|December 2 in recent years|
Benito Antonio Martinez Ocasio (born March 10,1994), known by his stage name Bad Bunny, is a Puerto Rican Latin trap singer. While working in a supermarket as a bagger and studying at the University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo, Bad Bunny gained popularity on SoundCloud and was signed to a record label. "Soy Peor" was his 2017 breakthrough single, and was followed by a number of hits, notable appearances, and a collaboration with Cardi B and J Balvin on the Billboard Hot 100 number-one single "I Like It" and with Drake on "Mia". His debut album, X 100pre, was released in December 2018.Beverly Hills, 90210
Beverly Hills, 90210 is an American teen drama television series created by Darren Star and produced by Aaron Spelling under his production company Spelling Television. The series ran for ten seasons on Fox from October 4, 1990, to May 17, 2000, and is the longest-running show produced by Spelling. It is the first of five television series in the Beverly Hills, 90210 franchise and follows the lives of a group of friends living in the upscale and star-studded community of Beverly Hills, California, as they transition from high school to college and into the adult world. "90210" refers to one of the city's five ZIP codes.The initial premise of the show was based on the adjustment and culture shock that twins Brandon (Jason Priestley) and Brenda Walsh (Shannen Doherty) experienced when they and their parents, Jim (James Eckhouse) and Cindy (Carol Potter), moved from Minneapolis, Minnesota, to Beverly Hills. In addition to chronicling the characters' friendships and romantic relationships, the show addressed topical issues such as sex, date rape, homophobia, animal rights, alcoholism, drug abuse, domestic violence, eating disorders, antisemitism, racism, teenage suicide, teenage pregnancy, and AIDS.After poor ratings during its first season, the series gained popularity during the summer of 1991, when Fox aired a special "summer season" of the show while most other series were in reruns. Viewership increased dramatically, and 90210 became one of Fox's top shows when it returned that fall. The show became a global pop culture phenomenon with its cast members, particularly Jason Priestley and Luke Perry, who became teen idols; the series also made actresses Shannen Doherty and Jennie Garth household names in the US. The show is credited with creating or popularizing the teen soap genre that many other successful television shows followed in the years to come.
The show had many cast changes; Jennie Garth, Tori Spelling, Brian Austin Green, and Ian Ziering were the only actors to appear during its entire run and appeared on the first episode of Melrose Place.
On February 27, 2019, it was announced that a six-episode revival has been ordered by FOX and that the show would simply be titled 90210.Britney Spears
Britney Jean Spears (born December 2, 1981) is an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and actress. Born in McComb, Mississippi and raised in Kentwood, Louisiana, she appeared in stage productions and television series, before signing with Jive Records in 1997. Spears's first two studio albums, ...Baby One More Time (1999) and Oops!... I Did It Again (2000), were global successes and made her the best-selling teenage artist of all-time. Referred to as the "Princess of Pop", Spears was regarded as a pop icon and credited with influencing the revival of teen pop during the late 1990s and early 2000s.
Spears adopted more mature and provocative themes for her next two studio albums, Britney (2001) and In the Zone (2003), and made her feature film debut in a starring role in Crossroads (2002). Following a series of heavily publicized personal struggles and erratic public behavior, Spears's career was interrupted, before the release of her fifth studio album Blackout (2007), which is often critically referred to as her best work. Her erratic behavior and hospitalizations led Spears to be placed on a still ongoing conservatorship. She returned to the top of record charts with her sixth and seventh studio albums, Circus (2008) and Femme Fatale (2011), respectively. In 2012, Forbes reported that Spears was the highest paid female musician of the year, with earnings of $58 million, having last topped the list in 2002. During the promotion of her eighth and ninth studio albums, Britney Jean (2013) and Glory (2016), Spears embarked on a four-year concert residency, Britney: Piece of Me, at Planet Hollywood Resort & Casino in Las Vegas, which became one of the highest-grossing residencies of all-time. In 2019, Spears announced an indefinite career hiatus due to her father's unstable health.
