Death row is a special placement in a prison that houses inmates awaiting execution after being convicted of a capital crime. The term is also used figuratively to describe the state of awaiting execution ("being on death row"), even in places where no special facility or separate unit for condemned inmates exists. In the United States, after a person is found guilty of a capital offense in death penalty states, the judge will give the jury the option of imposing a death sentence or life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. It is then up to a jury to decide whether to give the death sentence; this usually has to be a unanimous decision. If the jury agrees on death, the defendant will remain on death row during appeal and habeas corpus procedures, which may continue for several years.
Opponents of capital punishment claim that a prisoner's isolation and uncertainty over his or her fate constitute a form of mental cruelty and that especially long-time death row inmates are liable to become mentally ill, if they do not already suffer such a condition. This is referred to as the death row phenomenon. In extreme cases some inmates may attempt to commit suicide.
In the United States, prisoners may wait many years before execution can be carried out due to the complex and time-consuming appeals procedures mandated in the jurisdiction. The time between sentencing and execution has increased relatively steadily between 1977 and 2010, including a 22% jump between 1989 and 1990 and a similar jump between 2008 and 2009. In 2010, a death row inmate waited an average of 178 months (roughly 15 years) between sentencing and execution. Nearly a quarter of inmates on death row in the U.S. die of natural causes while awaiting execution.
There were 3,125 people on death row in the United States on January 1, 2013. Since 1977, the states of Texas (464), Virginia (108) and Oklahoma (94) have executed the most death row inmates. As of 2010, California (683), Florida (390), Texas (330) and Pennsylvania (218) housed more than half of all inmates pending on death row. As of 2008, the longest-serving prisoner on death row in the US who has been executed was Jack Alderman who served over 33 years. He was executed in Georgia in 2008. However, Alderman only holds the distinction of being the longest-serving executed inmate so far. A Florida inmate, Gary Alvord, arrived on Florida's death row in 1974. Alvord had been on death row for 39 years when he died on May 19, 2013 from a brain tumor, having spent more time on death row than any other American inmate. The oldest prisoner on death row in the United States was Leroy Nash, age 94, in Arizona. He died of natural causes on February 12, 2010.
|Men's death row||Women's death row|
|Civilian Federal||United States Penitentiary, Terre Haute, Terre Haute, Indiana||Federal Medical Center, Carswell, Fort Worth, Texas|
|Military||United States Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas||Naval Consolidated Brig, Miramar, San Diego, California1|
|State||Men's death row||Women's death row|
|Alabama||Holman Correctional Facility, Atmore and William E. Donaldson Correctional Facility, Bessemer||Julia Tutwiler Prison for Women, Wetumpka|
|Arizona||Arizona State Prison Complex - Eyman, Florence||Arizona State Prison Complex - Perryville, Goodyear|
|Arkansas||Varner Unit, Varner||McPherson Unit, Newport|
|California||San Quentin State Prison, San Quentin and Corcoran State Prison, Corcoran||Central California Women’s Facility, Chowchilla|
|Colorado||No designated death row
Currently all condemned prisoners are at Sterling Correctional Facility, Sterling
|Denver Women's Correctional Facility, Denver|
|Florida||Union Correctional Institution, Union County and Florida State Prison, Bradford County||Lowell Correctional Institution Annex, Marion County|
|Georgia||Georgia Diagnostic and Classification Prison, Butts County||Arrendale State Prison, Habersham County|
|Idaho||Idaho Maximum Security Institution, Kuna||Pocatello Women's Correctional Center, Pocatello|
|Indiana||Indiana State Prison, Michigan City||Indiana Women's Prison, Indianapolis|
|Kansas||El Dorado Correctional Facility, El Dorado||Topeka Correctional Facility, Topeka|
|Kentucky||Kentucky State Penitentiary, Eddyville||Kentucky Correctional Institute for Women, Shelby County|
