December 18

December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 13 days remaining until the end of the year.

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Ann Walton Kroenke

Ann Walton Kroenke (born December 18, 1948) is an heiress to the Walmart fortune. Kroenke and her sister, Nancy Walton Laurie, inherited stock from her father, Bud Walton (died 1995), who was the brother and an early business partner of Walmart founder Sam Walton. She is the owner of the Denver Nuggets of the NBA and Colorado Avalanche of the NHL.Her husband, Stan Kroenke, is the majority owner of the Los Angeles Rams (NFL), Arsenal (English Premier League), Colorado Rapids (Major League Soccer), and Colorado Mammoth (National Lacrosse League).

Avatar (2009 film)

Avatar (marketed as James Cameron's Avatar) is a 2009 American epic science fiction film directed, written, produced, and co-edited by James Cameron, and stars Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, Michelle Rodriguez, and Sigourney Weaver. The film is set in the mid-22nd century, when humans are colonizing Pandora, a lush habitable moon of a gas giant in the Alpha Centauri star system, in order to mine the mineral unobtanium, a room-temperature superconductor. The expansion of the mining colony threatens the continued existence of a local tribe of Na'vi – a humanoid species indigenous to Pandora. The film's title refers to a genetically engineered Na'vi body operated from the brain of a remotely located human that is used to interact with the natives of Pandora.Development of Avatar began in 1994, when Cameron wrote an 80-page treatment for the film. Filming was supposed to take place after the completion of Cameron's 1997 film Titanic, for a planned release in 1999, but, according to Cameron, the necessary technology was not yet available to achieve his vision of the film. Work on the language of the film's extraterrestrial beings began in 2005, and Cameron began developing the screenplay and fictional universe in early 2006. Avatar was officially budgeted at $237 million. Other estimates put the cost between $280 million and $310 million for production and at $150 million for promotion. The film made extensive use of new motion capture filming techniques, and was released for traditional viewing, 3D viewing (using the RealD 3D, Dolby 3D, XpanD 3D, and IMAX 3D formats), and for "4D" experiences in select South Korean theaters. The stereoscopic filmmaking was touted as a breakthrough in cinematic technology.Avatar premiered in London on December 10, 2009, and was internationally released on December 16 and in the United States and Canada on December 18, to positive critical reviews, with critics highly praising its groundbreaking visual effects. During its theatrical run, the film broke several box office records and became the highest-grossing film of all time, as well as in the United States and Canada, surpassing Cameron's Titanic, which had held those records for twelve years. It also became the first film to gross more than $2 billion and the best-selling film of 2010 in the United States. Avatar was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director, and won three, for Best Art Direction, Best Cinematography and Best Visual Effects.

Following the film's success, Cameron signed with 20th Century Fox to produce four sequels: Avatar 2 and Avatar 3 are currently filming, and will be released on December 18, 2020, and December 17, 2021, respectively; subsequent sequels will start shooting as soon as they wrap filming, and will be released in 2024 and 2025. Several cast members are expected to return, including Worthington, Saldana, Lang, and Weaver.

Black Lives Matter

Black Lives Matter (BLM) is an international activist movement, originating in the African-American community, that campaigns against violence and systemic racism towards black people. BLM regularly holds protests speaking out against police killings of black people, and broader issues such as racial profiling, police brutality, and racial inequality in the United States criminal justice system.In 2013, the movement began with the use of the hashtag #BlackLivesMatter on social media after the acquittal of George Zimmerman in the shooting death of African-American teen Trayvon Martin in February 2012. Black Lives Matter became nationally recognized for its street demonstrations following the 2014 deaths of two African Americans: Michael Brown—resulting in protests and unrest in Ferguson—and Eric Garner in New York City. Since the Ferguson protests, participants in the movement have demonstrated against the deaths of numerous other African Americans by police actions or while in police custody. In the summer of 2015, Black Lives Matter activists became involved in the 2016 United States presidential election. The originators of the hashtag and call to action, Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi, expanded their project into a national network of over 30 local chapters between 2014 and 2016. The overall Black Lives Matter movement, however, is a decentralized network and has no formal hierarchy.There have been many reactions to the Black Lives Matter movement. The U.S. population's perception of Black Lives Matter varies considerably by race. The phrase "All Lives Matter" sprang up as a response to the Black Lives Matter movement, but has been criticized for dismissing or misunderstanding the message of "Black Lives Matter". Following the shooting of two police officers in Ferguson, the hashtag Blue Lives Matter was created by supporters of the police. Some black civil rights leaders have disagreed with tactics used by Black Lives Matter activists.