Spears scored six number one albums on the Billboard 200, making her the third best performing female artist on the chart. Five of Spears's singles have reached number one on the US Billboard Hot 100: "...Baby One More Time", "Womanizer", "3", "Hold It Against Me" and "S&M". Other singles, "Oops!... I Did It Again" and "Toxic", topped Australian and Canadian charts. With "3" in 2009 and "Hold It Against Me" in 2011, she became the second artist after Mariah Carey in the Hot 100's history to debut at number one with two or more songs. Spears has earned numerous awards and accolades, including a Grammy Award, six Guinness World Records, six MTV Video Music Awards, including the Michael Jackson Video Vanguard Award, seven Billboard Music Awards, including the Millennium Award, the inaugural Radio Disney Icon Award, and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, becoming the youngest recording artist ever to receive the honor, at age 21.Billboard ranked her as the eighth biggest artist of the 2000s decade. One of the world's best-selling music artists, Spears has sold over 150 million records worldwide and more than 70 million records in United States, including 36.9 million digital singles and 33.6 million digital albums. In the United States, Spears remains the fourth best-selling female album artist of the Nielsen SoundScan era, as well as the best-selling female albums artist of the 2000s. In 2004, she launched a perfume brand with Elizabeth Arden, Inc., from which sales exceeded US$1.5 billion, as of 2012. The singer serves as one of the few artists in history to have a number one single and studio album in the US during each of the three decades of their career—1990s, 2000s, and 2010s. Spears has topped the list of most searched celebrities seven times in 12 years, a record since the inception of the internet.Charlie Puth
Charles Otto Puth Jr. (; born December 2, 1991) is an American singer, songwriter and record producer. His initial exposure came through the viral success of his song videos uploaded to YouTube.
"See You Again" was released as Puth's debut single in 2015, which he co-wrote, co-produced, and performed with Wiz Khalifa for the Furious 7 soundtrack as a tribute to Paul Walker. It peaked at number one on the US Billboard Hot 100 for 12 non-consecutive weeks. After the success of "See You Again", he gained worldwide recognition for multiple subsequent releases, including his debut single "Marvin Gaye", which featured American singer-songwriter Meghan Trainor. The song topped charts in New Zealand, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.
Puth's debut studio album, Nine Track Mind, was released in January 2016, and was preceded by the singles "One Call Away" and "We Don't Talk Anymore", which peaked at number 12 and number nine, respectively on the US Billboard Hot 100. In 2017, he released two songs, "Attention" and "How Long" from his second studio album, Voicenotes, with the former peaking at number four on Billboard Hot 100.Desi Arnaz
Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha III (March 2, 1917 – December 2, 1986), better known as Desi Arnaz, was a Cuban-born American actor, musician, and television producer. He is best remembered for his role as Ricky Ricardo on the American television series sitcom I Love Lucy. He co-starred on that show with dramatic and comedic actress Lucille Ball (1911–1989), to whom he was married at the time. He and Ball are generally credited as the innovators of the syndicated rerun, which they pioneered with the I Love Lucy series.Arnaz and Lucille Ball co-founded and ran the television production company Desilu Productions, originally to market I Love Lucy to television networks. After I Love Lucy ended, Arnaz went on to produce several other television series, at first with Desilu Productions, and later independently, examples of which included The Ann Sothern Show and The Untouchables. He was also renowned for leading his Latin music band, the Desi Arnaz Orchestra.George H. W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush (June 12, 1924 – November 30, 2018) was an American politician who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd vice president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, he held posts that included those of congressman, ambassador, and CIA director. Until his son George W. Bush became the 43rd president in 2001, he was usually known simply as George Bush.
Bush postponed his university studies after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, enlisted in the Navy on his 18th birthday, and became one of its youngest aviators. He served until September 1945, and then attended Yale University, graduating in 1948. He moved his family to West Texas where he entered the oil business and became a millionaire by the age of 40 in 1964. After founding his own oil company, Bush was defeated in his first run for the United States Senate in 1964, but won election to the House of Representatives from Texas's 7th congressional district in 1966. He was reelected in 1968 but was defeated for election to the Senate in 1970. In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Bush as Ambassador to the United Nations, and he became Chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973. The following year, President Gerald Ford appointed him Chief of the Liaison Office in China and later made him the director of Central Intelligence. Bush ran for president in 1980, was defeated in the Republican primary by Ronald Reagan, and then as Reagan's running mate Bush became vice-president after the ticket's election. During his eight-year tenure as vice president, Bush headed task forces on deregulation and the war on drugs.