|Louisiana||Louisiana State Penitentiary, West Feliciana Parish||Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women, St. Gabriel|
|Mississippi||Mississippi State Penitentiary, Sunflower County||Central Mississippi Correctional Facility, Rankin County|
|Missouri||Potosi Correctional Center, Washington County||Women's Eastern Reception, Diagnostic and Correctional Center, Vandalia|
|Montana||Montana State Prison, Deer Lodge||Montana Women's Prison, Billings|
|Nebraska||Tecumseh State Correctional Institution, Tecumseh||Nebraska Correctional Center for Women, York|
|Nevada||Ely State Prison, Ely||Florence McClure Women's Correctional Center, North Las Vegas|
|New Hampshire||New Hampshire State Prison for Men, Concord||New Hampshire State Prison for Women, Goffstown|
|New Mexico||Penitentiary of New Mexico, Santa Fe County||New Mexico Women's Correctional Facility, Grants|
|North Carolina||Central Prison, Raleigh||North Carolina Correctional Institution for Women, Raleigh|
|Ohio||Chillicothe Correctional Institution, Ross County, Ohio State Penitentiary, Youngstown and Franklin Medical Center, Columbus||Ohio Reformatory for Women, Marysville|
|Oklahoma||Oklahoma State Penitentiary, McAlester||Mabel Bassett Correctional Center, Oklahoma City|
|Oregon||Oregon State Penitentiary, Salem||Coffee Creek Correctional Facility, Wilsonville|
|Pennsylvania||SCI-Greene, Franklin Township
and SCI-Phoenix, Skippack Township
|SCI-Muncy, Clinton Township|
|South Carolina||Kirkland Correctional Institution, Columbia||Camille Griffin Graham Correctional Institution, Columbia|
|South Dakota||South Dakota State Penitentiary, Sioux Falls||South Dakota Women's Prison, Pierre|
|Tennessee||Riverbend Maximum Security Institution, Nashville and Morgan County Correctional Complex, Wartburg||Tennessee Prison for Women, Nashville|
|Texas||Polunsky Unit, West Livingston & Jester IV Unit, Fort Bend||Mountain View Unit, Gatesville|
|Utah||Utah State Prison, Draper||Central Utah Correctional Facility, Gunnison|
|Virginia||Sussex I State Prison, Sussex County||Fluvanna Correctional Center for Women, Troy|
|Wyoming||Wyoming State Penitentiary, Rawlins||Wyoming Women's Center, Lusk|
Notes: 1Naval Consolidated Brig, Miramar is the only facility in the United States Department of Defense designated to house female Level III inmates.
When the United Kingdom had capital punishment, sentenced inmates were given one appeal. If that appeal was found to involve an important point of law it was taken up to the House of Lords, and if the appeal was successful, at that point the sentence was changed to life in prison. The British Home Secretary had the power to exercise the Sovereign's royal prerogative of mercy to grant a reprieve on execution and change the sentence to life imprisonment.
In some Caribbean countries that still authorize execution, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the ultimate court of appeals. It has upheld appeals by prisoners who have spent several years under sentence of death, stating that it does not desire to see the death row phenomenon emerge in countries under its jurisdiction.
Afeni Shakur Davis (born Alice Faye Williams; January 10, 1947 – May 2, 2016) was an American activist, businesswoman, and mother of American rapper and actor Tupac Shakur.Capital punishment in Texas
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the state of Texas, part of the United States.
In 1982, the state became the first jurisdiction in the world to carry out an execution by lethal injection, when it put to death Charles Brooks Jr.. It was the first execution in the state since 1964.
Texas, which is the second most populous state of the Union, has executed 561 offenders from the U.S. capital punishment resumption in 1976 (beginning in 1982 with the Brooks execution) to April 24, 2019 (the execution of John William King), more than a third of the national total.Capital punishment in the United States
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the United States, currently used by 30 states, the federal government, and the military. Its existence can be traced to the beginning of the American colonies. The United States is the only developed Western nation that applies the death penalty regularly.
