December 17

December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 14 days remaining until the end of the year.

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Events

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Holidays and observances

References

  1. ^ https://www.profootballhof.com/news/1933-nfl-championship-game/
  2. ^ "Today in History – Dec. 17". The Journal Gazette. Fort Wayne, Ind. The Associated Press. December 17, 2009. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
  3. ^ "Maryna Arzamasava - Athletics - Olympic Athlete | London 2012". web.archive.org. 2012-07-21. Retrieved 2019-01-03.

External links

2019 Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series

The 2019 Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series will be the 71st season of NASCAR professional stock car racing in the United States, and the 48th modern-era Cup series season. The season begins at Daytona International Speedway with the Advance Auto Parts Clash, the Gander RV Duel qualifying races and the 61st running of the Daytona 500. The regular season will end with the Brickyard 400 in September. The playoffs will end with the Ford EcoBoost 400 at Homestead-Miami Speedway on November 17, 2019. Joey Logano of Team Penske enters as the defending series champion.

The 2019 season is the fifth of the current 10-year television contract with Fox Sports and NBC Sports and the fourth of a five-year race sanctioning agreement with all tracks. It is the first season in which Ford fields the Mustang GT, replacing the Fusion.

Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Inc. for macOS and Windows. It was originally created in 1988 by Thomas and John Knoll. Since then, it has become the de facto industry standard in raster graphics editing, to the point that it has also become a generic trademark leading to its use as a verb such as "to photoshop an image", "photoshopping", and "photoshop contest", although Adobe discourages such use. Photoshop can edit and compose raster images in multiple layers and supports masks, alpha compositing, and several color models including RGB, CMYK, CIELAB, spot color, and duotone. Photoshop uses its own PSD and PSB file formats to support these features. In addition to raster graphics, Photoshop has limited abilities to edit or render text, vector graphics (especially through clipping path), 3D graphics, and video. Its feature set can be expanded by Photoshop plug-ins, programs developed and distributed independently of Photoshop that can run inside it and offer new or enhanced features.

Photoshop's naming scheme was initially based on version numbers. However, in October 2002, following the introduction of Creative Suite branding, each new version of Photoshop was designated with "CS" plus a number; e.g., the eighth major version of Photoshop was Photoshop CS and the ninth major version was Photoshop CS2. Photoshop CS3 through CS6 were also distributed in two different editions: Standard and Extended. In June 2013, with the introduction of Creative Cloud branding, Photoshop's licensing scheme was changed to that of software as a service rental model and the "CS" suffixes were replaced with "CC". Historically, Photoshop was bundled with additional software such as Adobe ImageReady, Adobe Fireworks, Adobe Bridge, Adobe Device Central and Adobe Camera RAW.

Alongside Photoshop, Adobe also develops and publishes Photoshop Elements, Photoshop Lightroom, Photoshop Express, Photoshop Fix, Photoshop Sketch and Photoshop Mix. Adobe also plans to launch a full-version of Photoshop for the iPad in 2019. Collectively, they are branded as "The Adobe Photoshop Family".

Americans

Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens, expatriates, and permanent residents, may also claim American nationality. The United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance.English-speakers, and even speakers of many other languages, typically use the term "American" to exclusively mean people of the United States; this developed from its original use to differentiate English people of the American colonies from English people of England. The word "American" can also refer to people from the Americas in general (see names for United States citizens).

Arista Records

Arista Records, Inc. () is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment and previously handled by Bertelsmann Music Group. The label was founded in 1974 by Clive Davis, who formerly worked for Columbia Records. Until its demise in 2011, it was a major distributor and promoter of albums throughout the United States and the United Kingdom. Today, the label's reissues and catalogue releases are handled by RCA Records and Legacy Recordings.

In July 2018, Sony revived the Arista label.

