Dead ball

Dead ball is a term in many ball sports in which the ball is deemed temporarily not playable, and no movement may be made with it or the players from their respective positions of significance. Depending on the sport, this event may be quite routine, and often occurs between individual plays of the game.

Gridiron football

In gridiron football, a dead ball is a condition that occurs between football plays, after one of the following has occurred:

  • The player with the ball runs out of bounds
  • The player with the ball is downed, either by being tackled to the ground or by deliberately downing him/herself ("taking a knee")
  • A forward pass touches the ground or travels out of bounds without being caught (incomplete pass)
  • Any kick travels out of bounds and/or hits the goal post or crossbar in flight
  • The ball is fumbled out of bounds
  • A scoring play occurs
  • A kickoff or free kick is recovered by the kicking team
  • In certain situations, depending on specific league rules, following a punt, for example if the punt enters the end zone without being touched (an automatic touchback), the punt is successfully fair caught, or downed by the kicking team before being touched by the receivers

The ball remains dead until it is snapped to begin the next play. During the time in which the ball is dead, the offensive team may not attempt to advance it and no change of possession can take place. The clock may or may not be stopped during this time, depending on the circumstances.

In the past, in the NFL, the ball was also dead if it came into the possession of the defense for any reason during the try after a touchdown. This rule was changed for the 2015 season, allowing the ball to remain live so that the defense could attempt to return it for a defensive two-point conversion.

Baseball

In baseball, when the ball is dead, no runners may advance beyond the respective bases they are entitled to, and no runners may be put out. The ball becomes dead when:[1]

  • A batter is touched by a pitch or a batted ball (hit by pitch)
  • The plate umpire hinders a catcher's throw attempt and the throw does not directly retire a runner
  • A ball is illegally batted, such as when a batter hits the ball while outside of the batter's box
  • A foul ball is not caught
  • A fair ball touches a runner or an umpire on fair territory before it touches an infielder (including the pitcher)
  • A fair ball touches a runner or an umpire before it has passed an infielder other than the pitcher
  • A live ball lodges in the umpire's or catcher's equipment or in a fence or in another object on the field
  • Any legal pitch touches a runner trying to score
  • A live ball passes out of the playing field (unless it hits or crosses over a base on the ground)
  • A runner or spectator commits interference
  • The defense leaves the field after the half inning or game ends
  • The venue's ground rules call for a dead ball ruling for a ball striking an above-ground obstruction (usually involving the roof of a domed or retractable-roofed stadium), such as the Tampa Bay Rays's Tropicana Field, regarding the catwalks and overhanging speakers above the field.[2][3][4] In the past, overhead dead ball ground rules also existed for the Kingdome in Seattle and Minneapolis's Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome
  • An umpire calls time. Umpires typically call "time" after being asked to do so by a participant. An umpire in chief (plate umpire) will also call "time" when:
    • Weather, darkness or similar conditions make play impossible or dangerous
    • Light failure makes it difficult or impossible for the umpires to follow the play
    • An accident incapacitates a player or an umpire
    • The umpire wishes to examine the ball, to consult with either manager, or for any similar cause.
    • An umpire orders a player or any other person removed from the playing field.
    • A balk or obstruction is committed and immediate ensuing play ends
    • The catcher interferes with the batter before the time of pitch
    • An umpire declares "no pitch" after debris or a flying object (such as a bird) collides with the pitched ball.

In general, the ball does not automatically become dead after playing action ends. So, for example, although the recording of a third out generally winds down a half inning, the ball is not automatically dead. If it is to the advantage of the defense to attempt to record a fourth out for any reason, the ball is live and such a play is permitted.

After a dead ball, the ball becomes alive again when the pitcher stands on the pitcher's plate ready to pitch, the batter, catcher and umpire are ready, and the umpire calls or signals "Play."

Players and coaches may ask an umpire for "time," but they themselves may not call "time" and cause the ball to become dead. Nevertheless, "time" is usually granted by the umpire when asked, and thus, colloquially, it is often said that players or coaches indeed can "call time." Unlike sports which have clocks to time the play, the phrase "time out" is not used in baseball. Likewise, there is no limit to the number of times a team can "call time."

In baseball, the term "dead ball" is also used in the context of the dead-ball era, a phase during the early history of the game in the early 1900s. In this context, the ball was not actually "dead" but for various reasons tended to be difficult to hit for distance, resulting in low scores and few home runs by modern standards.

Cricket

In cricket, a dead ball is a particular state of play in which the players may not perform any of the active aspects of the game,[5] meaning batsmen may not score runs and fielders may not attempt to get batsmen out.