It is one of 54 countries worldwide applying it, and was the first to develop lethal injection as a method of execution, which has since been adopted by five other countries. The Philippines has since abolished executions, and Guatemala has done so for civil offenses, leaving the United States one of 4 countries to use this method, along with China, Thailand, and Vietnam.
There were no executions in the United States between 1967 and 1977. In 1972, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down capital punishment statutes in Furman v. Georgia, reducing all death sentences pending at the time to life imprisonment.Subsequently, a majority of states passed new death penalty statutes, and the court affirmed the legality of capital punishment in the 1976 case Gregg v. Georgia. Since then, more than 7,800 defendants have been sentenced to death; of these, more than 1,400 have been executed. A total of 165 who were sentenced to death in the modern era were exonerated before their execution. As of April 1, 2018, 2,743 are still on death row.Daz Dillinger
Delmar Drew Arnaud (born May 23, 1973) better known by his stage name Daz Dillinger (formerly Dat Nigga Daz), is an American rapper and record producer from Long Beach, California. Dillinger is best known for his membership of the hip hop duo Tha Dogg Pound, alongside Kurupt, as well as his work with Death Row.Death Row Records
Death Row Records (formerly Future Shock and Tha Row) is an American record label founded in 1991 by Suge Knight, The D.O.C. and Dr. Dre. The label became a sensation by releasing multi-platinum hip-hop albums by West Coast-based artists such as Dr. Dre (The Chronic), Snoop Dogg (Doggystyle), Tha Dogg Pound (Dogg Food), and Tupac Shakur (All Eyez on Me) during the 1990s. At its peak, Death Row Records was making over US$100,000,000 a year.By the late 1990s the label began to decline after the shooting death of its star artist, Tupac Shakur, imprisonment of co-founder Suge Knight, and the departures of Dr. Dre, and Snoop Dogg. Although Death Row was enjoying financial success, it was embroiled in controversies, lawsuits, and violence by its artists and associates. Death Row Records filed for bankruptcy in 2006 and was auctioned to WIDEawake Entertainment for $18,000,000 on January 15, 2009.Dr. Dre
Andre Romelle Young (born February 18, 1965), known professionally as Dr. Dre, is an American rapper, record producer, and entrepreneur. He is the founder and CEO of Aftermath Entertainment and Beats Electronics, and was previously co-owner of Death Row Records. He has produced albums for and overseen the careers of many rappers, including 2Pac, The D.O.C., Snoop Dogg, Eminem, Xzibit, Knoc-turn'al, 50 Cent, The Game, Kendrick Lamar and Anderson .Paak. He is credited as a key figure in the crafting and popularization of West Coast G-funk, a rap style characterized as synthesizer-based with slow, heavy beats. As of 2018, he is the third richest figure in hip hop, with a net worth of $770 million.Dre began his career as a member of the World Class Wreckin' Cru. He found fame with the influential gangsta rap group N.W.A with Eazy-E, Ice Cube, MC Ren, and DJ Yella, which popularized explicit lyrics in rap to detail the violence of street life. His 1992 solo debut The Chronic, released under Death Row Records, made him one of the best-selling American performing artists of 1993. It earned him a Grammy Award for the single "Let Me Ride", as well as several accolades for the single "Nuthin' but a 'G' Thang". That year, he produced Death Row labelmate Snoop Doggy Dogg's quadruple platinum debut Doggystyle, and mentored producers such as his step-brother Warren G (leading to the multi-platinum debut Regulate...G Funk Era in 1994) and Snoop Dogg's cousin Daz Dillinger (leading to the double-platinum debut Dogg Food by Tha Dogg Pound in 1995).
