December got its name from the Latin word decem (meaning ten) because it was originally the tenth month of the year in the Roman calendar, which began in March. The winter days following December were not included as part of any month. Later, the months of January and February were created out of the monthless period and added to the beginning of the calendar, but December retained its name.
In Ancient Rome, as one of the four Agonalia, this day in honor of Sol Indiges was held on December 11, as was Septimontium. Dies natalis (birthday) was held at the temple of Tellus on December 13, Consualia was held on December 15, Saturnalia was held December 17–23, Opiconsivia was held on December 19, Divalia was held on December 21, Larentalia was held on December 23, and the dies natalis of Sol Invictus was held on December 25. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.
December contains the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, the day with the fewest daylight hours, and the summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, the day with the most daylight hours (excluding polar regions in both cases). December in the Northern Hemisphere is the seasonal equivalent to June in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa. In the Northern hemisphere, the beginning of the astronomical winter is traditionally 21 December or the date of the solstice.
Meteor showers occurring in December are the Andromedids (September 25 – December 6, peaking around November 9), the Canis-Minorids (December 4 – December 15, peaking around December 10–11), the Coma Berenicids (December 12 to December 23, peaking around December 16), the Delta Cancrids (December 14 to February 14, the main shower from January 1 to January 24, peaking on January 17), the Geminids (December 13–14), the Monocerotids (December 7 to December 20, peaking on December 9. This shower can also start in November), the Phoenicids (November 29 to December 9, with a peak occurring around 5/6 December), the Quadrantids (typically a January shower but can also start in December), the Sigma Hydrids (December 4–15), and the Ursids (December 17-to December 25/26, peaking around December 22).
This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.
(Please note that all Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.)
Last Week of November: November 25 – December 1
First Sunday: December 2
Fourth Sunday before Christmas Day: December 2
First Monday in December and following 7 days: December 3-9
First Friday: December 7
Sunday two weeks before Christmas: December 9
Second Monday: December 10
December 15, unless the date falls on a Sunday, then December 16: December 15
Second-final Sunday before Christmas Day: December 16
Thursday before Christmas: December 20
Winter Solstice: December 21
December 22, unless that date is a Sunday, in which case it's moved to the 23rd: December 22
'Last Saturday before Christmas: December 22
Sunday before Christmas: December 23
December 26, unless that day is a Sunday, in which case the 27th: December 26
Last Friday before Christmas: December 28
Sunday after Christmas: December 30
Black Mirror is a British anthology science fiction television series created by Charlie Brooker, with Brooker and Annabel Jones serving as the programme showrunners. It examines modern society, particularly with regard to the unanticipated consequences of new technologies. Episodes are standalone, usually set in an alternative present or the near future, often with a dark and satirical tone, though some are more experimental and lighter.
Black Mirror was inspired by older anthology series like The Twilight Zone, which were able to deal with controversial, contemporary topics without fear of censorship. Brooker developed Black Mirror to highlight topics related to humanity's relationship to technology, creating stories that feature "the way we live now – and the way we might be living in 10 minutes' time if we're clumsy."
The series premiered for two series on the British television channel Channel 4 in December 2011 and February 2013, respectively. After its addition to the catalogue in December 2014, Netflix purchased the programme in September 2015. It commissioned a series of 12 episodes later divided into the third and fourth series, each six episodes; the former was released on 21 October 2016 and the latter on 29 December 2017. A fifth series was announced on 5 March 2018. A standalone interactive film titled Black Mirror: Bandersnatch was released on 28 December 2018.
The series has garnered positive reception from critics, received many awards and nominations, and seen an increase in interest internationally, particularly in the United States after its addition to Netflix. Two episodes, "San Junipero" (from the third series) and "USS Callister" (fourth series), won a total of six Emmy Awards, with both episodes winning Outstanding Television Movie.Carrie Fisher
Carrie Frances Fisher (October 21, 1956 – December 27, 2016) was an American actress, writer and comedian. Fisher is known for playing Princess Leia in the Star Wars films, a role for which she was nominated for four Saturn Awards. Her other film credits include Shampoo (1975), The Blues Brothers (1980), Hannah and Her Sisters (1986), The 'Burbs (1989), When Harry Met Sally... (1989), Soapdish (1991), and The Women (2008). She was nominated twice for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series for her performances on the television series 30 Rock and Catastrophe. She was posthumously made a Disney Legend in 2017, and in 2018 she was awarded a posthumous Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album.
