and academic
- 1961 – Carol Smillie, Scottish model and actress
- 1961 – Lorna Tolentino, Filipino actress and producer
- 1962 – Bertrand Gachot, Belgian race car driver
- 1962 – Stefan Hell, Romanian-German physicist and chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
- 1962 – Kang Je-gyu, South Korean director, producer, and screenwriter
- 1962 – Keiji Mutoh, Japanese wrestler and actor
- 1963 – Jim Harbaugh, American football player and coach
- 1963 – Jess Harnell, American singer-songwriter
- 1963 – Donna Tartt, American author
- 1963 – Ante Zelck, German businessman
- 1964 – Eddie Vedder, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 1966 – Badi Assad, Brazilian singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 1967 – Carla Bruni, Italian-French singer-songwriter and model
- 1967 – Tim Fountain, English author and playwright
- 1967 – Otis Grant, Jamaican-Canadian boxer, coach, and manager
- 1968 – Karyn Bryant, American journalist, actress, producer, and screenwriter
- 1968 – Barry Kooser, American painter and animator
- 1968 – Manuel Rivera-Ortiz, Puerto Rican-American photographer
- 1968 – René Tretschok, German footballer and manager
- 1969 – Greg Biffle, American race car driver
- 1969 – Martha Byrne, American actress and singer
- 1969 – Rob Pelinka, American sports agent
- 1969 – Rodney Culver, American football player (d. 1996)
- 1970 – Catriona LeMay Doan, Canadian speed skater and sportscaster
- 1970 – Raymont Harris, American football player
- 1970 – Karine Polwart, Scottish singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 1971 – Chris Cook, American race car driver
- 1971 – Corey Haim, Canadian actor (d. 2010)
- 1971 – Jo Johnson, English banker, journalist, and politician
- 1971 – Michalis Klokidis, Greek footballer
- 1971 – Tara Palmer-Tomkinson, English model, actress, and author (d. 2017)
- 1971 – Wim Vansevenant, Belgian cyclist
- 1971 – Masayoshi Yamazaki, Japanese singer-songwriter
- 1972 – Christian Potenza, Canadian actor, voice actor and singer
- 1972 – Brendan Reilly, British high jumper
- 1972 – Morgan, Italian singer-songwriter and composer
- 1974 – Agustín Delgado, Ecuadorian footballer and politician
- 1974 – Mieszko Talarczyk, Polish-Swedish singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (d. 2004)
- 1975 – Vadim Sharifijanov, Russian ice hockey player
- 1975 – Lady Starlight, American singer-songwriter
- 1976 – Joanna Hayes, American hurdler and coach
- 1976 – Brad Lidge, American baseball player
- 1976 – Dimitris Mavrogenidis, Uzbek-Greek footballer and manager
- 1976 – Jamie Noble, American wrestler and producer
- 1977 – Matt Baker, English television presenter
- 1977 – Alge Crumpler, American football player
- 1977 – Tore Johansen, Norwegian trumpeter and composer
- 1977 – Jari Mäenpää, Finnish singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 1977 – Paul Shirley, American basketball player and blogger
- 1978 – Esthero, Canadian-American singer-songwriter and producer
- 1978 – Andra Davis, American football player
- 1978 – Víctor Martínez, Venezuelan baseball player
- 1978 – Estella Warren, Canadian swimmer, model, and actress
- 1979 – Abraham Chebii, Kenyan runner
- 1979 – Scott Gomez, American ice hockey player
- 1979 – Megan Mayhew Bergman, American author and educator
- 1979 – Kenny Miller, Scottish footballer
- 1979 – Yukifumi Murakami, Japanese javelin thrower
- 1980 – Cody Ross, American baseball player
- 1981 – Maritza Correia, Puerto Rican-American swimmer
- 1981 – Yuriorkis Gamboa, Cuban boxer
- 1981 – Hiro Fujiwara, Japanese manga artist