Bush in 1988 defeated Democratic opponent Michael Dukakis, becoming the first incumbent vice president to be elected president in 152 years. Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency; military operations were conducted in Panama and the Persian Gulf, the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, and the Soviet Union dissolved two years later. Bush also signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which created a trade bloc consisting of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Domestically, Bush reneged on a 1988 campaign promise and signed a bill to increase taxes. He lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton following an economic recession and the decreased importance of foreign policy in a post–Cold War political climate.
After leaving office in 1993, Bush was active in humanitarian activities, often alongside Clinton, his former opponent. With George W. Bush's victory in the 2000 presidential election, Bush and his son became the second father–son pair to serve as President, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams. Bush died on November 30, 2018, aged 94 years, 171 days, making him the longest-lived president in U.S. history.Heather Graham
Heather Joan Graham (born January 29, 1970) is an American actress. After appearing in television commercials, her first starring role in a feature film came with the teen comedy License to Drive (1988), followed by the critically acclaimed film Drugstore Cowboy (1989), which gained her initial industry notice. She then played supporting roles in films such as Shout (1991), Diggstown (1992), Six Degrees of Separation (1993), Swingers (1996) and on the television series Twin Peaks (1991) and its prequel film Fire Walk with Me (1992), before gaining critical praise in Paul Thomas Anderson's Boogie Nights (1997) as porn starlet Brandy / Rollergirl. In 1999, she co-starred in Bowfinger and Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me.
In the 2000s, Graham starred in films Committed (2000), Say It Isn't So (2001), Mary (2005), Gray Matters (2007), The Hangover (2009) and its sequel, The Hangover Part III (2013). She also had a role on the television series Scrubs in 2004, before playing the title character on the short-lived series Emily's Reasons Why Not in 2006. She also had recurring roles on Showtime's Californication (2014) and Netflix's Flaked (2016).
Noted for portraying characters with sex appeal, she often appears in magazine lists of "Most Beautiful" and "Sexiest" women.
Graham is a public advocate for Children International, and supported the climate change campaign Global Cool in 2007.J. Cole
Jermaine Lamar Cole (born January 28, 1985), known professionally as J. Cole, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter and record producer. Born on a military base in Germany but raised in Fayetteville, North Carolina, Cole initially gained recognition as a rapper following the release of his debut mixtape, The Come Up, in early 2007. Intent on further pursuing a solo career as a rapper, he went on to release two additional mixtapes, The Warm Up and Friday Night Lights after signing to Jay-Z's Roc Nation imprint in 2009.
Cole released his debut studio album, Cole World: The Sideline Story, in 2011. It debuted at number one on the U.S. Billboard 200, and was soon certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). His next two releases, 2013's Born Sinner and 2014's 2014 Forest Hills Drive, received mostly positive reviews from critics, and both were certified platinum in the United States. The latter earned him his first Grammy Award nomination for Best Rap Album. In December 2016, Cole released his fourth studio album 4 Your Eyez Only. The album debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 chart and was certified platinum in April 2017. His fifth album, KOD, was released in April 2018. The album debuted atop the Billboard 200, making it his fifth album to reach number one on the chart.
Self-taught on piano, Cole also acts as a producer alongside his hip-hop career, producing singles for artists such as Kendrick Lamar and Janet Jackson, as well as handling the majority of the production in his own projects. He has also developed other ventures, including Dreamville Records, as well as a non-profit organization called the Dreamville Foundation. In January 2015, Cole decided to house single mothers rent-free at his childhood home in Fayetteville, North Carolina.Juice Wrld
Jarad Higgins (born December 2, 1998), better known by his stage name Juice Wrld (stylized as Juice WRLD and pronounced as "Juice World"), is an American rapper, singer, and songwriter.
Born in Chicago, Illinois, Juice Wrld gained mainstream recognition after the release of the single "Lucid Dreams" in 2018, which peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100. After securing a recording contract with Grade A Productions and Interscope Records, "Lucid Dreams" acted as the lead single for his debut studio album Goodbye & Good Riddance (2018), which peaked at number six on the Billboard 200, and was eventually certified gold. The album enjoyed positive critical reception, and contained the singles "Armed and Dangerous", "Lean wit Me", "Wasted", all of which charted on the Hot 100.