In 1996, Dr. Dre left Death Row Records to establish his own label, Aftermath Entertainment. He produced a compilation album, Dr. Dre Presents the Aftermath, in 1996, and released a solo album, 2001, in 1999. During the 2000s, Dr. Dre focused on producing other artists, occasionally contributing vocals. Dr. Dre signed Eminem in 1998 and 50 Cent in 2002, and co-produced their albums. He has won six Grammy Awards, including Producer of the Year. Dr. Dre has had acting roles in movies such as Set It Off, The Wash and Training Day. Rolling Stone ranked Dre 56 on their list of "100 Greatest Artists of All Time".Gang Related – The Soundtrack
Gang Related – The Soundtrack is a double disc audio soundtrack for the film Gang Related, released on October 7, 1997, under Death Row Records and Priority Records. It features four songs by the supporting actor Tupac Shakur. The album peaked at #2 on the Billboard Top 200 chart, and at #1 on the Billboard Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart. It was eventually certified 2x Platinum by the RIAA. This soundtrack along with 2 others (Above The Rim & Gridlock'd) released on Death Row is packaged in a 4-disc set called The Death Row Archives [The Soundtracks]. The album also marked the first national rap debut of Kansas City, Missouri rapper Tech N9ne. On the digital version on iTunes, both track 13's on both discs are removed. It is unknown why. This is also the first Death Row album to be distributed by Priority after Interscope Records dropped Death Row from their label.Kurupt
Ricardo Emmanuel Brown (born November 23, 1972) is an American rapper and actor, better known by his stage name Kurupt. His career began in the early 1990s when he was signed to Death Row Records and shortly after formed the duo Tha Dogg Pound with Daz Dillinger. After leaving Death Row in 1996, he signed with A&M and released his debut studio album, Kuruption! in 1998. He is also a member of the hip-hop supergroups The HRSMN and Diirty OGz.List of death row inmates in the United States
As of May 17, 2019, there were 2,638 death row inmates in the United States. The number of death row inmates changes daily with new convictions, appellate decisions overturning conviction or sentence alone, commutations, or deaths (through execution or otherwise). Due to this fluctuation as well as lag and inconsistencies in inmate reporting procedures across jurisdictions, the information in this article may be out of date.List of exonerated death row inmates
This list contains names of people who were found guilty of capital crimes and placed on death row, and were later found to be wrongly convicted. Some people were exonerated posthumously.
This list includes individuals who were sentenced to death and had their sentences overturned by acquittal or pardon. The state listed is the state where the individual was convicted, the year listed is the year of release, and the case listed is the case that overturned their conviction.
This list does not include:
Posthumous pardons for individuals executed before 1950;
Inmates who were given life sentences when their country, province or state abolished the death penalty;
People who were threatened with death and never jailed;
People who were jailed by extralegal groups or courts, for example as often occurs in cases of sentences of stoning.List of women on death row in the United States
This is a list of women on death row in the United States. The number of death row inmates fluctuates daily with new convictions, appellate decisions overturning conviction or sentence alone, commutations, or deaths (through execution or otherwise). Due to this fluctuation as well as lag and inconsistencies in inmate reporting procedures across jurisdictions, the information in this article may be out of date. The time on death row counter starts on the day they were first placed on death row. It does not count time incarcerated prior to sentencing nor does it discount time spent in prison off death row in cases where death sentences were overturned before being reinstated.Mountain View Unit
Mountain View Unit is a Texas Department of Criminal Justice prison housing female offenders in Gatesville, Texas. The unit, with about 97 acres (39 ha) of land, is located 4 miles (6.4 km) north of central Gatesville on Farm to Market Road 215. The prison is located in a 45-minute driving distance from Waco. In addition to its other functions, Mountain View Unit houses the state's female death row inmates.
Death row offenders are housed separately from the rest of the prisoners in single-person cells measuring 60 square feet (5.6 m2), with each cell having a window. They do not have recreation individually. Some are allowed to watch television, though this is dependent upon agreeing to work for free, and all have a radio.
Karla Faye Tucker, executed February 3, 1998, was the first woman to be executed in Texas since 1863. The most recent female to be executed was Lisa Coleman, executed on September 17, 2014.