- 1981 – Agnes Milowka, Polish-Australian diver, explorer, photographer, and author (d. 2011)
- 1981 – Mario Santana, Argentinian footballer
- 1982 – Brad Nelson, American baseball player
- 1982 – Thomas Rohregger, Austrian cyclist
- 1983 – Michael Chopra, English footballer
- 1983 – Lisa Dobriskey, English runner
- 1983 – Hanley Ramírez, Dominican baseball player
- 1984 – Dudu Aharon, Israeli singer-songwriter
- 1984 – Josh Satin, American baseball player
- 1984 – Sebastian Werle, German rugby player
- 1985 – Harry Judd, English drummer and songwriter
- 1986 – Thomas Bourgin, French motorcycle racer (d. 2013)
- 1986 – Beau Champion, Australian rugby league player
- 1986 – Balázs Dzsudzsák, Hungarian footballer
- 1986 – T. J. Oshie, American ice hockey player
- 1987 – Tommaso Bellazzini, Italian footballer
- 1987 – Owen Franks, New Zealand rugby player
- 1988 – Mallory Hagan, Miss America 2013
- 1989 – Liis Koger, Estonian painter and poet
- 1992 – Jeff Schlupp, German footballer
- 1996 – Bartosz Kapustka, Polish footballer
- 2002 – Finn Wolfhard, Canadian actor
- 423 – Ming Yuan Di, ruler of Northern Wei (b. 392)
- 484 – Huneric, Vandal king
- 668 – Mor Gabriel, Turkish bishop and saint (b. 594)
- 679 – Dagobert II, Frankish king (b. 650)
- 761 – Gaubald, Frankish bishop (b. 700)
- 889 – Solomon II, bishop of Constance
- 910 – Naum of Preslav, Bulgarian missionary and scholar
- 918 – Conrad I, king of East Francia (b. 890)
- 940 – Ar-Radi, Abbasid caliph (b. 909)
- 1172 – Ugo Ventimiglia, Italian cardinal
- 1193 – Thorlak, patron saint of Iceland (b. 1133)
- 1230 – Berengaria of Navarre, queen of England (b. 1165)
- 1304 – Matilda of Habsburg, duchess regent of Bavaria (b. 1253)
- 1332 – Philip I, Prince of Taranto (b. 1278)
- 1383 – Beatrice of Bourbon, Queen of Bohemia (b. 1320)
- 1384 – Thomas Preljubović, ruler of Epirus
- 1392 – Isabella of Castile, duchess of York (b. 1355)
- 1556 – Nicholas Udall, English cleric, playwright, and educator (b. 1504)
- 1568 – Roger Ascham, English scholar and academic (b. 1515)
- 1575 – Akiyama Nobutomo, Japanese samurai (b. 1531)
- 1588 – Henry I, duke of Guise (b. 1550)
- 1631 – Michael Drayton, English poet and playwright (b. 1563)
- 1646 – François Maynard, French poet and academic (b. 1582)
- 1652 – John Cotton, English minister and theologian (b. 1585)
- 1675 – Caesar, duc de Choiseul, French general and diplomat (b. 1602)
- 1722 – Pierre Varignon, French mathematician and academic (b. 1654)
- 1761 – Alastair Ruadh MacDonnell, Scottish spy (b. 1725)
- 1763 – Antoine François Prévost, French novelist and translator (b. 1697)
- 1771 – Marie-Marguerite d'Youville, Canadian nun and saint, founded Grey Nuns (b. 1701)
- 1779 – Augustus Hervey, 3rd Earl of Bristol, English admiral and politician, Chief Secretary for Ireland (b. 1724)
- 1789 – Charles-Michel de l'Épée, French priest and educator (b. 1712)
- 1795 – Henry Clinton, English general and politician (b. 1730)
- 1805 – Pehr Osbeck, Swedish explorer and author (b. 1723)
- 1834 – Thomas Robert Malthus, English economist and demographer (b. 1766)
- 1884 – John Chisum, American businessman and poker player (b. 1824)
- 1889 – Constance Naden, English poet and philosopher (b. 1858)
- 1902 – Frederick Temple, English archbishop and academic (b. 1821)
- 1906 – Mdungazwe Ngungunyane Nxumalo, last emperor of the Gaza Empire (b. c.1850)
- 1912 – Otto Schoetensack, German anthropologist and academic (b. 1850)
- 1926 – Swami Shraddhanand, Indian monk, missionary, and educator (b. 1856)