Fisher wrote several semi-autobiographical novels, including Postcards from the Edge and an autobiographical one-woman play, and its non-fiction book, Wishful Drinking, based on the play. She wrote the screenplay for the film version of Postcards From The Edge which garnered her a BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay nomination, and her one-woman stage show of Wishful Drinking was filmed for television and received a nomination for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Variety Special. She worked on other writers' screenplays as a script doctor, including tightening the scripts for Hook (1991), Sister Act (1992), The Wedding Singer (1998), and many of the films from the Star Wars franchise, among others. In later years, she earned praise for speaking publicly about her experiences with bipolar disorder and drug addiction.
Fisher was the daughter of singer Eddie Fisher and actress Debbie Reynolds. Her mother and she appear in Bright Lights: Starring Carrie Fisher and Debbie Reynolds, a documentary about their relationship. It premiered at the 2016 Cannes Film Festival. Fisher died of a sudden cardiac arrest on December 27, 2016, at age 60, four days after experiencing a medical emergency during a transatlantic flight from London to Los Angeles. One of her final films, Star Wars: The Last Jedi, was released on December 15, 2017 and is dedicated to her. Fisher will appear in Star Wars: Episode IX through the use of unreleased footage from The Force Awakens and The Last Jedi.Chennai
Chennai ( (listen); also known by its former name Madras (listen) or ) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is the biggest cultural, economic and educational centre of south India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth most populous city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. The city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world. Chennai is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign tourists. It was ranked the 43rd most visited city in the world for the year 2015. The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India. Chennai attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting India, and 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists. As such, it is termed "India's health capital". As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems.Chennai had the third-largest expatriate population in India at 35,000 in 2009, 82,790 in 2011 and estimated at over 100,000 by 2016. Tourism guide publisher Lonely Planet named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015. Chennai is ranked as a beta-level city in the Global Cities Index, and was ranked the best city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey. In 2015 Chennai was named the "hottest" city (worth visiting, and worth living in for long term) by the BBC, citing the mixture of both modern and traditional values. National Geographic mentioned Chennai as the only South Asian city to feature in its 2015 "Top 10 food cities" list. Chennai was also named the ninth-best cosmopolitan city in the world by Lonely Planet. In October 2017, Chennai was added to the UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) list for its rich musical tradition.The Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest municipal economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed "The Detroit of India", with more than one-third of India's automobile industry being based in the city. Home to the Tamil film industry, Chennai is also known as a major film production centre. Chennai has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Smart Cities Mission.G-Eazy
Gerald Earl Gillum (born May 24, 1989), known professionally as G-Eazy, is an American rapper and record producer from Oakland, California. His first major-label album, These Things Happen, was released on June 23, 2014. The album peaked at number 3 on the US Billboard 200. His second studio album, When It's Dark Out, was released on December 4, 2015. It featured the single "Me, Myself & I", which reached the top 10 of the US Billboard Hot 100. His third and most recent studio album, The Beautiful & Damned, was released on December 15, 2017.ITunes
iTunes () is a media player, media library, Internet radio broadcaster, and mobile device management application developed by Apple Inc. It was announced on January 9, 2001. It is used to play, download, and organize digital multimedia files, including music and video, on personal computers running the macOS and Windows operating systems. Content must be purchased through the iTunes Store, whereas iTunes is the software letting users manage their purchases.
The original and main focus of iTunes is music, with a library offering organization, collection, and storage of users' music collections. It can be used to rip songs from CDs, as well as play content with the use of dynamic, smart playlists. Options for sound optimizations exist, as well as ways to wirelessly share the iTunes library. In 2005, Apple expanded on the core features with video support, later also adding podcasts, e-books, and a section for managing mobile apps for Apple's iOS operating system, the last of which it discontinued in 2017.
The original iPhone smartphone required iTunes for activation and, until the release of iOS 5 in 2011, iTunes was required for installing software updates for the company's iOS devices. Newer iOS devices rely less on the iTunes software, though it can still be used for backup and restoration of phone contents, as well as for the transfer of files between a computer and individual iOS applications. iTunes has received significant criticism for a bloated user experience, with Apple adopting an all-encompassing feature-set in iTunes rather than sticking to its original music-based purpose.Islam by country
Adherents of Islam constitute the world's second largest religious group. According to a study in 2015, Islam has 1.8 billion adherents, making up about 24.1% of the world population. Most Muslims are either of two denominations: Sunni (80–90%, roughly 1.5 billion people) or Shia (10–20%, roughly 170–340 million people). Islam is the dominant religion in Central Asia, Indonesia, Middle East, North Africa, the Sahel and some other parts of Asia. The diverse Asia-Pacific region contains the highest number of Muslims in the world, easily surpassing the Middle East and North Africa.About 31% of all Muslims are of South Asian origin, therefore South Asia contains the largest population of Muslims in the world. Within this region, however, Muslims are second in numbers to Hindus, as Muslims are a majority in Pakistan and Bangladesh, but not India.