After collaborating with Future on the mixtape Wrld on Drugs, which was released later that year and peaked at number two on the Billboard 200, Juice Wrld announced his second album, Death Race for Love, which was released on March 8, 2019. It was preceded by the singles "Robbery" and "Hear Me Calling", with the former making its debut at number 27 on the Hot 100.Keanu Reeves
Keanu Charles Reeves ( kee-AH-noo; born September 2, 1964) is a Canadian actor, director, producer, and musician. He gained fame for his starring role performances in several blockbuster films, including comedies from the Bill and Ted franchise (1989–1991); action thrillers Point Break (1991), Speed (1994), and the John Wick franchise (2014–2019); psychological thriller The Devil's Advocate (1997); supernatural thriller Constantine (2005); and science fiction/action series The Matrix (1999–2003). He has also appeared in dramatic films, such as Dangerous Liaisons (1988), My Own Private Idaho (1991), and Little Buddha (1993), as well as the romantic horror Bram Stoker's Dracula (1992).
Reeves has earned critical acclaim for his acting. One New York Times critic praised Reeves' versatility, saying that he "displays considerable discipline and range... he moves easily between the buttoned-down demeanor that suits a police procedural story and the loose-jointed manner of his comic roles". However, Reeves has spent much of his later career being typecast. A recurring character arc in many roles he has portrayed is one of saving the world, as can be seen in the characters of Ted Logan, Buddha, Neo, Johnny Mnemonic, John Constantine, and Klaatu. His acting has garnered several awards, including a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
During his film career, Reeves has engaged in several forms of artistic expression. He is a musician and played bass guitar for the bands Dogstar and Becky. Acting onstage, he performed as Prince Hamlet for the Manitoba Theatre Centre's production of Hamlet. He wrote the text for a picture book, Ode to Happiness, illustrated by Alexandra Grant. He has also produced a documentary, Side by Side, and directed the martial arts film Man of Tai Chi.List of smoking bans in the United States
The following is a list of smoking bans in the United States. For smoking bans and restrictions outside the United States, see the worldwide list of smoking bans.
The United States Congress has not attempted to enact any type of nationwide federal smoking ban. Therefore, smoking bans in the United States are entirely a product of first-level jurisdictional, local criminal, and occupational safety and health laws.
In 1995, California was the first state to enact a statewide smoking ban; throughout the early to mid-2000s, especially between 2004 and 2007, an increasing number of states enacted a statewide smoking ban of some kind. As of July 2018, the most recent statewide smoking ban is Alaska's, which was signed into law on July 18, 2018, and went into effect on October 1, 2018.
As further detailed in this list, smoking laws vary widely throughout the United States. Some places in the United States do not generally regulate smoking at all, some ban smoking in certain areas and not others, and some ban smoking nearly everywhere, even in outdoor areas (no state bans smoking in all public outdoor areas, but some local jurisdictions do). As of July 1, 2017, according to the American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation, 81.5% of the U.S. population lives under a ban on smoking in "workplaces, and/or restaurants, and/or bars, by either a state, commonwealth, or local law", and 58.6% live under a ban covering all workplaces and restaurants and bars. A smoking ban (either state or local) has been enacted covering all bars and restaurants in each of the 60 most populated cities in the United States except these 11: Atlanta, Jacksonville, Memphis, Miami, Las Vegas, Nashville, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Tampa, Tulsa, and Virginia Beach. New Hampshire allows smoking in some private member's clubs where alcohol is served.Maria Bello
Maria Elena Bello (born April 18, 1967) is an American actress and writer. Her many film roles include Permanent Midnight (1998), Payback (1999), Coyote Ugly (2000), The Cooler (2003), A History of Violence (2005), The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor (2008), Prisoners (2013), and Lights Out (2016). Bello is known for her television roles as Dr. Anna Del Amico on the medical drama ER (1997–1998), with other starring roles including that as Lucy Robbins on the series Touch in 2013, as Michelle McBride on the first season of the series Goliath in 2016, and since 2017 as Special Agent Jacqueline "Jack" Sloane on the series NCIS.Paul Walker
Paul William Walker IV (September 12, 1973 – November 30, 2013) was an American actor best known for his role as Brian O'Conner in The Fast and the Furious franchise. Walker first gained prominence in 1999 with roles in the teen films She's All That and Varsity Blues. In 2001, he gained international fame for his role in the street racing action film The Fast and the Furious (2001), a role he reprised in five of the next six installments, but died in 2013 in the middle of filming Furious 7 (2015).