- 1930 – Mustafa Fehmi Kubilay, Turkish lieutenant and educator (b. 1906)
- 1931 – Wilson Bentley, American meteorologist and photographer (b. 1865)
- 1939 – Anthony Fokker, Indonesia-born Dutch pilot and engineer, designed the Fokker Dr.I and Fokker D.VII (b. 1890)
- 1946 – John A. Sampson, American gynecologist and academic (b. 1873)
- 1948 – Akira Mutō, Japanese general (b. 1883)
- 1948 – Hideki Tojo, Japanese general and politician, 40th Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1884)
- 1948 – Seishirō Itagaki, Japanese general (b. 1885)
- 1948 – Heitarō Kimura, Japanese general (b. 1888)
- 1948 – Iwane Matsui, Japanese general (b. 1878)
- 1948 – Kenji Doihara, Japanese general (b. 1883)
- 1948 – Kōki Hirota, Japanese diplomat and politician, 32nd Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1878)
- 1950 – Vincenzo Tommasini, Italian composer (b. 1878)
- 1953 – Lavrentiy Beria, Georgian-Russian general and politician, Russian Minister of Internal Affairs (b. 1899)
- 1954 – René Iché, French soldier and sculptor (b. 1897)
- 1961 – Carolyn Sherwin Bailey, American author (b. 1875)
- 1961 – Kurt Meyer, German general (b. 1910)
- 1970 – Charles Ruggles, American actor (b. 1886)
- 1970 – Aleksander Warma, Estonian lieutenant and politician, Prime Minister of Estonia in exile (b. 1890)
- 1972 – Andrei Tupolev, Russian engineer, designed the Tupolev Tu-95 and Tupolev Tu-104 (b. 1888)
- 1973 – Charles Atlas, Italian-American bodybuilder and model (b. 1892)
- 1973 – Irna Phillips, American screenwriter, created Guiding Light and As the World Turns (b. 1901)
- 1979 – Peggy Guggenheim, American-Italian art collector (b. 1898)
- 1982 – Jack Webb, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1920)
- 1983 – Colin Middleton, Irish painter and illustrator (b. 1910)
- 1984 – Joan Lindsay, Australian author and playwright (b. 1896)
- 1992 – Vincent Fourcade, French interior designer (b. 1934)
- 1994 – Sebastian Shaw, English actor, director, and playwright (b. 1905)
- 1995 – Patric Knowles, English actor (b. 1911)
- 1998 – Joe Orlando, Italian-American author and illustrator (b. 1927)
- 2000 – Billy Barty, American actor (b. 1924)
- 2000 – Victor Borge, Danish-American comedian, pianist, and conductor (b. 1909)
- 2000 – Noor Jehan, Pakistani singer and actress (b. 1926)
- 2001 – Bola Ige, Nigerian lawyer and politician, 3rd Governor of Oyo State (b. 1930)
- 2004 – P. V. Narasimha Rao, Indian lawyer and politician, 9th Prime Minister of India (b. 1921)
- 2005 – Lajos Baróti, Hungarian footballer and manager (b. 1914)
- 2006 – Charlie Drake, English actor (b. 1925)
- 2006 – Timothy J. Tobias, American pianist and composer (b. 1952)
- 2006 – Johnny Vincent, English footballer (b. 1947)
- 2007 – William Francis Ganong, Jr., American physiologist and academic (b. 1924)
- 2007 – Michael Kidd, American dancer and choreographer (b. 1915)
- 2007 – Oscar Peterson, Canadian pianist and composer (b. 1925)
- 2009 – Robert L. Howard, American colonel, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1939)
- 2009 – Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme, Tibetan general and politician (b. 1910)
- 2009 – Edward Schillebeeckx, Belgian theologian and academic (b. 1914)
- 2010 – Fred Hargesheimer, American soldier and pilot (b. 1916)
- 2010 – K. Karunakaran, Indian lawyer and politician, 7th Chief Minister of Kerala (b. 1918)
- 2011 – Aydın Menderes, Turkish economist and politician (b. 1946)
- 2012 – Jean Harris, American educator and murderer (b. 1923)
- 2012 – Eduardo Maiorino, Brazilian mixed martial artist and kick-boxer (b. 1979)
