Decade

A decade is a period of 10 years. The word is derived (via French and Latin) from the Ancient Greek: δεκάς, romanizeddekas), which means a group of ten. Other words for spans of years also come from Latin: biennium (2 years), triennium (3 years), quadrennium (4 years), lustrum (5 years), century (100 years), millennium (1000 years).

Usage

  • Any period of ten years is a decade,[1][2] including any arbitrary span of ten years; for example, the statement that "during his last decade, Mozart explored chromatic harmony to a degree rare at the time" merely refers to the last ten years of Mozart's life without regard to which calendar years are encompassed.
  • A popular and frequently referenced interval is based on the tens digit of a calendar year, as in using "the 1960s" to represent the decade from 1960 to 1969.[3][4] Sometimes, only the tens part is mentioned (60s or sixties), although this may leave it uncertain which century is meant. These references are frequently used to encapsulate popular culture or other widespread phenomena that dominated such a decade.
  • However, the Gregorian calendar begins with the year 1. (There was no year "zero", and the year before AD 1 is 1 BC with nothing in between.) Therefore, its first decade is from AD 1 to AD 10, the second decade from AD 11 to AD 20, and so on.[5] So, although "the 1960s" comprises the years 1960 to 1969, the years 1961 to 1970 comprise "the 197th decade" of the calendar, which can also be referenced as "the seventh decade of the 20th century".
  • Particularly in the 20th century, a nominal decade is often used to refer not just to a set of ten years but rather to a period of about ten years - for example, the phrase the sixties often refers to events that took place between around 1964 and 1972, and to memories of the counterculture, flower power, protests of 1968 and other things happening at the time. Often, such a nominal decade will come to be known by a title, such as the "Swinging Sixties" (1960s), the "Warring Forties" (1940s) and the "Roaring Twenties" (1920s). This practice is occasionally also applied to decades of earlier centuries, for example, references to the 1890s as the "Gay Nineties" or "Naughty Nineties".

See also

References

  1. ^ "Oxford Dictionaries". askoxford.com. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  2. ^ "Webster dictionary definition of "decade"". Archived from the original on 2013-06-05. Retrieved 2009-12-31.
  3. ^ The OWL at Purdue: Apostrophe
  4. ^ "1960s". Memidex/Wordnet Dictionary/Thesaurus. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  5. ^ Passim, i.a. Spencer, Donald D. 1989. Invitation to number theory with Pascal. Ormond Beach: Camelot. 46: "The first decade is from one to ten inclusive, the second decade from eleven to twenty inclusive, and so on."

External links

1920s

The 1920s (pronounced "nineteen-twenties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1920, and ended on December 31, 1929. In North America, it is frequently referred to as the "Roaring Twenties" or the "Jazz Age", while in Europe the period is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Age Twenties" because of the economic boom following World War I. French speakers refer to the period as the "Années folles" ("Crazy Years"), emphasizing the era's social, artistic, and cultural dynamism.

The economic prosperity experienced by many countries during the 1920s (especially the United States) was similar in nature to that experienced in the 1950s and 1990s. Each period of prosperity was the result of a paradigm shift in global affairs. These shifts in the 1920s, 1950s, and 1990s, occurred in part as the result of the conclusion of World War I and Spanish flu, World War II, and the Cold War, respectively.

The 1920s saw foreign oil companies begin operations throughout South America. Venezuela became the world's second largest oil producing nation.In some countries the 1920s saw the rise of radical political movements, especially in regions that were once part of empires. Communism spread as a consequence of the October Revolution and the Bolsheviks' victory in the Russian Civil War. Fear of the spread of Communism led to the emergence of far right political movements and fascism in Europe. Economic problems contributed to the emergence of dictators in Eastern Europe and the Balkans, to include Józef Piłsudski in the Second Polish Republic, and Peter and Alexander Karađorđević in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

The devastating Wall Street Crash in October 1929 is generally viewed as a harbinger of the end of 1920s prosperity in North America and Europe.

1940s

The 1940s (pronounced "nineteen-forties" and commonly abbreviated as the "Forties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1940, and ended on December 31, 1949.

