Death certificate

The phrase death certificate can refer either to a document issued by a medical practitioner certifying the deceased state of a person or, popularly, to a document issued by a person such as a registrar of vital statistics that declares the date, location and cause of a person's death as later entered in an official register of deaths.

Eddie August Schneider (1911-1940) death certificate
Eddie August Schneider's (1911-1940) death certificate, issued in New York.

Nature of a certificate

Each governmental jurisdiction prescribes the form of the document for use in its preview and the procedures necessary to legally produce it. One purpose of the certificate is to review the cause of death to determine if foul-play occurred as it can rule out an accidental death or a murder going by the findings and ruling of the medical examiner. It may also be required in order to arrange a burial or cremation to provide prima facie evidence of the fact of death, which can be used to prove a person's will or to claim on a person's life insurance. Lastly, death certificates are used in public health to compile data on leading causes of death among other statistics (See: Descriptive statistics)

Before issuing a death certificate, the authorities usually require a certificate from a physician or coroner to validate the cause of death and the identity of the deceased. In cases where it is not completely clear that a person is dead (usually because their body is being sustained by life support), a neurologist is often called in to verify brain death and to fill out the appropriate documentation. The failure of a physician to immediately submit the required form to the government (to trigger issuance of the death certificate) is often both a crime and cause for loss of one's license to practice. This is because of past scandals in which dead people continued to receive public benefits or voted in elections.[1] Death certificates may also be issued pursuant to a court order or an executive order in the case of individuals who have been declared dead in absentia. Missing persons and victims of mass disasters (such as the sinking of the RMS Lusitania) may be issued death certificates in one of these manners.

In some jurisdictions, a police officer or a paramedic may be allowed to sign a death certificate under specific circumstances. This is usually when the cause of death seems obvious and no foul play is suspected, such as in extreme old age. In such cases, an autopsy is rarely performed. This varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction; in some areas police officers may sign death certificates for victims of SIDS, but in others all deaths of individuals under 18 must be certified by a physician. Accident deaths where there is no chance of survival (decapitations, for instance) may be certified by police or paramedics, but autopsies are still commonly performed if there is any chance that alcohol or other drugs played a role in the accident.

A full explanation of the cause of death includes four items:

  • the immediate cause of death, such as the heart stopping,
  • the intermediate causes, which triggered the immediate cause, such as a myocardial infarction,
  • the underlying causes, which triggered the chain of events leading to death, such as atherosclerosis, and
  • any other diseases and disorders the person had at the time of death, even though they did not directly cause the death.[2]

Public documents

In most of the United States, death certificates are considered public domain documents and can therefore be obtained for any individual regardless of the requester's relationship to the deceased. Other jurisdictions take a different view, and restrict the issue of certificates. For example, in the State of New York, death certificates are only obtainable by close relatives, including the spouse, parent, child or sibling of the deceased, and other persons who have a documented lawful right or claim, documented medical need, or a New York State Court Order.[3]

History

In Europe and North America, death records were kept by the local churches, along with baptism and marriage records.[2] In what would become the United States, the Massachusetts Bay Colony was the first to have the secular courts keep these records, in 1639.[2] By the end of the 19th century, European countries were pursuing centralized systems for recording deaths.[2]

In the United States, a standard model death certificate was developed around 1910.[2] This promoted uniformity and consistency in record keeping.

Specific jurisdictions

United States

John Wayne Gacy certificate of death
Illinois certificate of death issued after the execution of John Wayne Gacy.

In the United States, certificates issued to the general public for deaths after 1990 may in some states be redacted to erase the specific cause of death (in cases where death was from natural causes) to comply with HIV confidentiality rules. In New York State, for instance, the cause of death on a general death certificate is only specified if death was accidental, homicide, suicide, or declared in absentia; all other deaths are only referred to as natural. All states have provisions, however, whereby immediate family members, law enforcement agencies, and governmental authorities (such as occupational health and safety groups) are able to obtain death certificates containing the full cause of death, even in cases of natural death.