- 2012 – Capital STEEZ, American rapper (b. 1993)
- 2013 – Chryssa, Greek-American sculptor (b. 1933)
- 2013 – Mikhail Kalashnikov, Russian general and weapons designer, designed the AK-47 rifle (b. 1919)
- 2013 – Yusef Lateef, American saxophonist, composer, and educator (b. 1920)
- 2013 – Ricky Lawson, American drummer and composer (b. 1954)
- 2013 – José Ortiz, Spanish illustrator (b. 1932)
- 2013 – G. S. Shivarudrappa, Indian poet and educator (b. 1926)
- 2013 – Kerimbubu Shopokova, Kyrgyzstani collective farm worker of the Soviet era (b. 1917)
- 2013 – Robert W. Wilson, American philanthropist and art collector (b. 1928)
- 2014 – Edward Greenspan, Canadian lawyer and author (b. 1944)
- 2014 – Robert V. Hogg, American statistician and academic (b. 1924)
- 2014 – Jeremy Lloyd, English actor and screenwriter (b. 1930)
- 2015 – Alfred G. Gilman, American pharmacologist and biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1941)
- 2015 – Don Howe, English footballer and manager (b. 1935)
- 2015 – Jean-Marie Pelt, French biologist, pharmacist, and academic (b. 1933)
- 2015 – Bülent Ulusu, Turkish admiral and politician, 18th Prime Minister of Turkey (b. 1923)
- 2017 – Maurice Hayes, Irish educator and politician (b. 1927)
Holidays and observances
External links 2016 NFL season
The 2016 NFL season was the 97th season in the history of the National Football League (NFL). The season began on September 8, 2016, with the defending Super Bowl 50 champion Denver Broncos defeating the Carolina Panthers 21–20 in the NFL Kickoff Game. The season concluded with Super Bowl LI, the league's championship game on February 5, 2017, at NRG Stadium in Houston with the New England Patriots defeating the Atlanta Falcons 34–28 in overtime.
For the first time since the Houston Oilers relocated to Tennessee in 1997, an NFL team relocated to another state, as the former St. Louis Rams moved out of St. Louis, Missouri and returned to Los Angeles, its home from 1946 to 1994. For the first time since the 2003 NFL season, neither of the previous season's Super Bowl participants made the playoffs.The 2016 season also was the last season for the San Diego Chargers after playing in San Diego for fifty-six years before their return to the city of Los Angeles for 2017, where the franchise was based in for their first season in 1960. Alexis Texas
Alexis Texas (born May 25, 1985) is an American pornographic actress, director, and featured dancer. Aquarius (astrology)
Aquarius (♒) is the eleventh astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation Aquarius. Under the tropical zodiac, the sun is in Aquarius between about January 21 and about February 20, while under the sidereal Zodiac, the sun is in Aquarius from approximately February 15 to March 14, depending on the leap year. Britt Robertson
Brittany Leanna Robertson (born April 18, 1990) is an American actress. She began acting as a child at the Greenville Little Theater in Greenville, South Carolina, and she made her screen debut as the younger version of the title character in an episode of Sheena in 2000. She made a guest appearance on Power Rangers Time Force the following year and received a Young Artist Award nomination for Best Performance in a TV Movie, Miniseries, or Special – Leading Young Actress for her role in The Ghost Club (2003). Robertson went on to have roles in Growing Pains: Return of the Seavers (2004), Keeping Up with the Steins (2006), Dan in Real Life (2007), The Tenth Circle (2008), Mother and Child (2009), Avalon High (2010), Scream 4 (2011) and The First Time (2012).