Chris Farley

Christopher Crosby Farley (February 15, 1964 – December 18, 1997) was an American actor and comedian. Farley was known for his loud, energetic comedic style, and was a member of Chicago's Second City Theatre and later a cast member of the NBC sketch comedy show Saturday Night Live between 1990 and 1995. He then went on to pursue a film career, starring in films such as Tommy Boy, Black Sheep and Beverly Hills Ninja. Farley died of a drug overdose at the age of 33.

Evan Ross

Evan Olav Næss (born August 26, 1988), known professionally as Evan Ross, is an American actor and musician. He made his acting debut in the comedy-drama film ATL (2006), and has since starred in the films Pride (2007), According to Greta (2009), Mooz-lum (2010), 96 Minutes (2011), Supremacy (2014), The Hunger Games: Mockingjay – Part 1 (2014) and Part 2 (2015).

On television, Ross had recurring role as Charlie Selby in the season 3 of The CW's teen drama series 90210 and a regular role as Angel Rivera in the season 2 of Fox's musical drama series Star, as well as starred on ABC's procedural drama series Wicked City as Diver Hawkes. As a musician, he released his first single "Yes Me" in February 2011, and his second single "How To Live Alone" in May 2015.

Ross is the son of the late mountaineer Arne Næss Jr. and the Supremes lead singer Diana Ross. He has been married to singer-songwriter Ashlee Simpson since 2014, with whom he has a daughter.

Game of Thrones (season 8)

The eighth and final season of the fantasy drama television series Game of Thrones, produced by HBO, is scheduled to premiere on April 14, 2019. Filming officially began on October 23, 2017, and concluded in July 2018.

Unlike the first six seasons that each had ten episodes and the seventh that had seven episodes, the eighth season will have only six episodes. Like the previous season, it will largely consist of original content not found in George R. R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire series, and will also adapt material Martin has revealed to showrunners about the upcoming novels in the series, The Winds of Winter and A Dream of Spring. The season was adapted for television by David Benioff and D. B. Weiss.

Java (programming language)

Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. As of 2016, Java is one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers. Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its original features from SmallTalk, with a syntax similar to C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.

The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licenses. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GNU General Public License. Others have also developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies, such as the GNU Compiler for Java (bytecode compiler), GNU Classpath (standard libraries), and IcedTea-Web (browser plugin for applets).

The latest version is Java 11, released on September 25, 2018. Java 11 is a currently supported long-term support (LTS) version ("Oracle Customers will receive Oracle Premier Support"); Oracle released for the "legacy" Java 8 LTS the last "public update", which is free for commercial use, in January 2019. Oracle will still support Java 8 with public updates for personal use up to at least December 2020. Oracle (and others) "highly recommend that you uninstall older versions of Java", because of serious risks due to unresolved security issues. Since Java 9 is no longer supported, Oracle advises its users to "immediately transition" to Java 11. Oracle extended support for Java 6 ended in December 2018.

Justice League Action

Justice League Action is an American animated television series based on the DC Comics superhero team of the same name. The series is produced by Jim Krieg, Butch Lukic, and Alan Burnett.

This show debuted on Cartoon Network UK on November 26, 2016, and premiered in the United States on Cartoon Network on December 16, 2016. The first season later concluded on June 3, 2018.

Justin Timberlake

Justin Randall Timberlake (born January 31, 1981) is an American singer-songwriter, actor, dancer, and record producer. Born and raised in Tennessee, he appeared on the television shows Star Search and The All-New Mickey Mouse Club as a child. In the late 1990s, Timberlake rose to prominence as one of the two lead vocalists and youngest member of NSYNC, which eventually became one of the best-selling boy bands of all time. Timberlake began to adopt a more mature image as an artist with the release of his debut solo album, the R&B-focused Justified (2002), which yielded the successful singles "Cry Me a River" and "Rock Your Body", and earned his first two Grammy Awards.