In some cases, such as the death of a minor or infant, certificates may be kept confidential from the public as requested by legal guardian and therefore cannot be obtained by the general public but rather through immediate family members.

United Kingdom

Registration in the UK is organised separately in the constituent jurisdictions. A register of deaths contains the information supplied by an informant, nowadays usually containing and repeating the information given in a Medical Certificate of Death (MCOD) supplied by the medical practitioner who certifies that life is extinct, this being the real "death certificate" distinct from the "registration of a death" in a register. Further information might be added after the first registration if the death was the subject of an inquest (Northern Ireland or England and Wales) or a Fatal Accident Inquiry (Scotland); this can result in a later copy of a death registration giving more details of the cause of death or the associated circumstances.

England and Wales

In England and Wales, compulsory national registration of deaths began in 1837. Originally the death registration listed when and where a person died, their name and surname, the parent or parents (if the deceased was a child), sex, age, occupation, cause of death, the description and residence of the informant, when the death was registered and the registrar's signature. Further details have since been recorded including the deceased's date and place of birth, maiden surnames and other former surnames of women who have been divorced.

Beginning in 1879, a doctor's certificate was necessary for the issuance of a death certificate (prior to that, no cause of death needed to be given).

Northern Ireland

The form of indexing and the layout of register pages generally follows that of England and Wales.

Scotland

National registration began in 1855; registrations are rather more detailed[4] than in England and Wales. In the first year of registration many more details than in later years were recorded including the children of the deceased with their ages, the deceased's birthplace and how long they were resident in the district where they died. The burial place was recorded from 1855 to 1860. Standard details have until now included the deceased's name, age, marital status, spouse(s) (if any), details of both parents, cause of death and the informant's description. Current (2011) registrations show the date of birth. The prescribed forms are part of secondary legislation and those for recent years can thus be seen online in the Statute Law Database.

Unlike England and Wales, information is not limited to being supplied in the form of certified copies; original register pages (or filmed images) can be viewed in person at local register offices or at the General Register Office in Edinburgh, online (fees apply) on the Scotlands People website or in microfilms (1855-1875, 1881, 1891) available at family history centres operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

United Kingdom's Crown dependencies and British Overseas Territories

These jurisdictions do not form part of the United Kingdom and each has its own registration system. Their older records tend to follow the layout used in England and Wales.

Stillbirths

England and Wales

Stillbirths (beyond 24 weeks gestation) have been registered since 1927 in a register that is closed from public access. A single stillbirth registration takes the place of both birth and death registration for the stillborn infant. Prior to 1960 such certificates gave no cause of death.

Stillbirth certificates can only be ordered by the mother or father of the deceased contacting the General Register Office by phone or letter. In the event of the parents both having died, an adult sibling can order the certificate if they can provide the dates of death for both parents.

Scotland

Registration of still-births commenced in 1939. The registers are not open to public view and extracts are only issued "in exceptional circumstances".[5]

United States

A 2007 article in People magazine revealed that in the case of a stillbirth it is not standard practice to issue both a birth certificate and a death certificate. Most states instead issue a "certificate of birth resulting in stillbirth".[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Dead People Voting Throughout Florida". WFTV Orlando. VOLUSIA COUNTY, Fla. 30 Oct 2008. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d e Altman, Lawrence K. (1 July 2013). "Making the Right Call, Even in Death". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  3. ^ "Death Certificates". New York State Department of Health.
  4. ^ "Items Included in the Main Registers". General Register Office for Scotland. Archived from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  5. ^ General Register Office Leaflet S1 (April 2011)
  6. ^ "Welcome to MISSing Angels Bill". www.missingangelsbill.org. Retrieved 22 March 2018.

External links

Abdul Wahid (Bagram detainee)

Abdul Wahid was a citizen of Afghanistan whose autopsy was held in the United States's Bagram Theater detention facility.

He was beaten to death on November 6, 2003.Army pathologist Colonel Kathleen Ingwersen concluded his death was a homicide.

She wrote on his death certificate that he died from "Multiple blunt force injuries complicated by probable rhabdomyolysis [extensive crush injuries of the muscles]."