Robertson played the lead role of Lux Cassidy in the television drama series Life Unexpected (2010–11), which was cancelled in its second season despite positive reviews. She also had a leading role in the supernatural teen drama television series The Secret Circle (2011–12), but it was also cancelled after its first season. In 2013, she landed a role in the main cast of the science fiction mystery television series Under the Dome, which she played until 2014. She had subsequent roles in the films Delivery Man (2013) and Ask Me Anything (2014), for which she won the Best Actress award at the Nashville Film Festival, and she was awarded the Boston Film Festival Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in White Rabbit (2013).
Robertson received wider recognition in 2015 after landing the roles of Sophia Danko in The Longest Ride and Casey Newton in Tomorrowland. For the former, she was nominated for the Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie Actress – Drama, and for the latter, she was nominated for the Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie Actress – Sci-Fi/Fantasy. In 2016, she starred in the films Mr. Church and Mother's Day, and in 2017, she starred in the science fiction romance film The Space Between Us and in the comedy-drama film A Dog's Purpose. That same year, she headlined the Netflix comedy television series Girlboss, portraying a fictionalized version of self-made millionaire Sophia Amoruso. She currently stars in the ABC legal drama For the People. Elon Musk
Elon Reeve Musk (; born June 28, 1971) is a technology entrepreneur and engineer. He holds South African, Canadian, and U.S. citizenship and is the founder, CEO, and lead designer of SpaceX; co-founder, CEO, and product architect of Tesla, Inc.; co-founder and CEO of Neuralink; founder of The Boring Company; and co-founder of PayPal.
In December 2016, he was ranked 21st on the Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People. As of October 2018, he has a net worth of $22.8 billion and is listed by Forbes as the 54th-richest person in the world.Born and raised in Pretoria, South Africa, Musk moved to Canada when he was 17 to attend Queen's University. He transferred to the University of Pennsylvania two years later, where he received an economics degree from the Wharton School and a degree in physics from the College of Arts and Sciences. He began a Ph.D. in applied physics and material sciences at Stanford University in 1995 but dropped out after two days to pursue an entrepreneurial career. He subsequently co-founded Zip2, a web software company, which was acquired by Compaq for $340 million in 1999. Musk then founded X.com, an online bank. It merged with Confinity in 2000 and later that year became PayPal, which was bought by eBay for $1.5 billion in October 2002.In May 2002, Musk founded SpaceX, an aerospace manufacturer and space transport services company, of which he is CEO and lead designer. He helped fund Tesla, Inc., an electric vehicle and solar panel manufacturer, in 2003, and became its CEO and product architect. In 2006, he inspired the creation of SolarCity, a solar energy services company that is now a subsidiary of Tesla, and operates as its chairman. In 2015, Musk co-founded OpenAI, a nonprofit research company that aims to promote friendly artificial intelligence. In July 2016, he co-founded Neuralink, a neurotechnology company focused on developing brain–computer interfaces, and is its CEO. In December 2016, Musk founded The Boring Company, an infrastructure and tunnel-construction company.
In addition to his primary business pursuits, Musk has envisioned a high-speed transportation system known as the Hyperloop, and has proposed a vertical take-off and landing supersonic jet electric aircraft with electric fan propulsion, known as the Musk electric jet.
Musk has stated that the goals of SpaceX, Tesla, and SolarCity revolve around his vision to change the world and humanity. His goals include reducing global warming through sustainable energy production and consumption, and reducing the risk of human extinction by establishing a human colony on Mars. Festivus
Festivus is a secular holiday celebrated on December 23 as an alternative to the pressures and commercialism of the Christmas season. Originally created by author Daniel O'Keefe, Festivus entered popular culture after it was made the focus of the 1997 Seinfeld episode "The Strike", which O'Keefe's son, Dan O'Keefe, co-wrote.