Among the better known death row offenders at Mountain View are Linda Carty, Brittany Holberg and Darlie Routier.
A notable woman in the prison is Yolanda Saldívar, the murderer of Tejano superstar Selena. Saldívar shot and killed her on March 31, 1995 in Selena's hometown of Corpus Christi, Texas. Saldívar is currently serving her sentence of life imprisonment. She will be eligible for parole on March 30, 2025, the day before the 30th anniversary of Selena's murder.
As of 2004, the facility is not signposted from the area main highway.Oklahoma State Penitentiary
The Oklahoma State Penitentiary, nicknamed "Big Mac", is a prison of the Oklahoma Department of Corrections located in McAlester, Oklahoma, on 1,556 acres (6.30 km2). Opened in 1908 with 50 inmates in makeshift facilities, today the prison holds more than 750 male offenders, the vast majority of which are maximum-security inmates.Outlawz
The Outlawz (formerly known as The Outlaw Immortalz and Dramacydal) is an American hip hop group founded by rapper Tupac Shakur in late 1995 after Shakur's release from prison. Collectively, they were best known for their association with 2Pac.San Quentin State Prison
San Quentin State Prison (SQ) is a California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation state prison for men, located north of San Francisco in the unincorporated town of San Quentin in Marin County.
Opened in July 1852, San Quentin is the oldest prison in California. The state's only death row for male inmates, the largest in the United States, is located at the prison. It has a gas chamber, but since 1996, executions at the prison have been carried out by lethal injection, though the prison has not performed an execution since 2006. The prison has been featured on film, radio drama, video, and television; is the subject of many books; has hosted concerts; and has housed many notorious inmates.Snoop Dogg
Calvin Cordozar Broadus Jr. (born October 20, 1971), known professionally as Snoop Dogg, is an American rapper, singer-songwriter, record producer, television personality, entrepreneur, and actor. His music career began in 1992 when he was discovered by Dr. Dre and featured on Dre's solo debut, "Deep Cover", and then on Dre's solo debut album, The Chronic. He has since sold over 23 million albums in the United States and 35 million albums worldwide.Snoop's debut album, Doggystyle, produced by Dr. Dre, was released in 1993 by Death Row Records. Bolstered by excitement driven by Snoop's featuring on The Chronic, the album debuted at number one on both the Billboard 200 and Billboard Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums charts. Selling almost a million copies in the first week of its release, Doggystyle became certified quadruple platinum in 1994 and spawned several hit singles, including "What's My Name?" and "Gin & Juice". In 1994 Snoop released a soundtrack on Death Row Records for the short film Murder Was the Case, starring himself. His second album, Tha Doggfather (1996), also debuted at number one on both charts, with "Snoop's Upside Ya Head" as the lead single. The album was certified double platinum in 1997.