Abdul Wahid's cousin Abdul Haleem reported that he was also apprehended, and tortured, on November 3, 2003.

He and Abdul Wahid's father attributed the abuse to Afghan soldiers, but said American soldiers were aware of the abuse, and didn't intervene.

Abdul Wahid's father said his heavily scarred body was returned to his family two months after his capture, together with a letter from US authorities. According to the Associated Press:

He said the letter — which a local doctor translated for him — expressed regret over the death but said Wahid had died before the United States had "got him." The U.S. military could not verify this information.

Human rights worker John Sifton, of Human Rights Watch, told the Associated Press that corrupt security officials in Afghanistan routinely captured men, and threatened to hand them over to the US in return for a bounty, unless they paid a bribe.On January 16, 2010, the Department of Defense was forced to publish the names of the 645 captives held in the Bagram Theater Internment Facility.

One of the individuals on the list was named "Abdul Wahid".

Brittany Murphy

Brittany Murphy-Monjack (born Brittany Anne Bertolotti; November 10, 1977 – December 20, 2009) was an American actress and singer. A native of Atlanta, Murphy moved to Los Angeles as a teenager and pursued a career in acting. Her breakthrough role was as Tai Frasier in Clueless (1995), followed by supporting roles in independent films such as Freeway (1996) and Bongwater (1998). She made her stage debut in a Broadway production of Arthur Miller's A View from the Bridge in 1997, before appearing as Daisy Randone in Girl, Interrupted (1999) and as Lisa Swenson in Drop Dead Gorgeous (1999).

In the 2000s Murphy appeared in Don't Say a Word (2001) alongside Michael Douglas, and alongside Eminem in 8 Mile (2002), for which she gained critical recognition. Her later roles included Riding in Cars with Boys (2001), Spun (2002), Uptown Girls (2003), Sin City (2005), and Happy Feet (2006). Murphy also voiced Luanne Platter on the animated television series King of the Hill (1997–2009). Her final film, Something Wicked, was released in April 2014.

In December 2009, Murphy died of pneumonia at the age of 32.

Byssinosis

Byssinosis, also called "brown lung disease" or "Monday fever", is an occupational lung disease caused by exposure to cotton dust in inadequately ventilated working environments. Byssinosis commonly occurs in workers who are employed in yarn and fabric manufacture industries. It is now thought that the cotton dust directly causes the disease and some believe that the causative agents are endotoxins that come from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria that grow on the cotton. Although bacterial endotoxin is a likely cause, the absence of similar symptoms in workers in other industries exposed to endotoxins makes this uncertain.Of the 81 byssinosis-related fatalities reported in the United States between 1990 and 1999, 48% included an occupation in the yarn, thread, and fabric industry on the victim's death certificate. This disease often occurred in the times of the industrial revolution. Most commonly young girls working in mills or other textile factories would be afflicted with this disease. In the United States, from 1996 to 2005, North Carolina accounted for about 37% of all deaths caused by byssinosis, with 31, followed by South Carolina (8) and Georgia (7).The term "brown lung" is a misnomer, as the lungs of affected individuals are not brown.

Cause of death

In law, medicine, and statistics, cause of death is an official determination of conditions resulting in a human's death, which may be recorded on a death certificate. A cause of death is determined by a medical examiner. The cause of death is a specific disease or injury, in contrast to the manner of death which is a small number of categories like "natural", "accident", and "homicide", which have different legal implications.International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes are often used to record manner and cause of death in a systematic way that makes it easy to compile statistics and more feasible to compare events across jurisdictions.

Certificate

Certificate may refer to:

Birth certificate

Death certificate

Gift certificate

Certificate of authenticity, a document or seal certifying the authenticity of something

Certificate of deposit, or CD, a financial product commonly offered to consumers by banks, thrift institutions and credit unions

Company

A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people, be they natural, legal, or a mixture of both, for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise. Company members share a common purpose, and unite to focus their various talents and organize their collectively available skills or resources to achieve specific, declared goals. Companies take various forms, such as:

voluntary associations, which may include nonprofit organizations

business entities with an aim of gaining a profit

financial entities and banksA company or association of persons can be created at law as a legal person so that the company in itself can accept limited liability for civil responsibility and taxation incurred as members perform (or fail to discharge) their duty within the publicly declared "birth certificate" or published policy.

