Death knell

A death knell is the ringing of a church bell immediately after a death to announce it. Historically it was the second of three bells rung around death, the first being the passing bell to warn of impending death, and the last was the lych bell or corpse bell, which survives today as the funeral toll.

English tradition

In England, an ancient custom was the ringing of bells at three specific times before and after death. Sometimes a passing bell was first rung when the person was still dying,[1][2] then the death knell upon the death,[3] and finally the lych bell, which was rung at the funeral as the procession approached the church. The ringing of the lych bell is now called the funeral toll.[4] The canon law of the Church of England also permitted tolling after the funeral.

During the reign of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, statutes regulated death knell,[5][6] but the immediate ringing after death fell into disuse. It was customary in some places by the end of the 19th century to ring the death knell as soon as notice reached the clerk of the church (parish clerk) or sexton, unless the sun had set, in which case it was rung at an early hour the following morning.[7][8] Elsewhere, it was customary to postpone the death knell and tellers to the evening preceding the funeral, or early in the morning on the day of the funeral to give warning of the ceremony.[9]

The use of the passing bell for sick persons is indicated in the advertisements of Queen Elizabeth in 1564: "[W]here any Christian bodie is in passing, that the bell be tolled, and that the curate be specially called for to comfort the sick person".[10]

Manner of ringing

The manner of ringing the knell varied in different parishes. Sometimes the age of the departed was signified by the number of chimes (or strokes) of the bell, but the use of "tellers" to denote the sex was almost universal. For instance in the greater number of churches in the counties of Kent and Surrey they used the customary number of tellers, viz., three times three strokes for a man, and three times two for a woman; with a varying usage for children. The word "tellers" became changed into "Tailors".[11] J. C. L. Stahlschmidt described of the practices at each church in Kent and Surrey in his two books about the bells of those counties.[12][13]

Half-muffled bells

Half muffled bell
English-style full circle bell with clapper half-muffled. A leather muffle is put over one side only of the clapper ball. This gives a loud strike, then a muffled strike alternately. The bell is shown inverted in the "rest position". Half-muffles are usually used for funerals and occasions of remembrance or mourning.

A modern tradition at funerals where there are full circle ring of bells is to use "half-muffles" when sounding one bell as a tolled bell, or to ring all the bells half-muffled in change ringing. Half-muffling means a leather muffle is placed on one side only of the clapper of each bell so that there is a loud "open" strike followed by a muffled strike, which has a very sonorous and mournful echo effect. Fully muffled bell ringing is very rare as the loud and soft effect is lost.

An excellent example of this was demonstrated with the bells of Westminster Abbey at the Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997.

The accompanying picture shows a half-muffled full-circle bell, with the bell in the inverted position (or the "up" position). The clapper is shown resting on the lower side of the bell's soundbow, and when it first rotates (to the right in the picture) the un-muffled side of the clapper will strike when the bell rises to the inverted position and the clapper is moving faster and crosses to the other side. On the return stroke the same happens but the strike will be muffled. Note that only bells swung through a large arc or full-circle can be half-muffled, as it requires considerable rotation of the bell to strike on both sides of the clapper. The tradition in the United Kingdom is that bells are only fully muffled for the death of a sovereign.