Boeing 747

The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet". Its distinctive hump upper deck along the forward part of the aircraft has made it one of the most recognizable aircraft, and it was the first wide-body airplane produced. Manufactured by Boeing's Commercial Airplane unit in the United States, the 747 was originally envisioned to have 150 percent greater capacity than the Boeing 707, a common large commercial aircraft of the 1960s. First flown commercially in 1970, the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years.The quadjet 747 uses a double-deck configuration for part of its length and is available in passenger, freighter and other versions. Boeing designed the 747's hump-like upper deck to serve as a first–class lounge or extra seating, and to allow the aircraft to be easily converted to a cargo carrier by removing seats and installing a front cargo door. Boeing expected supersonic airliners—the development of which was announced in the early 1960s—to render the 747 and other subsonic airliners obsolete, while the demand for subsonic cargo aircraft would remain robust well into the future. Though the 747 was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold, it exceeded critics' expectations with production surpassing 1,000 in 1993. By July 2018, 1,546 aircraft had been built, with 22 of the 747-8 variants remaining on order. As of January 2017, the 747 has been involved in 60 hull losses, resulting in 3,722 fatalities.The 747-400, the most common variant in service, has a high-subsonic cruise speed of Mach 0.85–0.855 (up to 570 mph or 920 km/h) with an intercontinental range of 7,260 nautical miles (8,350 statute miles or 13,450 km). The 747-400 can accommodate 416 passengers in a typical three-class layout, 524 passengers in a typical two-class layout, or 660 passengers in a high–density one-class configuration. The newest version of the aircraft, the 747-8, is in production and received certification in 2011. Deliveries of the 747-8F freighter version began in October 2011; deliveries of the 747-8I passenger version began in May 2012.

Ciara

Ciara Princess Harris ( , see-ERR-ə, born October 25, 1985) is an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and model. Born in Austin, Texas, she traveled around the world during her childhood, eventually moving to Atlanta, Georgia where she joined the girl group Hearsay. She later signed a publishing deal, and befriended producer Jazze Pha, who recorded demos that would appear on her debut album. With his help, Ciara signed a record deal with LaFace Records.

In 2004, Ciara released her debut studio album Goodies, which spawned four singles: "Goodies", "1, 2 Step", "Oh" and "And I". "Goodies" topped the Billboard Hot 100 chart. The album was certified triple platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), and garnered four nominations at the 48th Annual Grammy Awards. Ciara was also featured on Missy Elliott's "Lose Control" and Bow Wow's "Like You", both of which reached number three on the Billboard Hot 100. In 2006, Ciara released her second studio album, Ciara: The Evolution, which spawned the hit singles "Get Up", "Promise", "Like a Boy" and "Can't Leave 'em Alone". The album reached number one in the U.S. and was certified platinum.

Ciara's third studio album, Fantasy Ride (2009) was less successful than her first two albums. However, it produced the international top-ten single "Love Sex Magic", featuring Justin Timberlake, which received a Grammy Award nomination for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals. The following year, Ciara released her fourth studio album Basic Instinct, which included the R&B top-five single "Ride", but was met with low sales, continuing a downward trend in her commercial performance. Ciara signed a new record deal with Epic Records in 2011. In 2013, she released her fifth studio album, Ciara, which spawned the R&B top-ten single "Body Party". Her sixth album, Jackie (2015), included the singles "I Bet" and "Dance like We're Making Love".

In 2006, Ciara made her film debut in All You've Got, and later appeared in the films Mama, I Want to Sing! (2012) and That's My Boy (2012). In 2013, she had a recurring role in the US TV series, The Game. In 2016, Ciara signed a signed a modeling contract with IMG. That year, she became a Global Brand Ambassador for the cosmetics giant Revlon. Since making her musical debut in 2004, Ciara has attained eight Billboard Hot 100 top-ten singles. She has also received many awards, including three BET Awards, three MTV Video Music Awards, three MOBO Awards, and one Grammy Award. As of 2015, Ciara has sold over 23 million records worldwide.

Eugene Levy

Eugene Levy, (born December 17, 1946) is a Canadian actor, comedian, producer, director, and writer. He is the only actor to have appeared in all eight of the American Pie films, in his role as Noah Levenstein. He often plays nerdy, unconventional figures, with his humour often deriving from his excessive explanations of matters and the way in which he deals with sticky situations. Levy is a regular collaborator of actor-director Christopher Guest, appearing in and co-writing four of his films, commencing with Waiting for Guffman (1996).