Companies as legal persons may associate and register themselves collectively as other companies – often known as a corporate group. When a company closes, it may need a "death certificate" to avoid further legal obligations.

Death Certificate (album)

Death Certificate is the second studio album by American rapper Ice Cube, released on October 29, 1991 by Priority Records and EMI. The album was re-released for the 25th anniversary edition on June 9, 2017 by Interscope Records after Cube announced signing to the label in late May 2017. It was highly anticipated with over one million advanced orders. The album was certified platinum in sales on December 20, 1991.Due to some of its racially and politically charged content, and Ice Cube's acerbic statements on drug dealing, racial profiling, and the right to keep and bear arms, Death Certificate was the source of both critical acclaim and much controversy upon its release.

In 2003, Priority Records re-released Death Certificate with the bonus track "How to Survive in South Central", which originally appeared on the Boyz n the Hood soundtrack. Death Certificate included the diss track "No Vaseline" which is a response to his former hip hop group N.W.A, and their album Niggaz4Life which included direct and indirect diss tracks and verses to Ice Cube. "No Vaseline" is considered to be one of the greatest diss tracks of all time due to its explicit and direct subject matter towards the members of the group.

Earl of Lucan

Earl of Lucan is a title which has been created twice in the Peerage of Ireland for related families.

External cause

In medicine, an external cause is a reason for the existence of a medical condition which can be associated with a specific object or acute process that was caused by something outside the body. Such causes are classified as "E codes" in ICD 9.External Cause of Injury Codes (E codes) are ICD-9-CM codes or ICD-10 codes that are used to define the mechanism of death or injury, along with the place of occurrence of the event. [1] E codes are assigned on death certificates based on the manner of death. ICD-10 codes in the range V01–X59 refer to unintentional injuries. Codes in the range X60–X84 refer to intentional self-harm. Codes in the range Y85–Y09 refer to assault, and codes in the range Y10–Y34 refer to events of undetermined intent. [2]

E codes are well-collected on death certificate data, but less so on hospital discharge data. Numerous initiatives have increased the percentage of records coded (CDC, MMWR March 28, 2008 / Vol. 57 / No. RR-1).

Good Cop, Bad Cop (song)

"Good Cop, Bad Cop" is a song by American rapper Ice Cube. It was released for digital download on June 6, 2017, as a single from Death Certificate 25th Anniversary Edition.

Ice Cube

O'Shea Jackson Sr. (born June 15, 1969), known professionally as Ice Cube, is an American rapper, writer and actor.

Ice Cube initially gained recognition as a member of the hip hop group C.I.A. in 1984, which gained limited commercial success prior to disbanding three years later. Ice Cube, alongside Dr. Dre and Eazy E, then formed the group N.W.A, where he gained extreme notoriety as the group's primary songwriter and performer, noted for becoming one of the founding artists of gangsta rap, and pushing the boundaries of lyrical content in mainstream popular music, as well as visual imagery in music videos.After leaving N.W.A in December 1989, Ice Cube embarked on a successful solo career, releasing the albums AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted (1990) and Death Certificate (1991), both of which have attained platinum certification in the United States, while also being classed as defining albums of the 1990s. Much of his musical output has contained harsh socio-political commentary and storytelling, which has earned him several accolades from multiple publications and artists, often cited as an influence and one of the best rappers of all time.Following the release of Death Certificate, Ice Cube transitioned into film, where his popularity was further enhanced by his starring role in Boyz n the Hood (1991), where his performance was heavily praised. He also wrote and starred in the Friday film series, which contributed to reinventing his public image as a movie star. Ice Cube has also featured in the Barbershop, Ride Along, and XXX film series, while also serving as a producer to several other films, including Straight Outta Compton (2015), a biographical film depicting the career of N.W.A..