His critically acclaimed second album FutureSex/LoveSounds (2006), characterized by its diversity in music genres, debuted atop the U.S. Billboard 200 and produced the Hot 100 number-one singles "SexyBack", "My Love", and "What Goes Around... Comes Around". Established as a solo artist worldwide, his first two albums both exceeded sales of 10 million copies, and he continued producing records and collaborating with other artists. From 2008 through 2012, Timberlake focused on his acting career, effectively putting his music career on hiatus; he held starring roles in the films The Social Network, Bad Teacher, Friends with Benefits, and In Time.

Timberlake resumed his music career in 2013 with his third and fourth albums The 20/20 Experience and The 20/20 Experience – 2 of 2, exploring neo soul styles, partly inspired by the expansive song structures of 1960s and 1970s rock. The former became the best-selling album of the year in the US with the largest sales week, and spawned the top-three singles "Suit & Tie" and "Mirrors", while the latter produced the top-ten song "Not a Bad Thing". For his live performances, including the eponymous concert tour for the albums, he began performing with his band The Tennessee Kids, composed by instrumentalists and dancers. Timberlake voiced the lead character in DreamWorks Animation's Trolls (2016), whose soundtrack includes his fifth Billboard Hot 100 chart-topping single, "Can't Stop the Feeling!". His fifth studio album Man of the Woods (2018) became his fourth number-one album in the US. The album was supported by the two top ten singles, "Filthy" and "Say Something". Man of the Woods concluded 2018 as the sixth best-selling album of the year.Throughout his solo career, Timberlake has sold over 32 million albums and 56 million singles globally, making him one of the world's best-selling music artists. Often cited as a pop icon, Timberlake is the recipient of numerous awards and accolades, including ten Grammy Awards, four Emmy Awards, three Brit Awards, and nine Billboard Music Awards. According to Billboard in 2017, he is the best performing male soloist in the history of the Mainstream Top 40. Time named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2007 and 2013. His other ventures include record label Tennman Records, fashion label William Rast, and the restaurants Destino and Southern Hospitality.

Kim Jong-hyun (singer)

Kim Jong-hyun (April 8, 1990 – December 18, 2017), better known mononymously as Jonghyun, was a South Korean singer-songwriter, record producer, radio host, and author under the label SM Entertainment. He was the main vocalist of the South Korean boy band Shinee for nine years; releasing twelve albums with the group, in Korean and Japanese. He also participated in SM Entertainment's project group SM the Ballad for the release of two EP albums.

Jonghyun was also a solo artist, beginning in January, 2015, with the release of his first EP album, Base. It peaked at number one on both the Billboard World Album Chart and the Gaon Album Chart. On September 17 the same year, Jonghyun released a compilation album, Story Op.1. His debut studio album She Is was released on May 24, 2016, followed by his second compilation album, Story Op.2 on April 24, 2017. Jonghyun began his first solo concert tour, titled "The Story by Jonghyun" on October 2, 2015. This was followed by three further concert tours in later years. He was regarded as one of the best vocalists in South Korea. He has also received praise for his artistic control and involvement in the creation of his music, which are rare in K-pop.Jonghyun remained musically active as main vocalist of Shinee and as a solo artist until his death on December 18, 2017, when he committed suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning. His final album, Poet | Artist, was released posthumously on January 23, 2018. It was announced, prior to the release, that all profits from the album would be given to Jonghyun's mother and be used to start a charity foundation. In September 2018, the Shinin Foundation was established by Jonghyun's family to help struggling young artists.

List of Chicago Bears starting quarterbacks

These quarterbacks have started at least one game for the Chicago Bears of the National Football League. They are listed in order of the date of each player's first start at quarterback for the Bears.

Meghan Trainor

Meghan Elizabeth Trainor (born December 22, 1993) is an American singer-songwriter. Interested in music from a young age, Trainor wrote, recorded, and produced three independently released albums between 2009 and 2011.