The various Hamito-Semitic (including Arab, Berber), Turkic, and Iranic countries of the greater Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region, where Islam is the dominant religion in all countries other than Israel, hosts 23% of world Muslims.
The country with the single largest population of Muslims is Indonesia in Southeast Asia, which on its own hosts 13% of the world's Muslims. Together, the Muslims in the countries of Southeast Asia constitute the world's third largest population of Muslims. In the countries of the Malay Archipelago Muslims are majorities in each country other than Singapore, the Philippines, and East Timor.
About 15% of Muslims reside in Sub-Saharan Africa, and sizeable Muslim communities are also found in the Americas, the Caucasus, China, Europe, the Philippines and Russia.Western Europe hosts many Muslim immigrant communities where Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity, where it represents 6% of the total population or 24 million people. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world.Lists of deaths by year
This is a list of notable deaths, organized by year. New deaths articles are added to their respective month (e.g., Deaths in February 2019), and then linked here.Marshmello
Christopher Comstock (born May 19, 1992), known professionally as Marshmello, is an American electronic music producer and DJ. He first gained international recognition by releasing remixes of songs by Jack Ü and Zedd. His debut studio album, Joytime, was released in January 2016 consisting of its lead single and Marshmello's debut career single "Keep It Mello". He is best known for the songs "Silence", "Wolves", "Friends" and "Happier", all of which have been certified multi-platinum in many countries and appeared in the Top 30 of the Billboard Hot 100.Marshmello's second song in 2016, a platinum-certified single titled "Alone" was released in May via the Canadian record label Monstercat. Having peaked on the US Billboard Hot 100 at number 60, it became his first single to be certified platinum in the US and Canada with over a million copies of certified units. That year, he released three subsequent singles. In 2017, after releasing singles such as "Chasing Colors", "Twinbow" and "Moving On", Marshmello collaborated with R&B singer Khalid to release "Silence" as a single, which was certified platinum and multi-platinum in eight countries. Succeeding another single, one of his best-selling singles, a collaboration with Selena Gomez was released, titled "Wolves".
His second single of 2018, titled "Friends", was released as a collaboration with singer Anne-Marie. Months later, his second studio album, Joytime II, was released with singles "Tell Me" and "Check This Out". Achieving similar charting success like the debut album with positions on three Billboard charts, Joytime II, failed to appear on charts outside the United States and was reviewed as below average by publications such as Rolling Stone and Pitchfork. Marshmello's highest-charted song on the Billboard Hot 100 and in the United Kingdom was released in August titled "Happier". He was named by Forbes in eighth place in their annual ranking of the world's highest-paid DJs in 2017 as he earned $21 million in the twelve months before June 2017.Meghan Trainor
Meghan Elizabeth Trainor (born December 22, 1993) is an American singer-songwriter. Interested in music from a young age, Trainor wrote, recorded, and produced three independently released albums between 2009 and 2011.
Since signing with Epic Records in 2014, Trainor has released two studio albums: Title (2015), and Thank You (2016). Trainor has earned six top 15 entries on the US Billboard Hot 100, including "All About That Bass", "Lips Are Movin", "Dear Future Husband", "Like I'm Gonna Lose You", "No", and "Me Too". She has embarked on three tours: That Bass Tour, MTrain Tour, and The Untouchable Tour.
Trainor is influenced by music from the 1950s and 1960s and is known for her throwback style. Her lyrics frequently refer to modern womanhood, body image, and empowerment. She is a pop artist, as well as an R&B artist. She has received several awards and nominations, including a Grammy Award, four ASCAP Pop Music Awards, and two Billboard Music Awards. Outside of music, Trainor has lent her voice to animated films and appeared as a judge on The Four: Battle for Stardom.Murder of John Lennon
John Lennon was an English musician who gained worldwide fame as a member of The Beatles, for his subsequent solo career, and for his political activism and pacifism. On the evening of 8 December 1980, Lennon was shot and killed by Mark David Chapman in the archway of the Dakota, his residence in New York City. Lennon had just returned from Record Plant Studio with his wife, Yoko Ono.
After sustaining four major gunshot wounds, Lennon was pronounced dead on arrival at Roosevelt Hospital. He was 40 years old. Shortly after local news stations reported Lennon's death, crowds gathered at Roosevelt Hospital and in front of the Dakota. Lennon was cremated at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York on 12 December; the ashes were given to Ono, who chose not to hold a funeral for him. The first media report of Lennon's death to a U.S. national audience was announced by sportscaster Howard Cosell, on ABC's Monday Night Football.