See also

Video

References

  1. ^ Walters p. 156. Waters also notes that "there was sometimes the inconvenience that though the Passing Bell had been duly rung, the dying person might recover".
  2. ^ Timbs, John (1863). Mysteries of Life, Death, and Futurity: Illustrated from the Best and Latest Authorities (13th ed.). New York: J. G. Gregory. p. 211.
  3. ^ Brand, John; Ellis, Henry. Observations on the Popular Antiquities of Great Britain: Chiefly Illustrating the Origin of Our Vulgar and Provincial Customs, Ceremonies, and Superstitions. 2 (New ed.). p. 202.
  4. ^ Walters p. 160.
  5. ^ Timbs, John (1867). "Funeral Customs". Things Not Generally Known: Familiarly Explained (11th ed.). London: Lockwood & Company. p. 185.
  6. ^ "Correspondence: Answers; The Passing Bell". The Churchman's Companion. New Series. III (XVII): 471. May 1868.
  7. ^ Thomas Hood, "Faithless Sally Brown": "His death which happened in his berth, At forty-odd befell: They went and told the sexton, and The sexton tolled the bell".
  8. ^ Walters p. 157.
  9. ^ Walters p. 160.
  10. ^ Walters p. 155.
  11. ^ Walters p. 157–58.
  12. ^ Stahlschmidt, J. C. L. (1887). The Church Bells of Kent: Their Inscriptions, Founders, Uses and Traditions. London: Elliot Stock. p. 126.
  13. ^ Stahlschmidt, J. C. L. (1884). Surrey Bells and London Bell Founders: A Contribution to the Comparative Study of Bell Inscriptions. London: Elliot Stock. p. 124.
1897 Georgia Bulldogs football team

The 1897 Georgia Bulldogs football team represented the Georgia Bulldogs of the University of Georgia during the 1897 Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association football season. The Bulldogs competed as a member of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA) and completed the season with a 2–1 record. In the 1897 season, Georgia beat Georgia Tech for the first time and met both Clemson and Virginia for the first time. This was the Georgia Bulldogs' first season under the guidance of head coach Charles McCarthy.

It was in the Virginia game of 1897 that tragedy struck the Georgia Bulldogs. In the second half of that game, a Georgia fullback named Richard Vonalbade ("Von") Gammon, was fatally injured in a play. In reaction to his death, the Georgia, Georgia Tech and Mercer football teams disbanded, the Atlanta Journal ran a headline proclaiming, the "Death Knell of Football" and the Georgia legislature passed a bill to outlaw football in the state of Georgia. As the bill sat on the desk of Georgia Governor William Yates Atkinson, a letter that Gammon's mother, Rosalind Burns Gammon, had written to the state legislature was revealed. In her letter, she pleaded with the legislators not to pass the bill because her son so loved football. As a result, reading her letter, Governor Atkinson vetoed the bill to ban football in Georgia.

Ayrshire Football Combination

Formed in 1893 as a breakaway from the Ayrshire Football League. Its original membership was Annbank F.C., Ayr F.C., Ayr Parkhouse F.C., Hurlford F.C., Kilbirnie, Kilmarnock F.C. and Stevenston Thistle F.C..

In 1897 Ayr F.C. joined the Scottish Football League and this sounded the death knell of the Combination.

Champions

1893–94 Annbank

1894–95 Ayr

1895–96 Ayr

1896–97 Ayr

Membership

Annbank 1893–1895

Ayr 1893–1897

Ayr Parkhouse 1893–1897

Beith1895–1897

Galston 1896–1897

Hurlford 1893–1897

Irvine 1895–1897

Kilbirnie 1893–18894

Kilmarnock 1893–1895

Kilmarnock Athletic 1894–1896

Kilwinning Monkcastle 1894–1897

Salcoats Victoria 1894–1895

Stevenson Thistle 1893–1897

Commonwealth Party (New South Wales)

The Commonwealth Party was a short-lived, urban, conservative political party which was active in New South Wales, Australia in 1943-1944.

Following the defection of Joseph Lyons from the Australian Labor Party to the conservative side of politics in 1931, the opposition Nationalist Party, five dissident Labor MPs and three conservative independent MPs soon merged to form a new party, the United Australia Party (UAP). This unified the mainstream urban conservative forces in Australia but was, in substance, a continuation of the Nationalists under a new name.

The UAP, in coalition with the Country Party was in power federally and in New South Wales throughout much of the thirties. However, ideological and leadership issues resulted in severe fissures occurring in conservative political forces towards the end of the decade. This was seen most markedly in the deposing of the Prime Minister Robert Menzies federally in 1941 and the NSW Premier Bertram Stevens in 1939. Menzies was succeeded as leader of the UAP by Billy Hughes who led the party to a disastrous defeat at the 1943 federal election. The party's vote was halved to 16% and it lost 11 of its 23 seats. This was the death knell of the party.