The ball, referring to the cricket ball, becomes live when the bowler begins his run up in preparation to bowl at the batsman. In the live state, play occurs with the batsmen able to score runs and get out.

The ball becomes dead when any of the following situations occur:

  • The umpire is satisfied that, with adequate reason, the batsman is not ready for the delivery of the ball.
  • The ball passes the batsman, is gathered by the wicket-keeper, and the batsmen obviously decline to attempt to take runs.
  • The ball is finally settled in the hands of the wicket-keeper or the bowler, and the batsmen obviously decline to attempt to take any more runs.
  • The umpire feels that both the fielding team and the batsmen consider the ball no longer to be in play.
  • The ball reaches the boundary and four runs or six runs are scored.
  • Either batsman is out.
  • The ball lodges in the clothing or equipment of a batsman or umpire.
  • The ball lodges in a protective helmet worn by a fielder.
  • The batsmen attempt to run leg byes, and, in the umpire's opinion, no attempt was made either to hit the ball with the bat or to evade it; this nullifies the leg byes.
  • The umpire intervenes in the occurrence of injury or unfair play.

Umpires may also call dead ball at their discretion, in the case of a series for events for which there is no provision in either the Laws of Cricket or agreements made prior to the match. This happened on 9 October 2005, when Australian batsman Michael Hussey hit the retracted roof at the Telstra Dome. What would have been six in an open stadium was ruled a dead ball, and no runs were awarded.

Note that the ball becomes dead as soon as a batsman is out, so it is not possible to dismiss the other batsman immediately. Thus the baseball concept of a double play cannot occur in cricket.

If necessary to make it clear to the players and scorers that the umpire considers the ball to be dead, the umpire signals dead ball by crossing and uncrossing his arms in front of his body.

Association football

In association football (soccer), the term "dead ball" refers to a situation when the ball is not in play, e.g. when play has not been restarted after the ball has gone out of bounds or a foul has been committed. It also applies before each kick-off, either at the start of each half or after a goal has been scored. In a dead ball situation, players can position the ball with their hands prior to restarting play. Furthermore, even though the ball is not in play, the referee may still issue cautions or ejections (yellow or red cards) for any incident that occurs off the ball. Fouls, on the other hand, can occur only while the ball is in play.

Basketball

In basketball, most or any time play is stopped the ball is considered dead, such as when a foul has been committed and called by a referee, a foul shot has been attempted and another one is yet to be attempted, or the ball has gone out of bounds. Player substitutions may then be made. Section IV of the NBA rule book contains the official definition of a dead ball.[6][7][8]

Flag football

Times when it can be a dead ball:

  • anytime the ball hits the ground (also called a fumble)
  • the ball is blocked, not caught, by usually the defender. If the ball is caught, the defender can make a run for touchdown.
  • the ball carrier's flag is pulled or somehow falls to the ground.
  • the ball carrier falls to the ground. If any other part of the body of the ball carrier, other than the hands and feet, touch the ground, it is a dead ball.

See more information in flag football

Rugby league

Each end of a rugby league field has a dead ball line, when the ball (or player in possession) crosses or touches this line, the ball is said to have gone dead. This results in a goal line drop out if the defending team had caused the ball to go dead; otherwise, a 20-metre restart ensues.

See also

References

  1. ^ Baseball Field Guide: An In-Depth Illustrated Guide to the Complete Rules of Baseball by Dan Formosa, Da Capo Press; Rev Upd edition (April 7, 2008), ISBN 0-306-81653-9.
  2. ^ "Tropicana Field Ground Rules". MLB.com. Tampa Bay Rays. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  3. ^ Branch, John (5 October 2010). "Tropicana Field's Problems Will Be Reduced With New Ground Rules". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  4. ^ Blackburn, Pete (9 May 2018). "WATCH: Rays' Adeiny Hechavarria suffers bizarre injury thanks to ball off Tropicana Field catwalk". CBS Sports.com. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Law 20 – Dead ball". MCC. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  6. ^ "NBA Rulebook". NBA Rulebook. NBA.com. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
  7. ^ "Dead Ball". Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  8. ^ "Mimi.hu". Mimi.hu. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
1891 Home Nations Championship

The 1891 Home Nations Championship was the ninth series of the rugby union Home Nations Championship. Six matches were played between 3 January and 7 March. It was contested by England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

The 1891 Championship was won by Scotland, the fourth time the country had topped the table, but the first time Scotland had taken the Triple Crown title.