The non-commercial holiday's celebration, as depicted on Seinfeld, occurs on December 23 and includes a Festivus dinner, an unadorned aluminum Festivus pole, practices such as the "Airing of Grievances" and "Feats of Strength", and the labeling of easily explainable events as "Festivus miracles". The episode refers to it as "a Festivus for the rest of us".
It has been described both as a parody holiday festival and as a form of playful consumer resistance. Journalist Allen Salkin describes it as "the perfect secular theme for an all-inclusive December gathering". Gunstar Heroes
Gunstar Heroes is a run and gun video game developed by Treasure and published by Sega. It was Treasure's debut game, originally released on the Mega Drive in 1993. The game's premise is centered around a pair of characters, the Gunstars, in their efforts to stop an evil empire from recovering four powerful gems. The characters can fire guns and perform a series of acrobatic maneuvers to fight enemies across each stage. There are four weapons in the game which can be combined with one another to create different shot types.
Development on Gunstar Heroes began among a team of staff working at Konami in 1991. Following an unwillingness of Konami to embrace their original game ideas, the team quit in 1992 and formed Treasure to see their project through. The team wanted to develop their game for the Mega Drive because of the system's powerful Motorola 68000 microprocessor. Sega initially rejected their proposal, but later granted approval after they had been working for Sega for several months on McDonald's Treasure Land Adventure (1993). Treasure worked on both games in parallel, and released Gunstar Heroes worldwide as their first game in 1993.
Gunstar Heroes was a critical success, being praised for its frantic action and advanced graphics. It helped establish Treasure's place in the industry, and introduced several design conventions which would become characteristic of their later work such as large bosses and a unique sense of humor. It was re-released several times, including dedicated ports to the Game Gear and Nintendo 3DS, and received a sequel on the Game Boy Advance. In retrospect, it is considered one of the best action games of the 16-bit era, and one of the best video games of all time by several publications. Halsey (singer)
Ashley Nicolette Frangipane (; born September 29, 1994), known professionally as Halsey (), is an American singer, songwriter and actress. Musically talented from a young age, she began songwriting at seventeen. In 2012, she began releasing music on social media platforms, and was signed by Astralwerks in 2014. Soon after, she released her debut EP, Room 93 (2014), and toured with larger acts to promote it.
Her debut studio album Badlands was released in 2015. Spawning four platinum tracks and two gold tracks, Badlands peaked at number two on the US Billboard 200 and was certified platinum in the US. To promote the album, she embarked on her debut headlining world tour. In 2017, Halsey released her second studio album Hopeless Fountain Kingdom, which consisted of more "radio friendly" music than her prior releases. It peaked at number one in the US, and was preceded by "Now or Never", which debuted at number 17 on the Billboard Hot 100 and became Halsey's first solo track to earn multi-platinum status. The album also produced "Bad at Love", which became her first top-five entry on the Billboard hot 100 as a solo artist. In 2018, Halsey released "Without Me", which became her first number-one single on the Billboard Hot 100 as a solo artist.
Outside of her solo music, several of Halsey's collaborations had top-twenty entries on the Billboard Hot 100. "Closer", which Halsey also cowrote, topped charts in major music markets and won a number of accolades.
Halsey is noted for her distinctive singing voice. Her music focuses on her personal experiences and telling a story. Her accolades include a Grammy nomination and four Billboard Music Awards. Outside of her career, Halsey has been involved in suicide prevention awareness and sexual assault victim advocacy. Jurassic 5
Jurassic 5 is an American alternative hip hop group formed in 1991 by members of two previous groups (Rebels of Rhythm and Unity Committee): rappers Charles Stewart (Chali 2na), Dante Givens (Akil), Courtenay Henderson (Soup aka Zaakir), Marc Stuart (Marc 7); and disc jockeys Mark Potsic (DJ Nu-Mark) and Lucas Macfadden (Cut Chemist).
The six piece crew that was formed, came out of the Los Angeles venue Good Life.