As a businessman, Ice Cube has founded his clothing line, Solo by Cube, as well as the 3 on 3 basketball league Big3, which predominately features retired NBA players.

Legal death

Legal death is the recognition under the law of a particular jurisdiction that a person is no longer alive. In most cases, a doctor's declaration of death (variously called) or the identification of a corpse is a legal requirement for such recognition. A person who has been missing for a sufficiently long period of time (typically at least several years) may be presumed or declared legally dead, usually by a court. When a death has been registered in a civil registry, a death certificate may be issued. Such death certificate may be required in a number of legal situations, such as applying for probate, claiming some benefits or making an insurance claim, etc.

No Vaseline

"No Vaseline" is a diss track by Ice Cube from his second album, Death Certificate. The song was produced by Ice Cube and Sir Jinx. The UK release of Death Certificate omitted this song, along with the 46-second long "Black Korea".The song contains vicious lyrics and remarks towards Ice Cube's former group, N.W.A, which Ice Cube left in December 1989 due to royalty issues. The antagonists are his former bandmates, Eazy-E, Dr. Dre, MC Ren, DJ Yella and their manager, Jerry Heller, whom Ice Cube blames for causing the rift in the group. Ice Cube recorded this song in response to the comments N.W.A made towards him in their albums 100 Miles and Runnin' and Niggaz4Life.

Nutford House, London

Nutford House was built in 1916 and was acquired by the University of London in 1949, after which it was expanded to take in five terraced houses in Brown Street, known as the Annexe and one house in Seymour Place. Accommodation is provided for 223 men and women students in 181 single and 21 twin rooms.Nutford House has a total of 181 single rooms, and 21 shared rooms across the main hall, annexe and Seymour Place. The warden for many years was the sole surviving relative of Howard Carter (archaeologist), the discoverer of Tutankhamun's tomb and signed the death certificate (last seen on display at the 1992 British Museum's exhibit of Howard Carter's career before Tutankhamun).

The residence is split into 3 separate accommodations: Main Hall, The Annexe and Seymour. Residents in Seymour Place only have access to laundry facilities and common areas in the main or annex buildings. The House has 2 common rooms in the main building, one of which is a TV room and the other a JCR (Junior Common Room) with a piano. There is no Senior Common Room. There is, however, a music room in the annex. The annex also houses a games room with darts, foosball table, and TV.

Same-sex marriage in Ohio

Same-sex marriage in the U.S. state of Ohio is legal under the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges, a landmark decision in which the court struck down Ohio's statutory and constitutional bans on the issuance of marriage licenses to same-sex couples on June 26, 2015. The case was named after plaintiff Jim Obergefell, who sued the state of Ohio after officials refused to recognize his marriage on the death certificate of his husband. Same-sex marriages were performed in Ohio beginning shortly after the Supreme Court released its ruling, as local officials implemented the order.Two lawsuits in federal court challenged Ohio's denial of marriage rights to same-sex couples, asking Ohio to recognize marriages from other jurisdictions for the purpose of recording a spouse on a death certificate and for recording parents' names on birth certificates. Judge Timothy Black, of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio, ruled that Ohio must recognize same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions. He stayed general enforcement of his ruling, but ordered the state to recognize out-of-state same-sex marriages for completing death certificates in all cases and for four birth certificates. Ohio Attorney General Mike DeWine appealed the rulings to the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals, which consolidated the two cases and held oral argument on August 6, 2014. That court upheld Ohio's ban on same-sex marriage on November 6, 2014. The Supreme Court of the United States declared same-sex marriages legal in the United States in Obergefell v. Hodges on June 26, 2015.

Suspicious death

A death is suspicious if it is unexpected and its circumstances or cause are medically or legally unexplained. Normally, this occurs in the context of medical care, suicide or suspected criminal activity.

True to the Game

"True to the Game" is the final single from Ice Cube's Death Certificate album.

When Goodbye Means Forever...

When Goodbye Means Forever... is the debut studio album by Australian metalcore band, I Killed the Prom Queen, which was released in 2003 by Resist Records. The US version was released in March 2004 by Eulogy Recordings.

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