Levy received the Governor General's Performing Arts Award, Canada's highest honour in the performing arts, in 2008. He was appointed to the Order of Canada on June 30, 2011.

Gary Sinise

Gary Alan Sinise (; born March 17, 1955) is an American actor, director and musician. Among other awards, he has won an Emmy Award, a Golden Globe Award, a star on Hollywood Walk of Fame and has been nominated for an Academy Award.

Sinise is known for several memorable roles. These include George Milton in Of Mice and Men, Lieutenant Dan Taylor in Forrest Gump (for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor), Harry S. Truman in Truman (for which he won a Golden Globe), Ken Mattingly in Apollo 13, Detective Jimmy Shaker in Ransom, Detective Mac Taylor in the CBS series CSI: NY (2004–13), and George C. Wallace in the television film George Wallace (for which he won an Emmy). From 2016 to 2017, Sinise starred as Special Agent Jack Garrett in Criminal Minds: Beyond Borders.

Gossip Girl

Gossip Girl is an American teen drama television series based on the book series of the same name written by Cecily von Ziegesar. The series, created by Josh Schwartz and Stephanie Savage, originally ran on The CW network for six seasons from September 19, 2007, to December 17, 2012.

Narrated by the omniscient blogger "Gossip Girl" (voiced by Kristen Bell), the series revolves around the lives of privileged upper-class adolescents living in Manhattan's Upper East Side. The series begins with the return of Upper East Side teenage it girl Serena van der Woodsen (Blake Lively) from a mysterious absence. She is reunited with her frenemy Blair Waldorf (Leighton Meester) and her mother Lily van der Woodsen (Kelly Rutherford), while she also meets Dan Humphrey (Penn Badgley), an aspiring writer from Brooklyn. Other main characters are played by Chace Crawford, Ed Westwick, Taylor Momsen, Jessica Szohr, Matthew Settle and Kaylee DeFer.

The success of Gossip Girl led to adaptations outside the United States. The show has received numerous award nominations, winning 18 Teen Choice Awards. The CW officially renewed Gossip Girl for a sixth and final season on May 11, 2012. The final season, consisting of 10 episodes, premiered on October 8, 2012 and ended on December 17, 2012.

Grammy Award for Best Metal Performance

The Grammy Award for Best Metal Performance is an award presented at the Grammy Awards to recording artists for works (songs or albums) containing quality performances in the heavy metal music genre. The Grammy Awards is an annual ceremony, where honors in several categories are presented by The Recording Academy of the United States to "honor artistic achievement, technical proficiency and overall excellence in the recording industry, without regard to album sales or chart position". The ceremony was established in 1958 and originally called the Gramophone Awards.The Recording Academy recognized heavy metal music artists for the first time at the 31st Annual Grammy Awards (1989). The category was originally presented as Best Hard Rock/Metal Performance Vocal or Instrumental, combining two of the most popular music genres of the 1980s. Jethro Tull won that award for the album Crest of a Knave, beating Metallica, which were expected to win with the album ...And Justice for All. This choice led to widespread criticism of The Recording Academy, as journalists suggested that the music of Jethro Tull did not belong in the hard rock or heavy metal genres. In response, The Recording Academy created the categories Best Hard Rock Performance and Best Metal Performance, separating the genres.

The Best Metal Performance category was first presented at the 32nd Annual Grammy Awards in 1990, and was again the subject of controversy when rock musician Chris Cornell (lead vocalist for the band Soundgarden) was perplexed by the organization's nomination of the band Dokken in this category. Metallica won in the first three years. The awards were presented for the song "One", a cover version of Queen's "Stone Cold Crazy", and the album Metallica. During 2012–2013, the award was temporarily discontinued in a major overhaul of Grammy categories; all solo or duo/group performances in the hard rock and metal categories were shifted to the newly formed Best Hard Rock/Metal Performance category. However, in 2014, the Best Hard Rock/Metal Performance category was split, returning the Best Metal Performance category and recognizing quality hard rock performances in the Best Rock Performance category.As of 2011, Metallica holds the record for the most wins in this category, with a total of six. The bands Black Sabbath, Nine Inch Nails, Slayer, and Tool have each received the award twice. The band Ministry holds the record for the most nominations without a win, with six.