Rule changes this year, included the introduction of penalty goals, as although penalty kicks were introduced in 1882 no goal attempts could be made from one until this season. The two umpires were renamed as touch-judges and their powers were reduced to mark the spot where the ball left the field of play; a status that remained until additional powers were reinstated in 1982. Players could now pick up a dead ball, and the dead ball line was set at a maximum of 25 yards.

1909 Chicago Cubs season

The 1909 Chicago Cubs season was the 38th season of the Chicago Cubs franchise, the 34th in the National League and the 17th at West Side Park. The Cubs won 104 games but finished second in the National League, 6½ games behind the Pittsburgh Pirates. The Cubs had won the pennant the previous three years and would win it again in 1910. Of their 104 victories, 97 were wins for a Cubs starting pitcher; this was the most wins in a season by the starting staff of any major league team from 1908 to the present day.The legendary infield of Joe Tinker, Johnny Evers, Frank Chance, and Harry Steinfeldt was still intact, but it was the pitching staff that excelled. The Cubs pitchers had a collective earned run average of 1.75, a microscopic figure even for the dead-ball era. Three Finger Brown was one of the top two pitchers in the league (with Christy Mathewson) again, going 27–9 with a 1.31 ERA.

Balk

In baseball, a pitcher can commit a number of illegal motions or actions that constitute a balk. Most of these violations involve a pitcher pretending to pitch when he has no intention of doing so. In games played under the Official Baseball Rules that govern all professional play in the United States and Canada, a balk results in a dead ball or delayed dead ball. In certain other circumstances, a balk may be wholly or partially disregarded. Under other rule sets, notably in the United States under the National Federation of High Schools (Fed or Federation) Baseball Rules, a balk results in an immediate dead ball. In the event a balk is enforced, the pitch is generally (but not always) nullified, each runner is awarded one base, and the batter (generally) remains at bat, and with the previous count. The balk rule in Major League Baseball was introduced in 1898.

Bowled

Bowled is a method of dismissing a batsman in the sport of cricket. This method of dismissal is covered by Law 32 of the Laws of Cricket.A batter is out bowled if his or her wicket is put down by a ball delivered by the bowler. It is irrelevant whether the ball has touched the bat, glove, or any part of the batsman before going on to put down the wicket, though it may not touch another player or an umpire before doing so. Such rules mean that bowled is the most obvious of dismissals: almost never requiring an appeal to the umpire; a bowled batsman will usually acknowledge the dismissal voluntarily.

If the delivered ball deflects off the bat, and bowls the batter, then the informal term is known as played on, knocked on or dragged on. If the wicket is put down without the batter making any sort of contact with the ball, then it is known as clean bowled with variations being 'bowled through the gate', where the ball travels between the bat and pad, or 'bowled around the legs', where the ball goes behind (to the legside of) the batsman and hits the stumps.

A batter cannot be out bowled from a no-ball, wide or dead ball, though he/she can be stumped if it is a wide.

A batter is out bowled even if he/she could be given out by another method of dismissal instead. For instance, if a batsman edges the ball onto the stumps (such that the bails are removed) and the ball is caught by a fielder, then batter would be given out bowled instead of caught.

Bowled is the second most common method of dismissal after caught. The bowler is credited with the wicket if batter is out bowled.

Caught

Caught is a method of dismissing a batsman in the sport of cricket. Being caught out is the most common method of dismissal at higher levels of competition. This method of dismissal is covered by Law 33 of the Laws of cricket which reads:The striker is out Caught if a ball delivered by the bowler, not being a No ball, touches his/her bat without having previously been in contact with any fielder, and is subsequently held by a fielder as a fair catch,..., before it touches the ground.Note that if a batsman could be given out caught or by any other method except bowled, 'caught' takes precedence. This means that the batsman cannot be out caught if:

The ball is called a no-ball or dead ball.

The batsman does not hit the ball with his bat or the gloved hand holding the bat.

The ball, having been hit, makes contact with the field before a fielder catches the ball.

The ball does not remain under the control of the fielder.

The ball is hit and lands beyond or on the boundary; (six runs).

A fielder taking the catch makes contact with the boundary rope or the area outside the boundary, with any part of his body, equipment, when touching the ball.If a batsman is out caught, any runs scored off that delivery are voided. If the catch is taken by the wicket-keeper, then informally it is known as a "caught behind". A catch by the bowler is known as a "caught and bowled". This has nothing to do with the dismissal bowled but is rather a shorthand for saying the catcher and bowler are the same player (the scorecard annotation is usually c. and b. or c&b followed by the bowler's name).