In the period between 1943 and 1945 the conservative forces were divided into several small and short-lived parties these would eventually coalesce under Menzies into the Liberal Party in August 1945. In NSW the interim parties included the Democratic Party, the Liberal Democrat Party and the Commonwealth Party. The Commonwealth Party quickly merged with the remnants of the UAP and the Democratic Party before the 1944 election. It did not contest any elections.

Crime comics

Crime comics is a genre of American comic books and format of crime fiction. The genre was originally popular in the late 1940s and early 1950s and is marked by a moralistic editorial tone and graphic depictions of violence and criminal activity. Crime comics began in 1942 with the publication of Crime Does Not Pay published by Lev Gleason Publications and edited by Charles Biro. As sales for superhero comic books declined in the years after World War II, other publishers began to emulate the popular format, content and subject matter of Crime Does Not Pay, leading to a deluge of crime-themed comics. Crime and horror comics, especially those published by EC Comics, came under official scrutiny in the late 1940s and early 1950s, leading to legislation in Canada and Great Britain, the creation in the United States of the Comics Magazine Association of America and the imposition of the Comics Code Authority in 1954. This code placed limits on the degree and kind of criminal activity that could be depicted in American comic books, effectively sounding the death knell for crime comics and their adult themes.

Democratic Party (1943)

The Democratic Party was a short-lived, urban, conservative political party which was active in New South Wales, Australia between 1943 and 1945.

In 1931 Joseph Lyons resigned from the Australian Labor Party and together with the opposition Nationalist Party, five dissident Labor MPs and three conservative independent MPs formed the United Australia Party (UAP). This unified the mainstream urban conservative forces in Australia but, in substance, it was largely a continuation of the Nationalists under a new name.

The UAP, in coalition with the Country Party was in power federally and in New South Wales throughout much of the thirties. However, ideological and leadership issues resulted in severe fissures occurring within the conservative political forces towards the end of the decade. These tensions resulted in the party deposing both the NSW Premier Bertram Stevens in 1939 and the Prime Minister, Robert Menzies, in 1941. Menzies was succeeded as leader of the UAP by Billy Hughes who led the party to a disastrous defeat at the 1943 federal election. Its vote was halved to 16% and it lost 11 of its 23 seats. This was the death knell of the party.

In the period between 1943 and 1945 the conservative forces were divided into several small and short-lived parties which would eventually coalesce under Menzies into the Liberal Party in August 1945. In NSW the interim parties included the Liberal Democrat Party and the Commonwealth Party. The Democratic Party was formed by the union of the remnants of the UAP and the Commonwealth Party in January 1944. Its initial leader was the former premier Alexander Mair but he was replaced by Reginald Weaver on 10 February 1944. Weaver led the party to the 1944 state election where it won 19% of the vote and 12 of the 90 seats in the Legislative Assembly. The Liberal Democrat Party fused with it in August 1944 and the party was briefly known as the United Democratic Party before it became the NSW division of the Liberal Party the next year

It was not related to the Democratic Party, a Catholic party which contested the 1922 state election.

Elizabeth (Ghost song)

"Elizabeth" is a song by the Swedish rock band Ghost. The track was released as the lead single from the group's first studio album Opus Eponymous.

Horsebridge railway station

Horsebridge was a railway station on the closed Sprat and Winkle Line which served the Hampshire village of Houghton. It closed in 1964, a casualty of the closure programme proposed by the Beeching Axe which sounded the death knell for many rural railway stations.