Walker began his career guest-starring on TV shows such as The Young and the Restless and Touched by an Angel. He later starred in films such as Joy Ride (2001), Timeline (2003), Into the Blue (2005), Eight Below (2006), and Running Scared (2006). He also appeared in the National Geographic series Expedition Great White (2010) and in ads for Davidoff Cool Water cologne. He founded the disaster-relief charity Reach Out Worldwide (ROWW) in response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake.Walker died on November 30, 2013, at the age of 40 as a passenger in a single-car crash alongside friend and driver Roger Rodas. Walker was working on three films at the time of his death which were released posthumously: Hours (2013), Brick Mansions (2014), and Furious 7 (2015). The Wiz Khalifa song "See You Again", featuring Charlie Puth, was commissioned for the Furious 7 soundtrack as a tribute to Walker. It was nominated for the Golden Globe for Best Original Song in 2015 and was the number-one song in the United States for 12 weeks.Reese Witherspoon
Laura Jeanne Reese Witherspoon (born March 22, 1976) is an American actress, producer, and entrepreneur. She is the recipient of several accolades, including an Academy Award, a Primetime Emmy Award, a BAFTA Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, two Golden Globe Awards and two Critics' Choice Awards.
Born in New Orleans, Louisiana, and raised in Tennessee, she began her career as a teenager, making her professional screen debut in The Man in the Moon (1991), for which she was nominated for a Young Artist Award. Following roles in Desperate Choices: To Save My Child (1992), Jack the Bear (1993), Freeway (1996), and Pleasantville (1998), Witherspoon's breakthrough came with her portrayal of Tracy Flick in the black comedy Election (1999), for which she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award.
She achieved international recognition with her role as Elle Woods in the comedy Legally Blonde (2001), for which she received her second Golden Globe nomination. The following year, she starred in the romantic comedy Sweet Home Alabama, which emerged as her biggest live-action commercial success. In 2005, her portrayal of June Carter Cash in the biographical musical film Walk the Line, received critical acclaim and won her the Academy Award for Best Actress. Her other films include Legally Blonde 2: Red, White & Blonde (2003), Monsters vs. Aliens (2009), Water for Elephants (2011), and Sing (2016). In 2014, Witherspoon produced the thriller Gone Girl and received praise for her portrayal of Cheryl Strayed in the drama Wild, which earned her a second nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. In 2017, she co-produced and starred in the HBO drama series Big Little Lies, for which she received two Primetime Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie and Outstanding Limited Series, winning the latter as a producer.
Witherspoon owns a production company Hello Sunshine, a clothing company Draper James, and she is actively involved in children's and women's advocacy organizations. She serves on the board of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) and was named Global Ambassador of Avon Products in 2007, serving as honorary chair of the charitable Avon Foundation. She received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2010.Rocky
Rocky is a 1976 American sports drama film directed by John G. Avildsen, written by and starring Sylvester Stallone. It tells the rags to riches American Dream story of Rocky Balboa, an uneducated but kind-hearted working class Italian-American boxer working as a debt collector for a loan shark in the slums of Philadelphia. Rocky, a small-time club fighter, gets a shot at the world heavyweight championship. The film also stars Talia Shire as Adrian, Burt Young as Adrian's brother Paulie, Burgess Meredith as Rocky's trainer Mickey Goldmill, and Carl Weathers as the champion, Apollo Creed. It inspired the 'Let's Build Esker Boxing Club' clubhouse building campaign by Irish boxing Club, Esker ABC several years later.
The film, made on a budget of just over $1 million, was a sleeper hit; it earned $225 million in global box office receipts, becoming the highest-grossing film of 1976. The film was critically acclaimed and commenced Stallone's rise to prominence as a major movie star.Among other accolades, it went on to receive ten Academy Award nominations, winning three, including Best Picture. In 2006, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant". Rocky is considered to be one of the greatest sports films ever made and was ranked as the second-best in the genre, after Raging Bull, by the American Film Institute in 2008.