If the catch taken is pronounced or obvious, the players need not appeal to the umpire; the batsman normally chooses to acknowledge the dismissal himself. However, in the event that the ball brushes the edge of the bat, or the catch is taken very close to the ground, or the ball appears to have bounced off the batsman's foot (so it has not touched the ground), or the ball appearing to come off the bat very close to the pitch surface (bump ball), or if the batsman is reluctant to accept that he has been dismissed, the fielding team has to appeal to the umpire for this decision. In international competition, if neither field umpire can clearly decide if a catch has been made or not, they may refer to the third (television) umpire for a review. The third umpire may also be used if the Umpire Decision Review System is available and a team wishes to dispute a call concerning a possible catch.

If a batsman is caught, the bowler is credited with the batsman's wicket and the catching fielder is credited for the dismissal, there is no catch assists for a saving boundaries before catch, or deflecting the ball to a different fielder in the slips cordon. If the two batsmen cross each other, in attempting to take a run, before the catch was taken, the non-striking batsman at the time remains at the opposite end of the pitch as the new incoming batsman comes to the crease at his former end. This means, unless it is now a new over, he is now on strike and the incoming batsman is not.

Cy Williams

Frederick "Cy" Williams (December 21, 1887 – April 23, 1974) was an American professional baseball player. He played in Major League Baseball as an outfielder for the Chicago Cubs (1912–17) and Philadelphia Phillies (1918–30). As Major League Baseball emerged from the dead ball era, Williams became one of the most prominent home run hitters in the National League.

Dead-ball era

In baseball, the dead-ball era was the period between around 1900 and the emergence of Babe Ruth as a power hitter in 1919. That year, Ruth hit a then-league record 29 home runs, a spectacular feat at that time.

This era was characterized by low-scoring games and a lack of home runs. The lowest league run average in history was in 1908, when teams averaged only 3.4 runs per game.

Gavvy Cravath

Clifford Carlton "Gavvy" Cravath (March 23, 1881 – May 23, 1963), also nicknamed "Cactus", was an American right fielder and right-handed batter in Major League Baseball who played primarily for the Philadelphia Phillies. One of the sport's most prolific power hitters of the dead-ball era, in the seven years from 1913 to 1920 he led the National League in home runs six times, in runs batted in, total bases and slugging percentage twice each, and in hits, runs and walks once each. He led the NL in several offensive categories in 1915 as the Phillies won the first pennant in the team's 33-year history, and he held the team's career home run record from 1917 to 1924. However, he played his home games at Baker Bowl, a park that was notoriously favorable to batting statistics. Cravath hit 92 career homers at Baker Bowl while he had 25 homers in all his games away from home.

Golden age of baseball

The Golden Age of Baseball, or Baseball's Golden Era, is the period from about 1920 to 1960. The golden era is the time period immediately following the dead-ball era (before World War I) but prior to what is now called the modern era. There is no exact timeframe in any of these eras. MLB considers the post World War II era to be the beginning of the modern age, which places the golden era between the end of World War I and the end of World War II.

Much of baseball's golden age was captured in black and white film, adding to the mystique and folklore of the game. The first baseball game broadcast in color was in 1951, and by the mid-1960s all baseball games were broadcast in color, which could be viewed as the end of the golden age.

Jesse Tannehill

Jesse Niles Tannehill (July 14, 1874 – September 22, 1956) was a dead-ball era left-handed pitcher for the Cincinnati Reds, Pittsburgh Pirates, New York Highlanders, Boston Red Sox, and the Washington Senators. Tannehill was among the best pitchers of his era and was one of the best-hitting pitchers of all time. In fact, Tannehill was such a good hitter that he was used in the outfield 87 times in his career.

List of Lupin the Third Part II episodes

Produced by the Japanese animation studio Tokyo Movie Shinsha, Lupin the Third Part II is the second Lupin III television series, with the first airing between October 24, 1971 and March 26, 1972. The series contains 155 episodes which aired between October 3, 1977 and October 6, 1980 on the Japanese television network NTV (Nippon Television). Episodes 145 and 155 were the first to appear in the United States on VHS, released by Streamline Pictures under the title Lupin III's Greatest Capers. Two feature films, The Mystery of Mamo and The Castle of Cagliostro, were released in theaters during the original broadcast run of the series. Twenty-six episodes of Geneon Entertainment's English adaptation of the anime aired on Adult Swim starting on Monday, January 13, 2003 (January 14, technically, since it premiered at midnight). Episodes 1–27 were broadcast on the channel, with the exception of episode 3. 15 Region 1 DVD volumes (a total of 79 episodes) have been released in the United States by Geneon Entertainment. Richard Epcar, the voice of Jigen revealed via Twitter that Geneon lost the license to the series before they could dub the rest of the episodes in English. In December 2015, Discotek Media announced it had licensed the show and would be releasing the Second Series in four DVD sets with the first one coming in 2016.