Most of World War II took place in the first half of the decade, which had a profound effect on most countries and people in Europe, Asia, and elsewhere. The consequences of the war lingered well into the second half of the decade, with a war-weary Europe divided between the jostling spheres of influence of the Western world and the Soviet Union, leading to the beginning of the Cold War. To some degree internal and external tensions in the post-war era were managed by new institutions, including the United Nations, the welfare state, and the Bretton Woods system, facilitating the post–World War II economic expansion, which lasted well into the 1970s. However, the conditions of the post-war world encouraged decolonization and the emergence of new states and governments, with India, Pakistan, Israel, Vietnam, and others declaring independence, although rarely without bloodshed. The decade also witnessed the early beginnings of new technologies (such as computers, nuclear power, and jet propulsion), often first developed in tandem with the war effort, and later adapted and improved upon in the post-war era.

1950s

The 1950s (pronounced nineteen-fifties; commonly abbreviated as the '50s or Fifties) was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1950, and ended on December 31, 1959.

By its end, the world had largely recovered from World War II and the Cold War developed from its modest beginning in the late-1940s to a hot competition between the United States and the Soviet Union by the early-1960s.

Clashes between communism and capitalism dominated the decade, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. The conflicts included the Korean War in the beginnings of the decade and the beginning of the Space Race with the launch of Sputnik 1. Along with increased testing of nuclear weapons (such as RDS-37 and Upshot–Knothole), this created a politically conservative climate. In the United States, the Second Red Scare caused Congressional hearings by both houses in Congress and anti-communism was the prevailing sentiment in the United States throughout the decade. The beginning of decolonization in Africa and Asia took place in this decade and accelerated in the following decade.

1960s

The 1960s (pronounced "nineteen-sixties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on 1 January 1960, and ended on 31 December 1969.The term "1960s" also refers to an era more often called the Sixties, denoting the complex of inter-related cultural and political trends around the globe. This "cultural decade" is more loosely defined than the actual decade, beginning around 1963 with the Kennedy assassination and ending around 1974 with the Watergate scandal.

1970s

The 1970s (pronounced "nineteen-seventies", commonly abbreviated as the "Seventies") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1970, and ended on December 31, 1979.

1980s

The 1980s (pronounced "nineteen-eighties", commonly shortened as the "'80s", pronounced "eighties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1980, and ended on December 31, 1989.

1980s in music

For music from a year in the 1980s, go to 80 | 81 | 82 | 83 | 84 | 85 | 86 | 87 | 88 | 89.This article includes an overview of the major events and trends in popular music in the 1980s.

The 1980s saw the emergence of dance music and new wave. As disco fell out of fashion in the decade's early years, genres such as post-disco, Italo disco, Euro disco and dance-pop became more popular. Rock music continued to enjoy a wide audience. Soft rock, glam metal, thrash metal, shred guitar characterized by heavy distortion, pinch harmonics and whammy bar abuse became very popular. Adult contemporary, quiet storm, and smooth jazz gained popularity. In the late 1980s, glam metal became the largest, most commercially successful brand of music in the United States and worldwide.The 1980s are commonly remembered for an increase in the use of digital recording, associated with the usage of synthesizers, with synth-pop music and other electronic genres featuring non-traditional instruments increasing in popularity. Also during this decade, several major electronic genres were developed, including electro, techno, house, freestyle and Eurodance, rising in prominence during the 1990s and beyond. Throughout the decade, R&B, hip hop and urban genres were becoming commonplace, particularly in the inner-city areas of large, metropolitan cities; rap was especially successful in the latter part of the decade, with the advent of the golden age of hip hop. These urban genres—particularly rap and hip hop—would continue their rise in popularity through the 1990s and 2000s.

A 2010 survey conducted by the digital broadcaster Music Choice, which polled over 11,000 European participants, revealed that the 1980s is the most favored tune decade of the last 50 years.

1990s

The 1990s (pronounced "nineteen-nineties" and abbreviated as the nineties) was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1990, and ended on December 31, 1999.

1990s in music

Popular music in the 1990s saw the continuation of teen pop and dance-pop trends which had emerged in the 1970s and 1980s. Furthermore, hip hop grew and continued to be highly successful in the decade, with the continuation of the genre's golden age. Aside from rap, reggae, contemporary R&B and urban music in general remained extremely popular throughout the decade; urban music in the late-1980s and 1990s often blended with styles such as soul, funk and jazz, resulting in fusion genres such as new jack swing, neo-soul, hip hop soul and g-funk which were popular.