The film has spawned seven sequels: Rocky II (1979), Rocky III (1982), Rocky IV (1985), Rocky V (1990), Rocky Balboa (2006), Creed (2015) and Creed II (2018). Stallone portrays Rocky in all seven sequels, wrote the first five, and directed four of the six titular installments. It has a cult classic reputation.Toni Braxton
Toni Michelle Braxton (born October 7, 1967) is an American singer, songwriter, pianist, record producer, actress, television personality, and philanthropist. She began performing with her sisters in a family group known as The Braxtons in the late 1980s, who were signed to Arista Records.
Braxton attracted the attention of producers Antonio "L.A." Reid and Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds, later recording a series of songs for them before being signed to their Arista-distributed imprint, LaFace Records. Her self-titled debut studio album (1993) reached number one on the Billboard 200 chart in the United States, selling 10 million copies worldwide and seeing the international success of the singles "Another Sad Love Song" and "Breathe Again". The album brought Braxton three Grammy Awards, including Best New Artist.
Secrets (1996), Braxton's second studio album, saw continued commercial success, selling 15 million copies and generating the singles "You're Makin' Me High" and "Un-Break My Heart", which became her first singles to reach the top of the Billboard Hot 100 chart in the United States. Secrets brought Braxton an additional two Grammy Awards, for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance and Best Pop Vocal Album.
Her third studio album, The Heat (2000), opened at number 2 on the Billboard 200 and saw the success of its lead single, "He Wasn't Man Enough", which reached number 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 and brought Braxton her sixth Grammy Award, for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance.
Braxton's subsequent studio albums, More Than a Woman (2002), Libra (2005) and Pulse (2010), were released amid contractual disputes and health issues, including a lawsuit against her former manager for mismanaging her relationship with Arista Records. In 2014, Braxton and longtime collaborator Babyface released a duet album entitled Love, Marriage & Divorce, which earned the duo an additional Grammy Award for Best R&B Album in 2015.
In 2018, Braxton released her eighth studio album Sex & Cigarettes. The album earned Braxton three Grammy Award nominations: Best R&B Album, and Best R&B Performance and Best R&B Song for the single "Long as I Live".
Throughout her career, Braxton has sold over 67 million records, including 41 million albums worldwide. She has won seven Grammy Awards, nine Billboard Music Awards, seven American Music Awards, among numerous other accolades.
Aside from her success in music, Braxton has become a television executive producer and personality, being involved in the seventh season of the reality competition series Dancing with the Stars and in a reality series entitled Braxton Family Values, where Braxton is executive producer and star since 2011 on We TV. Braxton is also an executive producer of its spin-off, starring her younger sister, Tamar, Tamar & Vince. In 2011, Braxton was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame.Vint Cerf
Vinton Gray Cerf ForMemRS, (; born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn. His contributions have been acknowledged and lauded, repeatedly, with honorary degrees and awards that include the National Medal of Technology, the Turing Award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Marconi Prize and membership in the National Academy of Engineering.
In the early days, Cerf was a manager for the United States' Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funding various groups to develop TCP/IP technology. When the Internet began to transition to a commercial opportunity during the late 1980s, Cerf moved to MCI where he was instrumental in the development of the first commercial email system (MCI Mail) connected to the Internet.
Cerf was instrumental in the funding and formation of ICANN from the start. He waited a year before stepping forward to join the ICANN Board, and eventually became chairman. He was elected as the president of the Association for Computing Machinery in May 2012, and in August 2013 he joined the Council on CyberSecurity's Board of Advisors.Cerf is active in many organizations that are working to help the Internet deliver humanitarian value to the world. He is supportive of innovative projects that are experimenting with new approaches to global problems, including the digital divide, the gender gap, and the changing nature of jobs. Cerf is also known for his sartorial style, typically appearing in a three-piece suit—a rarity in an industry known for its casual dress norms.Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is also one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.The signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U.S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress, and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria. The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land originally ceded by Virginia; in 1871, it created a single municipal government for the remaining portion of the District.
Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents.All three branches of the U.S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress (legislative), president (executive), and the U.S. Supreme Court (judicial). Washington is home to many national monuments, and museums, primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, and professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, and the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D.C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961.
Months and days of the year