If I Were a Boy

"If I Were a Boy" is a song performed by American singer and songwriter Beyoncé from her third studio album I Am... Sasha Fierce (2008). "If I Were a Boy" was written by BC Jean and Toby Gad, who also handled its production alongside Beyoncé. Inspired by the difficult break-up of a romantic relationship, the song was initially recorded by Jean, whose record company rejected it. Beyoncé then recorded her own version. Jean was upset when she learned that Beyoncé was releasing it as a single, but eventually, they reached an agreement. Columbia Records released "If I Were a Boy" to US radio on October 8, 2008, as a double A-side single album's alongside "Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It)" as the lead singles. The two songs showcased the contrast between Beyoncé's personality and her aggressive onstage persona, Sasha Fierce. A Spanish version of the song, titled "Si Yo Fuera un Chico", was digitally released in Mexico and Spain.

"If I Were a Boy" is a pop and R&B introspective ballad which draws influences from folk rock through its instrumentation of which includes acoustic guitars, drums and strings. The song's lyrics lament the misunderstandings between the genders and indict the male side of relationships. "If I Were a Boy" was well received by critics, who complimented Beyoncé's tormented and emotive vocal performance and called the song her best work to date. The single was a commercial success as it placed in the top ten on twenty-five different singles charts. It topped the charts in more than eight European countries, including the United Kingdom, where it is Beyoncé's best-selling single. "If I Were a Boy" peaked at number three on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart and earned multi-platinum certifications in Australia, Canada, and the US.

The accompanying music video for "If I Were a Boy" was directed by Jake Nava and shot in black-and-white. With a theme of role reversal, it is conceptually similar to the American comedy film Freaky Friday (1976). A video for the Spanish version of the ballad was edited from the original clip. Beyoncé promoted "If I Were a Boy" through live performances at venues including The Oprah Winfrey Show, the 52nd Grammy Awards, and the I Am... World Tour (2009–10). The song has been covered several times on televised music competitions. American singer Reba McEntire sang a country version of the ballad on Country Music Television (CMT), and a studio version was released as the second single from her 2010 album, All the Women I Am.

James Harden

James Edward Harden Jr. (born August 26, 1989) is an American professional basketball player for the Houston Rockets of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He played college basketball for Arizona State, where he was named a consensus All-American and Pac-10 Player of the Year in 2009. Harden was selected with the third overall pick in the 2009 NBA draft by the Oklahoma City Thunder. In 2012, he was named NBA Sixth Man of the Year with the Thunder and helped the team reach the NBA Finals.

Harden was traded to Houston before the 2012–13 NBA season. With the Rockets, he became one of the NBA's most prolific scorers and earned recognition as the best shooting guard in the NBA, as well as one of the top overall players in the league. Harden was named the NBA Most Valuable Player in 2018. He is a seven-time NBA All-Star, and has earned All-NBA Team honors five times, including four times to the first team.

Harden is a two-time member of the United States national basketball team, winning gold medals at the 2012 Summer Olympics and 2014 FIBA World Cup.

List of tallest buildings in New York City

New York City, the most populous city in the United States, is home to over 6,486 completed high-rise buildings of at least 35 meters, of which at least 113 are taller than 600 feet (183 m). The tallest building in New York is One World Trade Center, which rises 1,776 feet (541 m). The 104-story skyscraper also stands as the tallest building in the United States, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the sixth-tallest building in the world. The second-tallest building in the city is 432 Park Avenue, standing at 1,396 feet (426 m), and the third-tallest is the recently-topped-out 30 Hudson Yards. Not counting its antenna, the 4th-tallest is the 102-story Empire State Building in Midtown Manhattan, which was finished in 1931 and rises to 1,250 feet (381 m), increased to 1,454 feet (443 m) by its antenna. It is the sixth-tallest building in the United States and the 43rd-tallest building in the world.