The group broke up in 2007,
shortly after releasing their fourth LP Feedback, citing "musical differences," but returned to the stage in 2013 and released a new track in 2014. The members have continued to release music, the most recent of which is Nu-Mark's 2014 EP with Pharcyde member Slimkid3 (released on Delicious Vinyl). Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Lancaster County locally , (Pennsylvania German: Lengeschder Kaundi) sometimes nicknamed the Garden Spot of America or Pennsylvania Dutch Country, is a county located in the south central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 519,445. Its county seat is Lancaster.Lancaster County comprises the Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Metropolitan Statistical Area and is a part of Philadelphia's Designated Media Market.
The County of Lancaster is a popular tourist destination, with its Amish community a major attraction. The "Dutch" of Pennsylvania Dutch is the English form of Düütsch, the Low German cognate of Standard German Deutsch and Pennsylvania Dutch Deitsch. (Historically, the terms "German" and "Dutch" were used interchangeably to describe all of the Germanic peoples living within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire.) The ancestors of the Amish began to immigrate to colonial Pennsylvania in the early 18th century to take advantage of the religious freedom offered by William Penn. They were also attracted by the area's rich soil and mild climate. Also attracted to promises of religious freedom, French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution settled this area in 1710. There were also significant numbers of English, Welsh and Ulster Scots (also known as the Scotch-Irish in the colonies). List of Russian dishes
This is a list of notable dishes found in Russian cuisine. Russian cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Russian peoples. The cuisine is diverse, with Northeast European/Baltic, Caucasian, Central Asian, Siberian, East Asian and Middle Eastern influences. Russian cuisine derives its varied character from the vast and multi-ethnic expanse of Russia. List of U.S. National Historic Landmarks by state
The United States National Historic Landmark Program is designed to recognize and honor the nation's cultural and historical heritage. The program was formally inaugurated with a series of listings on October 9, 1960; as of February 16, 2017, there are 2,596 designated landmarks. A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is generally a building, district, object, site, or structure, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its national historical significance. A National Historic Landmark District (NHLD) is a historic district that is recognized as an NHL. Its geographic area may include contributing properties that are buildings, structures, sites or objects, and it may include non-contributing properties.
The program is administered by the National Park Service (NPS), a branch of the Department of the Interior. The National Park Service determines which properties meet NHL criteria and makes nomination recommendations after an owner notification process. The Secretary of the Interior reviews nominations and, based on a set of predetermined criteria, makes a decision on NHL designation or a determination of eligibility for designation. Both public and privately owned properties can be designated as NHLs. This designation provides indirect, partial protection of the historic integrity of the properties via tax incentives, grants, monitoring of threats, and other means. Owners may object to the nomination of the property as a NHL. When this is the case the Secretary of the Interior can only designate a site as eligible for designation.All NHLs are also included on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), a list of some 80,000 historic properties that the National Park Service deems to be worthy of recognition. The primary difference between a NHL and a NRHP listing is that the NHLs are determined to have national significance, while other NRHP properties are deemed significant at the local or state level. Madam C. J. Walker
Sarah Breedlove (December 23, 1867 – May 25, 1919), known as Madam C. J. Walker, was an African-American entrepreneur, philanthropist, and a political and social activist. Walker was considered to be the wealthiest African-American businesswoman and wealthiest self made woman in America at the time of her death in 1919. Although she was eulogized as the first female self-made millionaire in the US, her estate was worth an estimated $600,000 upon her death. According to Walker's obituary in The New York Times, "she said herself two years ago [in 1917] that she was not yet a millionaire, but hoped to be some time".
Walker made her fortune by developing and marketing a line of cosmetics and hair care products for black women through the business she founded, Madam C. J. Walker Manufacturing Company. Walker was also known for her philanthropy and activism. She made financial donations to numerous organizations and became a patron of the arts. Villa Lewaro, Walker's lavish estate in Irvington-on-Hudson, New York, served as a social gathering place for the African-American community.