Magician Among the Spirits

Magician Among the Spirits is the tenth album by the Australian alternative rock band The Church, released in August 1996. The album title was inspired by a book written by Harry Houdini and C. M. Eddy, Jr. (uncredited) in 1924, in which the famed magician discussed his investigations of spirit mediums. A photographic negative of Houdini is incorporated as the centrepiece of the album artwork. The album was reissued with a revised track listing as Magician Among the Spirits Plus Some in 1999.

Without a recording deal after Sometime Anywhere, the band's future looked bleak as Kilbey and Willson-Piper began work on new recordings in 1995. Although initially a two-man project, the new material saw input from new drummer Tim Powles and hired violinist Linda Neil. Renewed contact between Kilbey and Peter Koppes led to the latter agreeing to guest on four songs, despite having left the band in 1992. Simon Polinski (Yothu Yindi) was drafted in to co-produce, engineer and mix the sessions. The music saw a return to guitar-based material, infused with krautrock and art rock influences. A 15-minute atmospheric piece called "Magician Among the Spirits" dominated the sessions, featuring Koppes on guitar and split Kilbey/Willson-Piper vocals (as on "Two Places at Once"). Contributions from Utungun Percussion added a new, primal aspect to several songs.

The album was released on the band's own Deep Karma label but due to financial constraints they had to arrange outside distribution for markets in North America and Europe. This limitation almost doomed the album from the beginning, but worse events were to come. Within a short time, the U.S. distributor went bankrupt, leaving the band stripped of its earnings from North American sales. Although exact figures remain unknown due to disputes, up to A$250,000 worth of merchandise (some 25,000 discs) was lost. For a band already on shaky foundations, this was nearly the death knell. Comments by Kilbey in May of that year summed up the situation: "There's no immediate future for The Church ... Our management, the whole thing is broken down ... We don't really have a label. We're owed lots and lots of money and we're broke. We're trying to pursue lawyers to get our money back. Marty and I aren't having any communication. There's no one really managing us so ... that could have been the last record."

Middle Patuxent Environmental Area

The Middle Patuxent Environmental Area (MPEA) is a 1,021-acre (4.13 km2) wildlife area in Clarksville, Maryland and operated by the Howard County Department of Recreation and Parks. It is located next to the River Hill village in the town of Columbia, Maryland, in the United States. The MPEA was created in 1996 for educational, research, and recreational purposes.

Navigli

The navigli (Italian pronunciation: [naˈviʎʎi]; Lombard: Navili [naˈʋiːli], singular and plural) were a system of navigable and interconnected canals around Milan, Lombardy, Italy.

The system consisted of five canals: Naviglio Grande, Naviglio Pavese, Naviglio Martesana, Naviglio di Paderno, Naviglio di Bereguardo. The first three were connected through Milan via the Fossa Interna, also known as the Inner Ring. The urban section of the Naviglio Martesana was covered over at the beginning of the 1930s, together with the entire Inner Ring, thus sounding the death knell for the north-eastern canals. Commercial carrying continued on the Naviglio Grande, but the decline was steady and by the 1960s a project of a fluvial port to reach the Po River and consequentially the Adriatic Sea through the canals was shelved for good.

Today, the canals are mostly used for irrigation. The only two canals who operate a tourist navigation system connected to the Darsena are the Naviglio Grande and the Naviglio Pavese, also becoming a nightlife pole.

Renault RS10

The Renault RS10 was a Formula 1 car developed to compete in the 1979 Formula One season, which became the first turbocharged F1 car to win a Grand Prix. This changed the framework of F1 as this car spurred the development of the 1,300 bhp (970 kW) turbocharged cars of the 1980s and rang the death knell for normally aspirated engines. This car, along with its predecessor, the Renault RS01, was one of the most revolutionary Grand Prix cars of all time.