After leaving Death Row Records, Snoop signed with No Limit Records, where he recorded his next three albums, Da Game Is to Be Sold, Not to Be Told (1998), No Limit Top Dogg (1999), and Tha Last Meal (2000). Snoop then signed with Priority/Capitol/EMI Records in 2002, where he released Paid tha Cost to Be da Boss. He then signed with Geffen Records in 2004 for his next three albums, R&G (Rhythm & Gangsta): The Masterpiece, Tha Blue Carpet Treatment, and Ego Trippin'. Malice 'n Wonderland (2009), and Doggumentary (2011) were released on Priority. Snoop Dogg has starred in motion pictures and hosted several television shows, including Doggy Fizzle Televizzle, Snoop Dogg's Father Hood, and Dogg After Dark. He also coaches a youth football league and high school football team. In September 2009 Snoop was hired by EMI as the chairman of a reactivated Priority Records.In 2012, after a trip to Jamaica, Snoop announced a conversion to Rastafarianism and a new alias, Snoop Lion. As Snoop Lion he released a reggae album, Reincarnated, and a documentary film of the same name, about his Jamaican experience, in early 2013. His 13th studio album, Bush, was released in May 2015 and marked a return of the Snoop Dogg name. His 14th solo studio album, Coolaid, was released in July 2016. Snoop has 17 Grammy nominations without a win. In March 2016, the night before WrestleMania 32 in Arlington, Texas, he was inducted into the celebrity wing of the WWE Hall of Fame, having made several appearances for the company, including as Master of Ceremonies during a match at WrestleMania XXIV. In 2018, he released his first gospel album, Bible of Love. On November 19, 2018, Snoop Dogg was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.Suge Knight
Marion Hugh "Suge" Knight Jr. (; born April 19, 1965) is a former American record producer, music executive, former American football player and incarcerated felon. He is best known as the co-founder and former CEO of Death Row Records, which rose to dominate the rap charts after Dr. Dre's breakthrough album The Chronic in 1992, and enjoyed several years of chart successes for artists including 2Pac, Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Outlawz and Tha Dogg Pound.
Suge Knight is also known for his numerous legal issues. In September 2018, Knight pleaded no contest to voluntary manslaughter in a fatal 2015 hit-and-run and was sentenced to 28 years in prison.Tha Dogg Pound
Tha Dogg Pound is an American hip hop duo formed in 1992, made up of West Coast rappers Kurupt and Daz Dillinger (formerly Dat Nigga Daz). They were signed to Death Row Records in their early careers and were key to the label's success. The duo made their first appearance on Dr. Dre's highly acclaimed debut album The Chronic (1992), appearing on several songs. They also appeared on Snoop Dogg's debut album Doggystyle (1993), and the Death Row soundtracks Murder Was the Case and Above the Rim. Their debut album Dogg Food was released in 1995. It was another addition to the controversy of hardcore hip hop due to the sexual and violent lyrics and went on to sell two million albums.
Kurupt and Daz went on to release solo albums starting in 1998. They both eventually left the crumbling Death Row Records in 1999. Daz left due to long-lasting internal struggles on the label after friend and labelmate Tupac Shakur's murder in 1996. Kurupt started Antra Records, while Daz and Soopafly started D.P.G. Recordz. In 2002 a feud arose between the two when Kurupt decided to sign back with Death Row Records, upsetting everyone involved with the group. His awaited Death Row release Against Tha Grain had been postponed several times while Kurupt was on the label, later being released in August 2005, after he was off. In January 2005, Daz made another solo album release titled Tha Dogg Pound Gangsta LP. Tha Dogg Pound then got back together as a group and released Dillinger & Young Gotti II in November 2005. In 2006 Snoop Dogg decided to get involved and the three released their official reunion album Cali Iz Active.
An extended family, referred to as D.P.G.C. (short for Dogg Pound Gangsta Crips), is made up of Tha Dogg Pound, Snoop Dogg, Nate Dogg, Warren G, Wayniac & Trip Loc (Tha Twinz), Big C-Style, Bad Azz, Techniec, Lil' ½ Dead, RBX, King Tha Rapper Lil' C-Style, Soopafly, Tha Eastsidaz, and many more. Tha Dogg Pound Gangstaz are commonly featured on each other's albums and projects.United States Penitentiary, Terre Haute
The United States Penitentiary, Terre Haute (USP Terre Haute) is a high-security United States federal prison for male inmates in Terre Haute, Indiana. It is part of the Terre Haute Federal Correctional Complex (FCC Terre Haute) and is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. USP Terre Haute houses a Special Confinement Unit for male federal inmates who have been sentenced to death as well as the federal execution chamber. Most inmates sentenced to death by the U.S. Federal Government are housed in USP Terre Haute prior to execution, although there are some exceptions.
FCC Terre Haute is located in the city of Terre Haute, 70 miles (110 km) west of Indianapolis.
|Abolitionist in practice|
ordinary crimes only