Similarly to the 1980s, rock music was also very popular in the 1990s, yet, unlike the new wave and glam metal-dominated scene of the time, grunge, Britpop, industrial rock and other alternative rock music emerged and took over as the most popular of the decade, as well as punk rock, ska punk and nu metal, amongst others, which attained a high level of success at different points throughout the years. Electronic music, which had risen in popularity in the 1980s, grew highly popular in the 1990s; house and techno from the 1980s rose to international success in this decade, as well as new electronic dance music genres such as Rave, happy hardcore, drum and bass, intelligent dance and trip hop. In Europe, Techno, Rave and Reggae music were highly successful, while also finding some international success. The decade also featured the rise of contemporary country music as a major genre, which had started in the 1980s.The 1990s also saw a resurgence of older styles in new contexts, including third wave ska and swing revival, both of which featured a fusion of horn-based music with rock music elements.

Reflecting on the decade's musical developments in Christgau's Consumer Guide: Albums of the '90s (2000), music critic Robert Christgau said the 1990s were "richly chaotic, unknowable", and "highly subject to vagaries of individual preference", yet "conducive to some manageable degree of general comprehension and enjoyment by any rock and roller."

2000s (decade)

The 2000s (pronounced "two-thousands") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 2000, and ended on December 31, 2009.

The growth of the Internet contributed to globalization during the decade, which allowed faster communication among people around the world.The economic growth of the 2000s had considerable social, environmental, and mass extinction consequences, and raised demand for diminishing energy resources. Economic growth was still vulnerable, however, as demonstrated by the financial crisis of 2007–08.

2000s in music

This article includes an overview of the major events and trends in popular music in the 2000s.

n American culture, various styles of the late 20th century remained popular, such as in rock, pop, metal, hip hop, R&B, EDM, country and indie. As the technology of computers and internet sharing developed, a variety of those genres started to fuse in order to see new styles emmerging. Terms like "contemporary", "nu", "revival", "alternative", and "post" are added to various genres titles in order to differentiate them from past styles, nu-disco and post-punk revival as notable examples.

One genre of this decade, British grime is a genre that was said to have influenced other sub-genres such as chillwave in the United States.The continued development of studio recording software and electronic elements was observed, through this decade. One such example is the usage of pitch correction software, such as auto-tune that appeared in the late 1990s. Another great impact to this decade was the ongoing development of the internet and user-friendly media players, such as iTunes, and music and video sharing websites such as Napster and YouTube, respectively.

The popularity of teen pop carried over from the 1990s with acts such as *NSYNC, Backstreet Boys, Britney Spears, and Christina Aguilera dominating the charts in the earlier years of the decade.

Contemporary R&B was one of the most popular genres of the decade (especially in the early and mid 2000s), with artists like Usher, Beyoncé, and Rihanna. In 2004, the Billboard Year-End Hot 100 had 15 of its top 25 singles as Contemporary R&B.

In Britain, Britpop, post punk revival and alternative rock were at the height their popularity with acts such as Coldplay, The Libertines, Oasis, Lynda Thomas, Travis, Dido, Blur, The Hives, Björk, and Radiohead, which still continued at the top of the major charts in the rest of the world since the 1990s.

Hip hop music achieved mainstream status after the 1990s and the deaths of many prominent artists such as 2Pac and The Notorious B.I.G. Artists outside of New York and Los Angeles in cities like Atlanta, Houston, New Orleans and the Bay Area all achieved mainstream success. Popular rap movements of the 2000s include Crunk, Snap, Hyphy, and Alternative Hip Hop.

Despite the hip hop dominance, such as Southern hip hop which lasted for most of the decade (particularly the middle years), rock music was still popular, notably alternative rock, and especially genres such as post-grunge, post-Britpop, nu metal, pop punk, emo, post-hardcore, metalcore, and in some cases indie rock; the early and mid 2000s saw a resurgence in the mainstream popularity of pop rock and power pop.

Despite a slight slip in popularity in the early part of the decade, adult contemporary and country music were still able to find success throughout the 2000s.

Electronic music was also popular throughout the decade; at the beginning of the 2000s, genres such as trance, chillout, house, indietronica, and Eurodance (in Europe) were popular. By the end of the decade, late-1980s/early-1990s inspired dance-oriented forms of electronic music such as synthpop, electropop, and electro house had become popular.

By the end of the decade, a fusion between hip hop and electronic dance similar to the Freestyle music of the late 1980s and early 1990s, known as Hip House and Electrohop also grew successful.In Asia and Far Eastern musical markets, with the increase of globalization and the spread of capitalism, music became more Westernised, with influences of pop, hip hop and contemporary R&B becoming ever–present in Eastern markets.

American and European popular music became more popular in Asia.

Genres such as J-Pop and K-Pop remained popular throughout the decade, proliferating their cultural influence throughout the East and Southeast of Asia. In other parts of Asia, including India, Indian pop music, closely linked to Bollywood films and filmi music, was popular alongside Western pop music.