The Empire State Building stood as the tallest building in the world from its completion until 1972, when the 110-story North Tower of the original World Trade Center was completed. At 1,368 feet (417 m), The World Trade Center held the title until the completion of the 108-story Willis Tower (formerly known as the Sears Tower) in Chicago in 1974. The World Trade Center towers were destroyed by terrorist attacks in 2001, and the Empire State Building regained the title of tallest building in the city. It remained the tallest until April 2012, when the construction on One World Trade Center surpassed it. The fifth-tallest building in New York is the Bank of America Tower, which rises to 1,200 feet (366 m), including its spire. If the Twin Towers were still standing today, they would be the third- and fourth-tallest buildings in the city, or second and third assuming the new buildings would not have been built. Only 432 Park Avenue is taller.

New York City skyscrapers are concentrated in Midtown and Lower Manhattan, although other neighborhoods of Manhattan and the boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx also have a few high-rises. As of May 2016, the entire city had 241 buildings that rise at least 500 feet (152 m) in height, including those under construction, more than any other city in the United States.Since 2003, New York City has seen the completion of 24 buildings that rise at least 600 feet (183 m) in height, including One World Trade Center. As of 2013, 20 more were under construction. One World Trade Center is part of the redevelopment of the World Trade Center, which also includes the 1,079-foot (329 m) 3 World Trade Center, the 975-foot (297 m) 4 World Trade Center, 7 World Trade Center and one under-construction building: the 1,350-foot (411 m) 2 World Trade Center.Overall, as of April 2016, there were 494 high-rise buildings under construction or proposed for construction in New York City.

Michael B. Jordan

Michael Bakari Jordan (born February 9, 1987) is an American actor. He is known for his film roles as shooting victim Oscar Grant in the drama Fruitvale Station (2013), boxer Adonis Creed in the Rocky sequel film Creed (2015) and main antagonist Erik Killmonger in Black Panther (2018), all three of which were directed by Ryan Coogler.Jordan's television roles include Wallace in the HBO series The Wire (2002), Reggie Montgomery in the ABC series All My Children (2003–2006) and Vince Howard in the NBC drama series Friday Night Lights (2009–2011). His other film performances also include Maurice "Bumps" Wilson in Red Tails (2012), Steve Montgomery in Chronicle (2012), Mikey in That Awkward Moment (2014) and the Human Torch in Fantastic Four (2015).

Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting

The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting occurred on December 14, 2012, in Newtown, Connecticut, United States, when 20-year-old Adam Lanza fatally shot 20 children between six and seven years old, as well as six adult staff members. Before driving to the school, he shot and killed his mother at their Newtown home. As first responders arrived at the school, Lanza committed suicide by shooting himself in the head.

The incident was the deadliest mass shooting at either a high school or grade school in U.S. history and the fourth-deadliest mass shooting by a single person in U.S. history. The shooting prompted renewed debate about gun control in the United States, including proposals to make the background-check system universal, and for new federal and state gun legislation banning the sale and manufacture of certain types of semi-automatic firearms and magazines with more than ten rounds of ammunition.

A November 2013 report issued by the Connecticut State Attorney's office concluded that Lanza acted alone and planned his actions, but provided no indication why he did so, or why he targeted the school. A report issued by the Office of the Child Advocate in November 2014 said that Lanza had Asperger's syndrome and as a teenager suffered from depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder, but concluded that they had "neither caused nor led to his murderous acts." The report went on to say, "his severe and deteriorating internalized mental health problems ... combined with an atypical preoccupation with violence ... (and) access to

deadly weapons ... proved a recipe for mass murder".