Since signing with Epic Records in 2014, Trainor has released two studio albums: Title (2015), and Thank You (2016). Trainor has earned six top 15 entries on the US Billboard Hot 100, including "All About That Bass", "Lips Are Movin", "Dear Future Husband", "Like I'm Gonna Lose You", "No", and "Me Too". She has embarked on three tours: That Bass Tour, MTrain Tour, and The Untouchable Tour.

Trainor is influenced by music from the 1950s and 1960s and is known for her throwback style. Her lyrics frequently refer to modern womanhood, body image, and empowerment. She is a pop artist, as well as an R&B artist. She has received several awards and nominations, including a Grammy Award, four ASCAP Pop Music Awards, and two Billboard Music Awards. Outside of music, Trainor has lent her voice to animated films and appeared as a judge on The Four: Battle for Stardom.

Penny Marshall

Carole Penny Marshall (October 15, 1943 – December 17, 2018) was an American actress, director and producer. She came to notice in the 1970s for her role as Laverne DeFazio on the television sitcom Laverne & Shirley (1976–1983), receiving three nominations for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Musical or Comedy for her portrayal.

Marshall made her directorial debut with Jumpin' Jack Flash (1986) before directing Big (1988), which became the first film directed by a woman to gross more than $100 million at the U.S. box office. Her subsequent directing credits included Awakenings (1990), which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, A League of Their Own (1992), Renaissance Man (1994), The Preacher's Wife (1996) and Riding in Cars with Boys (2001). She also produced Cinderella Man (2005) and Bewitched (2005), and directed episodes of the TV series According to Jim and United States of Tara.

Sean Combs

Sean John Combs (born November 4, 1969), also known by his various stage names Puff Daddy, P. Diddy, Diddy, Puffy, and Brother Love, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, actor, record producer, and entrepreneur. Combs was born in New York City but raised in Mount Vernon, New York. He worked as a talent director at Uptown Records before founding his own record label, Bad Boy Entertainment, in 1993.

Combs' debut album, No Way Out (1997) has been certified seven times platinum. No Way Out was followed by successful albums such as Forever (1999), The Saga Continues... (2001) and Press Play (2006). In 2009, Combs formed the musical group Diddy – Dirty Money and released the critically well-reviewed and commercially successful album Last Train to Paris (2010).

Combs has won three Grammy Awards and two MTV Video Music Awards, and is the producer of MTV's Making the Band. In 2018, Forbes estimated his net worth at $825 million, making him the second-richest hip hop recording artist.

Thurgood Marshall

Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice. Prior to his judicial service, he successfully argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Brown v. Board of Education.

Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Marshall graduated from the Howard University School of Law in 1933. He established a private legal practice in Baltimore before founding the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, where he served as executive director. In that position, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Smith v. Allwright, Shelley v. Kraemer, and Brown v. Board of Education, which held that racial segregation in public education is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause.

In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Four years later, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Marshall as the United States Solicitor General. In 1967, Johnson successfully nominated Marshall to succeed retiring Associate Justice Tom C. Clark. Marshall retired during the administration of President George H. W. Bush, and was succeeded by Clarence Thomas.

Toni Braxton

Toni Michelle Braxton (born October 7, 1967) is an American singer, songwriter, pianist, record producer, actress, television personality, and philanthropist. She began performing with her sisters in a family group known as The Braxtons in the late 1980s, who were signed to Arista Records.

Braxton attracted the attention of producers Antonio "L.A." Reid and Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds, later recording a series of songs for them before being signed to their Arista-distributed imprint, LaFace Records. Her self-titled debut studio album (1993) reached number one on the Billboard 200 chart in the United States, selling 10 million copies worldwide and seeing the international success of the singles "Another Sad Love Song" and "Breathe Again". The album brought Braxton three Grammy Awards, including Best New Artist.

Secrets (1996), Braxton's second studio album, saw continued commercial success, selling 15 million copies and generating the singles "You're Makin' Me High" and "Un-Break My Heart", which became her first singles to reach the top of the Billboard Hot 100 chart in the United States. Secrets brought Braxton an additional two Grammy Awards, for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance and Best Pop Vocal Album.