Skullyville, Oklahoma

Skullyville (also spelled Scullyville) is a small unincorporated rural community in Le Flore County, Oklahoma, United States. It is about one mile east of Spiro, Oklahoma and 15 miles (24 km)west of Fort Smith, Arkansas. Now essentially nothing but a cemetery remains, but it was an important community before the Civil War. Skullyville was the site of the Choctaw Agency from 1832 until 1839. It then became the capital of the Mushulatubbe District of the Choctaw Nation, a stop for the Butterfield Stage and capital of the Choctaw Nation. The town suffered serious damage during the Civil War, then was bypassed by the railroad and abandoned by businessmen who moved to the nearest railroad station. Closure of the post office in 1917 was essentially the death knell of the town. It is now considered a ghost town.

The name is derived from "iskulli" or "iskuli", the Choctaw word for money, because originally this was the place where annuity payments were collected. Author W. B. Morrison claimed that the English meaning of Skullyville was "Moneytown."

Stargate SG-1 (season 7)

The seventh season of Stargate SG-1, an American-Canadian television series, began airing on June 13, 2003 on Sci Fi. The seventh season concluded after 22 episodes on March 9, 2004 on British Sky One, which overtook the Sci-Fi Channel in mid-season. The series was developed by Brad Wright and Jonathan Glassner. Season seven regular cast members include Richard Dean Anderson, Amanda Tapping, Christopher Judge, Michael Shanks, and Don S. Davis.

Te Kuha

Te Kuha is a small village located to the east of Westport in the Buller District of the West Coast region of New Zealand's South Island. It is located at the western end of the Lower Buller Gorge, with the Buller River flowing through the village.

It was the site of a punt that connected Westport to the south bank before the "black bridge" was constructed at Westport itself. State Highway 6 runs on the southern bank of the river, and the Stillwater - Westport Line railway runs on the northern bank. This railway was opened to Te Kuha from Westport in 1912, but a connection through the Buller Gorge to connect with the railway in Inangahua Junction was not completed until 1942. Passenger services no longer pass through Te Kuha and the railway mainly transports coal to the east coast port of Lyttelton.

There is not much evidence that the village at Te Kuha even existed now in 2006. The road ends as the railway enters the Buller Gorge, and the surrounding flats are used for farming. There are no building remains, and further access on the railway side of the Buller river is discouraged by the railway activity. Although this point was the punt crossing in the early days for the road on the south bank at Windy Point, the building of the black bridge across the Buller spelt the death knell of Te Kuha. However, the railway was opened as far as Cascade Creek where coal bins stored the coal flumed down from the Cascade Mine for loading into trains for shipment at Westport. During World War II the Government completed the Buller Gorge Railway in 1942 and finally connected the isolated "Westport section" to the rest of the South Island Railway system.

Te Kuha was classified as a "limited employment locality" in 2004, with the government cancelling benefits for unemployed individuals who moved to the area.

Texas railway line

The Texas railway line is a disused branch railway in the south of the Darling Downs region of Queensland, Australia, and was the last traditional branch line railway constructed in Queensland.The McDougall brothers settled land in the Texas region in about 1840. They later had to prove their claim to the property after another settler moved in during their absence. At the time, the United States republic of Texas was in the midst of a land war with neighbouring Mexico and thus they called their property Texas station. Deposits of silver, lead and copper were mined at Silver Spur about 12 kilometres east of Texas. Tobacco was grown in the Texas region along with a busy trade in rabbit meat and skins.

Between October 1910 and March 1912, a road train serviced the area between Inglewood (a railhead on the South Western line), Texas and Silver Spur. In 1914, following an inefficient and unreliable service, a branch line was approved linking the three centres. Construction did not begin until February 1929 and the 55-kilometre section between Inglewood and Texas opened on 3 November 1930. Two small sidings appeared en route at Magee and Mundoey

Grain, tobacco, dairy products and livestock were its main cargo but the line faced stiff competition with motor transport in the ascendancy. Closure of the Silver Spur mine sounded the death knell of an extension beyond Texas. Two trains a week connected with services at Inglewood. Although special trains ran during busy times, branch traffic was always sparse. Short branch lines ran from Texas station to livestock pens and past the Texas Freezing Works where rabbits were processed.