Chapman pleaded guilty to the murder of Lennon and was sentenced to 20-years-to-life imprisonment. He has been denied parole ten times amidst campaigns against his release after he became eligible in 2000. Two biographical films center on Chapman and the murder: The Killing of John Lennon (2006) and Chapter 27 (2007). The 2016 film The Lennon Report focuses on attempts by doctors and nurses to save Lennon's life. Its creation was motivated by misconceptions tied to the events.Ole Gunnar Solskjær
Ole Gunnar Solskjær (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈuːlə ˈɡʉnːɑr ²suːlʂær] (listen); born 26 February 1973) is a Norwegian football manager and former player who is the caretaker manager of English club Manchester United. As a player, he spent most of his career playing as a forward for Manchester United.
Before he arrived in England, Solskjær played for Norwegian clubs Clausenengen and Molde. He joined Manchester United in 1996 for a transfer fee of £1.5 million. Nicknamed "The Baby-faced Assassin", he played 366 times for United, and scored 126 goals during a successful period for the club. He was regarded as a "super sub" for his knack of coming off the substitute bench to score late goals. In injury time at the end of the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final, he scored the winning last-minute goal against Bayern Munich, with Manchester United having trailed 1–0 as the game passed 90 minutes, and winning The Treble for United.
In 2007, Solskjær announced his retirement from football after failing to recover from a serious knee injury. However, he remained at Manchester United in a coaching role as well as in an ambassadorial capacity. In 2008, Solskjær became the club's reserve team manager. He returned to his native country in 2011 to manage his former club, Molde, whom he led to their two first ever Tippeligaen titles in his first two seasons with the club. He secured a third title in as many seasons, when his team won the 2013 Norwegian Football Cup Final. In 2014, he served as manager of Cardiff City, during which the club were relegated from the Premier League.
He also supervises a training academy for young footballers in his home town of Kristiansund, and is a patron of the Manchester United Supporters' Trust.Rami Malek
Rami Said Malek (; born May 12, 1981) is an American actor. His breakthrough role was as a computer hacker in the USA Network television series Mr. Robot (2015–present), for which he received several accolades, including the 2016 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series. In 2018, he portrayed Freddie Mercury in the biopic Bohemian Rhapsody, for which he won several awards, including the Golden Globe Award, Screen Actors Guild Award and BAFTA Award for Best Actor, and received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor.
Born and raised in Los Angeles, California to Egyptian immigrant parents, Malek studied theater at the University of Evansville in Indiana. He began his acting career with supporting roles in film and television, including the Fox sitcom The War at Home (2005–2007), the HBO miniseries The Pacific (2010), and the Night at the Museum film trilogy (2006–2014). He has done voicework for television and video games, as well as motion capture for the latter.Ranveer Singh
Ranveer Singh Bhavnani (born 6 July 1985) is an Indian actor who appears in Hindi films. The recipient of several awards, including two Filmfare Awards, Singh is among the highest-paid actors in the country and has featured in Forbes India's Celebrity 100 list since 2012.
After completing a bachelor's degree from Indiana University Bloomington, Singh returned to India to pursue a career in film. He briefly worked in advertising and went on to make his acting debut in 2010 with a leading role in Yash Raj Films' romantic comedy Band Baaja Baaraat. The film emerged as a critical and commercial success, earning him a Filmfare Award for Best Male Debut. He went on to play a melancholic thief in the drama Lootera (2013), a local goon in the action-drama Gunday (2014), and a dissatisfied businessman in the comedy-drama Dil Dhadakne Do (2015).
Singh established himself in Hindi cinema by starring in three films directed by Sanjay Leela Bhansali, beginning with the romance Goliyon Ki Raasleela Ram-Leela (2013). He gained critical acclaim for portraying Bajirao I and Alauddin Khilji in Bhansali's period dramas Bajirao Mastani (2015) and Padmaavat (2018), respectively, winning the Filmfare Award for Best Actor for the former. These along with the action film Simmba (2018), in which he played the title character, rank among the highest-grossing Indian films of all time. Singh is married to Deepika Padukone, his co-star in the Bhansali films.Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting
The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting occurred on December 14, 2012, in Newtown, Connecticut, United States, when 20-year-old Adam Lanza fatally shot 20 children between six and seven years old, as well as six adult staff members. Before driving to the school, he shot and killed his mother at their Newtown home. As first responders arrived at the school, Lanza committed suicide by shooting himself in the head.