Her third studio album, The Heat (2000), opened at number 2 on the Billboard 200 and saw the success of its lead single, "He Wasn't Man Enough", which reached number 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 and brought Braxton her sixth Grammy Award, for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance.

Braxton's subsequent studio albums, More Than a Woman (2002), Libra (2005) and Pulse (2010), were released amid contractual disputes and health issues, including a lawsuit against her former manager for mismanaging her relationship with Arista Records. In 2014, Braxton and longtime collaborator Babyface released a duet album entitled Love, Marriage & Divorce, which earned the duo an additional Grammy Award for Best R&B Album in 2015.

In 2018, Braxton released her eighth studio album Sex & Cigarettes. The album earned Braxton three Grammy Award nominations: Best R&B Album, and Best R&B Performance and Best R&B Song for the single "Long as I Live".

Throughout her career, Braxton has sold over 67 million records, including 41 million albums worldwide. She has won seven Grammy Awards, nine Billboard Music Awards, seven American Music Awards, among numerous other accolades.

Aside from her success in music, Braxton has become a television executive producer and personality, being involved in the seventh season of the reality competition series Dancing with the Stars and in a reality series entitled Braxton Family Values, where Braxton is executive producer and star since 2011 on We TV. Braxton is also an executive producer of its spin-off, starring her younger sister, Tamar, Tamar & Vince. In 2011, Braxton was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame.

Twitter

Twitter () is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Registered users can post, like, and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service (SMS) or its mobile-device application software ("app"). Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco, California, and has more than 25 offices around the world.Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams and launched in July of that year. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet". As of 2016, Twitter had more than 319 million monthly active users. Since 2015, and continuing into 2016 and future years, Twitter has also been the home of debates, and news covering Politics of the United States, especially during the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Brett Kavanaugh Supreme Court Nomination, and 2018 United States Midterms, with Twitter proved to be the largest source of breaking news on the day of the 2016 election, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. (Eastern Time) that day.

Vince Carter

Vincent Lamar Carter (born January 26, 1977) is an American professional basketball player for the Atlanta Hawks of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He is 6 feet 6 inches (1.98 m) tall and plays both shooting guard and small forward. Carter is the fourth player in the NBA ever to play 21 seasons, the most in NBA history. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest dunkers of all-time.A high school McDonald's All-American, Carter played three years at the University of North Carolina. While there, he twice reached the Final Four of the NCAA Tournament before being selected as the fifth overall pick in the 1998 NBA draft by the Golden State Warriors, who traded him to the Toronto Raptors. He won the 1999 NBA Rookie of the Year Award and won the Slam Dunk Contest at the 2000 NBA All-Star Weekend. That summer, he represented the United States in the Summer Olympics, winning a gold medal.

Carter emerged as a star in Toronto, entertaining crowds with his leaping ability and slam dunks, earning him nicknames such as "Vinsanity", "Air Canada", and "Half-Man, Half-Amazing". In December 2004, he was traded to the New Jersey Nets, where he continued to put up big numbers. In June 2009, Carter was traded to the Orlando Magic. In his first season with the Magic, he appeared in his first and so far only Conference Finals series. In December 2010, he was traded to the Phoenix Suns. He joined the defending champion Dallas Mavericks in 2011 and the Memphis Grizzlies in 2014. In 2017, he signed with the Sacramento Kings. In 2018, he signed with the Hawks.

Carter is an eight-time NBA All-Star. He is one of six players in NBA history to average at least 20 points, 4 rebounds and 3 assists per game in 10 straight seasons. He is also one of six players in league history to record 24,000 points, 6,000 rebounds, 2,500 assists, 1,000 steals and 1,000 3-point field goals.Off the court, Carter established his Embassy of Hope Foundation, assisting children and their families in Florida, New Jersey and Toronto. He was also recognized in 2000 as Child Advocate of the Year by the Children's Home Society, and received the Florida Governor's Points of Light award in 2007 for his philanthropy in his home state.

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