In Latin America, whilst R&B, hip hop and pop rock did have influence and success, Latin-based pop music remained highly popular.

Reggaeton became a definitive genre in 2000s Latin music, as well as salsa and merengue. Subgenres fusing Latin music such as merengue and reggaeton with hip hop and rap music became popular from the middle of the decade onwards.

The Internet allowed unprecedented access to music and allowed artists to distribute music freely without label backing. Innumerable online outlets and sheer volume of music also offers musicians more musical influences to draw from.

2020s

The 2020s (pronounced "twenty-twenties") is the next decade in the Gregorian Calendar. It will begin on January 1, 2020 and will end on December 31, 2029.

Israel Houghton

Israel Houghton (; born May 19, 1971) is an American Christian music singer, songwriter, producer and worship leader. Houghton is usually credited as Israel & New Breed.

List of decades

This is a list of decades from the beginning of the 2nd millenium BC to the end of the 3rd millenium AD, including links to corresponding articles with more information about them.

During the 20th century, it became common to consider individual decades as historical entities in themselves. Particular trends, styles, and attitudes would be associated with and regarded as defining particular decades (which became known as "The Twenties", "The Sixties", and so on).

List of pornographic performers by decade

This is a list of notable pornographic actors and actresses listed by the decade in which they made their debut.This listing is subordered alphabetically by first name.

Lists of horror films

This is a chronological list of horror films split by decade. Often there may be considerable overlap particularly between horror and other genres (including, action, thriller, and science fiction films); the list should attempt to document films which are more closely related to horror, even if they bend genres.

Lost Decade (Japan)

The Lost Decade or the Lost 10 Years (失われた十年, Ushinawareta Jūnen) was a period of economic stagnation in Japan following the Japanese asset price bubble's collapse in late 1991 and early 1992. The term originally referred to the years from 1991 to 2000, but recently the decade from 2001 to 2010 is often included so that the whole period is referred to as the Lost Score or the Lost 20 Years (失われた二十年, Ushinawareta Nijūnen). Broadly impacting the entire Japanese economy, over the period of 1995 to 2007, GDP fell from $5.33 trillion to $4.36 trillion in nominal terms, real wages fell around 5%, while the country experienced a stagnant price level. While there is some debate on the extent and measurement of Japan's setbacks, the economic effect of the Lost Decade is well established and Japanese policymakers continue to grapple with its consequences.

Padma Shri

Padma Shri (Hindi: पद्म श्री, also Padma Shree) is the fourth highest civilian award in the Republic of India, after the Bharat Ratna, the Padma Vibhushan and the Padma Bhushan. It is awarded by the Government of India, every year on India's Republic Day.

Rosary

The Holy Rosary (; Latin: rosarium, in the sense of "crown of roses" or "garland of roses"), also known as the Dominican Rosary, refers to a form of prayer used in the Catholic Church and to the string of knots or beads used to count the component prayers. When used for the prayer, the word is usually capitalized ("the Rosary"), as is customary for other names of prayers, such as "the Lord's Prayer", and "the Hail Mary"; when referring to the beads, it is written with a lower-case initial letter ("a rosary").

The prayers that comprise the Rosary are arranged in sets of ten Hail Marys, called decades. Each decade is preceded by one Lord's Prayer and followed by one Glory Be. During recitation of each set, thought is given to one of the Mysteries of the Rosary, which recall events in the lives of Jesus and Mary. Five decades are recited per rosary. Other prayers are sometimes added before or after each decade. Rosary beads are an aid towards saying these prayers in the proper sequence.

A standard 15 Mysteries of the Rosary, based on the long-standing custom, was established by Pope Pius V during the 16th century, grouping the mysteries in three sets: the Joyful Mysteries, the Sorrowful Mysteries, and the Glorious Mysteries. During 2002 Pope John Paul II said that it is fitting that a new set of five be added, termed the Luminous Mysteries, bringing the total number of mysteries to 20. The Glorious mysteries are said on Sunday and Wednesday, the Joyful on Monday and Saturday, the Sorrowful on Tuesday and Friday, and the Luminous Mysteries are said on Thursday. Usually five decades are recited in a session.

For more than four centuries, the rosary has been promoted by several popes as part of the veneration of Mary in Roman Catholicism, and consisting essentially in meditation on the life of Christ. The rosary also represents the Roman Catholic emphasis on "participation in the life of Mary, whose focus was Christ", and the Mariological theme "to Christ through Mary."

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