The incident was the deadliest mass shooting at either a high school or grade school in U.S. history and the fourth-deadliest mass shooting by a single person in U.S. history. The shooting prompted renewed debate about gun control in the United States, including proposals to make the background-check system universal, and for new federal and state gun legislation banning the sale and manufacture of certain types of semi-automatic firearms and magazines with more than ten rounds of ammunition.
A November 2013 report issued by the Connecticut State Attorney's office concluded that Lanza acted alone and planned his actions, but provided no indication why he did so, or why he targeted the school. A report issued by the Office of the Child Advocate in November 2014 said that Lanza had Asperger's syndrome and as a teenager suffered from depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder, but concluded that they had "neither caused nor led to his murderous acts." The report went on to say, "his severe and deteriorating internalized mental health problems ... combined with an atypical preoccupation with violence ... (and) access to
deadly weapons ... proved a recipe for mass murder".Saoirse Ronan
Saoirse Una Ronan ( SUR-shə; born 12 April 1994) is an Irish and American actress. She is the recipient of several accolades, including a Golden Globe Award, and has been nominated for three Academy Awards and four British Academy Film Awards.
Ronan made her acting debut with the Irish medical drama series The Clinic in 2003 and made her film debut with a supporting role in the romantic comedy I Could Never Be Your Woman in 2007. Her breakthrough came with the part of a precocious teenager in Atonement (2007), for which she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. Ronan followed this with the starring roles of a murdered girl seeking closure in The Lovely Bones (2009), a teenaged assassin in Hanna (2011), a vampire in Byzantium (2012), and a baker in The Grand Budapest Hotel (2014). Ronan made her stage debut as Abigail Williams in the 2016 Broadway revival of The Crucible.
Ronan received critical acclaim for playing a homesick Irish girl in 1950s New York in the romantic drama Brooklyn (2015) and the titular role of a high school senior in Greta Gerwig's coming-of-age film Lady Bird (2017). She won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress for the latter and earned nominations for the Academy Award for Best Actress for both films.Yellow vests movement
The yellow vests movement or yellow jackets movement (French: Mouvement des gilets jaunes, pronounced [muvmɑ̃ de ʒilɛ ʒon]) is a populist, grassroots political movement for economic justice that began in France in November 2018. After an online petition posted in May had attracted nearly a million signatures, mass demonstrations began on 17 November. The movement is motivated by rising fuel prices, high cost of living, and claims that a disproportionate burden of the government's tax reforms were falling on the working and middle classes, especially in rural and peri-urban areas. The protesters have called for lower fuel taxes, reintroduction of the solidarity tax on wealth, a minimum wage increase, the implementation of Citizens' initiative referendums and Emmanuel Macron's resignation as President of France and his government. The movement spans the political spectrum. According to one poll, few of those protesting had voted for Macron in the 2017 French presidential election, and many had either not voted, or had voted for far-right or far-left candidates.Rising fuel prices initially sparked the demonstrations, and yellow high-visibility vests, which French law required all drivers to have in their vehicles and to wear during emergencies, were chosen as "a unifying thread and call to arms" because of their convenience, visibility, ubiquity, and association with working-class industries. The protests have involved demonstrations and the blocking of roads and fuel depots. Some of the protests developed into major riots, described as the most violent since those of May 1968.Since the French yellow vests or Gilets jaunes movement has gained international attention, protesters—some with similar grievances and others entirely unrelated—have used the yellow vest symbol in many places around the world.Zac Efron
Zachary David Alexander Efron (; born October 18, 1987) is an American actor. He began acting professionally in the early 2000s, and rose to prominence in the late 2000s for his leading role as Troy Bolton in the High School Musical franchise (2006–2008). During this time, he also starred in the musical film Hairspray (2007) and the comedy film 17 Again (2009). He has since appeared in the films New Year's Eve (2011), The Lucky One (2012), The Paperboy (2012), Neighbors (2014), Dirty Grandpa (2016), Neighbors 2: Sorority Rising (2016), Baywatch (2017), The Greatest Showman (2017) and Extremely Wicked, Shockingly Evil, and Vile (2019).Zoe Saldana
Zoe Saldana-Perego (born Zoe Yadira Saldaña Nazario; 19 June 1978) is an American actress and dancer. Following her performances with the theater group Faces, Saldana made her screen debut in a 1999 episode of Law & Order.
Saldana's film career began a year later with Center Stage (2000), where she played a struggling ballet dancer. Saldana's breakthrough came in 2009 with her first of multiple appearances as Nyota Uhura in the Star Trek film series and her first appearance as Neytiri in the Avatar film series. She also portrays Gamora in multiple films in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, beginning with Guardians of the Galaxy (2014).