By 1963, passenger services had disappeared from the timetable. Regular services were withdrawn in 1985 and services were replaced by motor truck. The line closed on 1 January 1994 and is retained by Queensland Rail as a non-operational corridor. The track was left in place but other facilities were removed.

Tiger Kloof Educational Institute

Tiger Kloof Combined School is a school near Vryburg, South Africa.

Tiger Kloof had its origins in the Moffat Institute at Kuruman, part of the educational endeavours of the London Missionary Society in that part of South Africa. When the Moffat Institute closed it was reincarnated, in 1905, as the Tiger Kloof Institute, situated south of Vryburg. Tiger Kloof was a high school, teachers' training college, Bible college and trade school all rolled into one.The introduction of Bantu Education and the Group Areas Act under Apartheid during the 1950s, however, sounded the death knell for the London Missionary Society's educational efforts here and in the Northern Cape. Tiger Kloof was closed down, but not before its pupils had risen in protest at the new legislation.In the late 1980s provincial heritage site status was given to the empty shell of the abandoned Tiger Kloof Institute. Built in 1905, and described as a "symphony in stone", Tiger Kloof has since been restored and re-opened as a school.

Uta Erickson

Uta Erickson (who often used the stage names "Artemidia Grillet" and "Carla Erikson") was a Norwegian actress who was in many sexploitation films of the late 1960s. She starred in several provocatively titled films directed by Michael and Roberta Findlay, including The Kiss Of Her Flesh, A Thousand Pleasures, The Curse Of Her Flesh, and The Ultimate Degenerate. Erickson was also a favorite of directors Doris Wishman (Love Toy) and Barry Mahon (Sex Killer). Some of her films, notably Mnasidika were arty enough to pass as the "low end" of an arthouse pairing with a film by a European auteur. At her best, such as in Passion in Hot Hollows directed by Joe Sarno, her acting could make a softcore scene far more erotic. Deep Throat rang the death knell to this softcore genre and effectively ended Erickson's film career.

Washington Diplomats

This article is about the original and second Washington Diplomats of the NASL. For the third team to use the name, see Washington Diplomats (1988–1990)The Washington Diplomats were an American soccer club based in Washington, D.C.. Throughout their existence, the club played their home games at Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium and indoor home matches at the neighboring D.C. Armory. Founded as an expansion franchise in 1974, the Diplomats competed in the now-defunct North American Soccer League, then the top-tier soccer league of the American soccer pyramid.

Plagued with mediocrity in their first few seasons of existence, the Diplomats did not qualify for the playoffs until 1976, their third year in the league. Immediately, the Diplomats were knocked out by the New York Cosmos in the first round. The following season, the club played their home matches in Northern Virginia at W.T. Woodson High School, before going back to RFK Stadium. During the next three seasons, the Diplomats achieved more regular season success and reached the postseason every year from 1977 until 1980. Consequently, the club experienced a spike in average attendance, nearing 20,000 fans a game by the 1980 season, although a significant number of tickets were "comps" or "papered" by the teams' front office staff.

Following the end of the 1980 season, the original Diplomats club folded when then owner, the Madison Square Garden Corp., had accumulated losses of $6 million and team president Steve Danzansky could not gather enough money to keep the team alive. However, that same season the Detroit Express NASL franchise relocated to the Washington metropolitan area, renaming themselves the "Diplomats" due to perceived familiarity of the moniker to the area. However, a regression of attendance and a lack of field success spelt the death knell of the franchise, and the Diplomats folded following the 1981 season.

Édouard Goubert

Édouard Goubert (29 July 1894 – 14 August 1979) was former mayor and first chief minister of Puducherry between 1 July 1963 and 11 September 1964. Initially a strongly pro-French leader, he later shifted towards the pro-merger Indian National Congress, which ultimately became the death knell for the sovereignty of France's comptoirs (trading posts) in India. He and Lambert Saravane founded the French India Socialist Party in 1947.

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