Sarah Paulson

Sarah Catharine Paulson (born December 17, 1974) is an American actress, director, and producer. She has received numerous accolades, including a Primetime Emmy Award and a Golden Globe Award. In 2017, Time named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world.A native of Tampa, Florida, Paulson was raised there and later in New York City following her parents' divorce. She began her acting career after high school in New York stage productions before starring in the short-lived television series American Gothic (1995–1996) and Jack & Jill (1999–2001). She later appeared in comedy films such as What Women Want (2000) and Down with Love (2003), and drama films such as Path to War (2002) and The Notorious Bettie Page (2005). From 2006 to 2007, she starred as Harriet Hayes in the NBC comedy-drama series Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip, for which she received her first Golden Globe Award nomination. In 2008, Paulson starred as Ellen Dolan in the superhero noir film The Spirit.

Paulson has appeared on Broadway in the plays The Glass Menagerie in 2005 and Collected Stories in 2010. She also starred in a number of independent films, and had a leading role on the ABC comedy series Cupid in 2009. She later starred in the independent drama film Martha Marcy May Marlene (2011), and received Primetime Emmy Award and Golden Globe Award nominations for her portrayal of Nicolle Wallace in the HBO film Game Change (2012). She has featured as Mary Epps in the 2013 historical drama film 12 Years a Slave, as Abby Gerhard in the 2015 romantic drama film Carol, and as Toni Bradlee in the 2017 political drama film The Post. Paulson's other films include Serenity (2005), New Year's Eve (2011), Mud (2012), Blue Jay (2016), Ocean's 8 (2018), Bird Box (2018), and Glass (2019).

In 2011, Paulson began starring in the FX anthology series American Horror Story, playing different characters in each of the show's eight seasons. For her work, she been nominated for five Primetime Emmy Awards and won two Critics' Choice Television Awards for Best Supporting Actress in a Movie/Miniseries. In 2016, Paulson portrayed real life prosecutor Marcia Clark in the first season of the anthology series American Crime Story, subtitled The People v. O. J. Simpson, for which she earned critical praise and numerous accolades, including a Primetime Emmy Award and a Golden Globe Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series or Movie.

Seattle

Seattle ( (listen) see-AT-əl) is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of King County, Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U.S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, and ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U.S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States.

The city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015.The Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian, African, and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population.Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was partially due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region; Microsoft founder Bill Gates is a Seattleite by birth. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, and major airline Alaska Airlines was founded in SeaTac, Washington, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing largely to its rapidly increasing population in the 21st century, Seattle and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers.Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge.

South Bend, Indiana

South Bend is a city in and the county seat of St. Joseph County, Indiana, United States, on the St. Joseph River near its southernmost bend, from which it derives its name. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total of 101,168 residents; its Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 318,586 and Combined Statistical Area of 721,296. It is the fourth-largest city in Indiana, serving as the economic and cultural hub of Northern Indiana. The highly ranked University of Notre Dame is located just to the north in unincorporated Notre Dame, Indiana and is an integral contributor to the region's economy.

The area was originally settled in the early 19th century by fur traders and was established as a city in 1865. The St. Joseph River shaped South Bend's economy through the mid-20th century. River access assisted heavy industrial development such as that of the Studebaker Corporation, the Oliver Chilled Plow Company, and other large corporations.

The population of South Bend declined after 1960, when it had a peak population of 132,445. This was chiefly due to migration to suburban areas as well as the demise of Studebaker and other heavy industry. Today, the largest industries in South Bend are health care, education, small business, and tourism. Remaining large corporations include Crowe Horwath, Honeywell, and AM General.

Recently, the city population has started to grow for the first time in nearly fifty years. The old Studebaker plant and surrounding area, now called Ignition Park, is being redeveloped as a technology center to attract new industry.The city has also been featured in national news coverage for Mayor Pete Buttigieg, who has achieved recognition for his various economic development projects within the city, his position as the youngest mayor to be elected in a city of more than 100,000 residents, and his essay in which he came out as the first openly gay executive in the state of Indiana. The city attracted further attention when Mayor Buttigieg announced he will run for the Democratic nomination for the 2020 presidential election.

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