Her name, Madam C. J. Walker, came as a result of her marriage to Charles Joseph Walker. Matt Ryan (American football)
Matthew Thomas Ryan (born May 17, 1985), nicknamed Matty Ice, is an American football quarterback and team captain for the Atlanta Falcons of the National Football League (NFL). After playing college football for Boston College, Ryan was drafted by the Falcons with the third overall pick in the first round of the 2008 NFL Draft.
Ryan was Boston College's starting quarterback from 2005 to 2007, leading them to three bowl victories and a 25–7 record in 32 starts. He threw for 200 or more yards 15 times and is third all time in school history in passing yards and in pass completions. He earned MVP of the game honors at the 2005 MPC Computers Bowl.In 2007, Ryan led his team to an ACC Atlantic Division championship and was named ACC Player of the Year. During his rookie year, Ryan started all 16 games for the Falcons and led them to the playoffs with an 11–5 season record. He earned honors as the NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year. In 2016, Ryan was the NFL's Most Valuable Player and led the Falcons to Super Bowl LI, where they were defeated by the New England Patriots.
After signing a $150 million five-year extension with the Falcons in 2018, Ryan became the first $30 million per year quarterback and the highest paid player in NFL history until being surpassed months later by Aaron Rodgers. Michelle Rodriguez
Mayte Michelle Rodriguez (born July 12, 1978) is an American actress. Her breakout role was as a troubled boxer in the independent film Girlfight (2000), which was met with critical acclaim and earned her several awards, including the Independent Spirit Award and Gotham Award for Best Debut Performance. The following year, she starred as Letty Ortiz in the blockbuster film The Fast and the Furious (2001), a role she has reprised in five additional films in the Fast & Furious franchise. During her career, Rodriguez has played in a number of successful action films, including Resident Evil, S.W.A.T., and Avatar.
Rodriguez also branched into television, playing Ana Lucia Cortez in the second season of the television series Lost. She has also had numerous voice work appearances in video games such as Call of Duty and Halo, and lent her voice for the 3D animated film Turbo and the television series IGPX. With her films grossing over $5 billion (U.S.) collectively, a 2013 Entertainment Weekly article described Rodriguez as "arguably the most iconic actress in the action genre, as well as one of the most visible Latinas in Hollywood". Mitch Hedberg
Mitchell Lee Hedberg (February 24, 1968 – March 30, 2005) was an American stand-up comedian known for his surreal humor and unconventional, often deadpan comedic delivery. His comedy typically featured short, sometimes one-line jokes mixed with absurd elements and non sequiturs.Hedberg's comedy and onstage persona gained him a cult following, with audience members sometimes shouting out the punchlines to his jokes before he could finish them. He died of a cocaine and heroin drug overdose in 2005. Quake (series)
Quake is a series of first-person shooter video games, starting with the game of the same name. Solar eclipse of December 23, 1908
A total solar eclipse occurred on December 23, 1908. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide.
This event is a hybrid, starting and ending as an annular eclipse. Annularity was visible from Chile, Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil, while totality was visible only from southern Atlantic Ocean with no land. The Sixth Sense
The Sixth Sense is a 1999 American supernatural horror film written and directed by M. Night Shyamalan. The film tells the story of Cole Sear (Haley Joel Osment), a boy who is able to see and talk to the dead, and Malcolm Crowe (Bruce Willis), a child psychologist who tries to help him. The film established Shyamalan as a writer and director, and introduced the cinema public to his traits, most notably his affinity for surprise endings.Released by Hollywood Pictures on August 6, 1999, the film was well-received by critics; praise was given to its acting performances (particularly Willis, Osment, and Toni Collette), atmosphere, and twist conclusion. The Sixth Sense was the second-highest-grossing film of 1999 (behind Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace), taking about $293 million in the US and $379 million in other markets. This made it the highest-grossing horror film (in unadjusted dollars) until 2017, when it was surpassed by It.
The film was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director and Best Original Screenplay for Shyamalan, Best Supporting Actor for Osment, and Best Supporting Actress for Collette.
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