The series, based on the Lupin III manga written by Monkey Punch beginning in 1967, centers on the adventures of Arsène Lupin III, the grandson of Arsène Lupin, the gentleman thief of Maurice Leblanc's series of novels. He is joined by Daisuke Jigen, crack-shot and Lupin's closest ally; Fujiko Mine, the femme fatale and Lupin's love interest who works against Lupin more often than with him; and Goemon Ishikawa XIII, a master swordsman and the descendant of Ishikawa Goemon, the legendary Japanese bandit. Lupin is often chased by Inspector Koichi Zenigata, the rather cynical detective who has made it his life mission to catch Lupin.

Live-ball era

The live-ball era, also referred to as the lively ball era, is the period in Major League Baseball beginning in 1920 (and continuing to the present day), contrasting with the pre-1920 period known as the "dead-ball era". The name "live-ball era" comes from the dramatic rise in offensive statistics, a direct result of a series of rule changes (introduced in 1920) that were colloquially said to have made the ball more "lively". The live-ball era was the era in which baseball regained relevance and exploded in popularity.

Major League Baseball

Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play in the National League (NL) and American League (AL), with 15 teams in each league. The NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1876 and 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000. The organization also oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament.

Baseball's first openly all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869. (There had been teams in the past that paid some players, and some that had paid all players but under the table.) The first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who often jumped from one team or league to another.

The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era; players rarely hit home runs during this time. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal. The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, and survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier.

The 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL, then new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, and media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team.

Today, MLB is composed of 30 teams: 29 in the United States and 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television, radio, and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world. MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015.

Rugby league playing field

"Rugby pitch" and "Rugby field" redirect here. This article is about the rugby league playing field. For the rugby union playing field see Laws of rugby union#Field and equipment

The rugby league playing field, also referred to as a pitch or paddock, is the playing surface for the sport of rugby league football and is surfaced exclusively with grass.The dimensions and markings of a full-sized playing area are defined in Section 1 of the Laws of the Game. These Laws are the agreed upon and maintained by the Rugby League International Federation. The playing field is defined as "the area bounded by, but not including, the touch lines and dead ball lines" by Section 2. If the ball or any player in possession of it makes contact with the touch lines or dead ball lines or the ground beyond them it is deemed to be out of play.

The rugby league field also has markings to denote where restarts, such as scrums, should be placed.

Triple (baseball)

In baseball, a triple is the act of a batter safely reaching third base after hitting the ball, with neither the benefit of a fielder's misplay (see error) nor another runner being put out on a fielder's choice. A triple is sometimes called a "three-bagger" or "three-base hit". For statistical and scorekeeping purposes it is denoted by 3B.Triples have become somewhat rare in Major League Baseball. It often requires a ball hit to a distant part of the field, or the ball taking an unusual bounce in the outfield. It also usually requires that the batter hit the ball solidly, and be a speedy runner. It also often requires that the batter's team have a good strategic reason for wanting the batter on third base, as a double will already put the batter in scoring position and there will often be little strategic advantage to taking the risk of trying to stretch a double into a triple. (The inside-the-park home run is much rarer than a triple). The trend for modern ballparks is to have smaller outfields (often increasing the number of home runs); it has ensured that the career and season triples leaders mostly consist of those who played early in Major League Baseball history, generally in the dead-ball era.

A walk-off triple (one that ends a game) occurs very infrequently. For example, the 2016 MLB season saw only three walk-off triples, excluding one play that was actually a triple plus an error.

Try

A try is a way of scoring points in rugby union and rugby league football. A try is scored by grounding the ball (the ball must be touching the player when coming into contact with the ground) in the opposition's in-goal area (on or behind the goal line). Rugby union and league differ slightly in defining 'grounding the ball' and the 'in-goal' area.

The term try comes from try at goal, signifying that originally, grounding the ball only gave the opportunity to try to score with a kick at goal.A try is analogous to a touchdown in American and Canadian football, with the major difference being that a try requires the ball be simultaneously touching the ground and an attacking player, whereas a touchdown merely requires that the player in possession of the ball enter the end zone. In both codes of rugby, the term touch down formally refers only to grounding the ball by the defensive team in their in-goal.

Umpire (cricket)

In cricket, an umpire (from the Old French nompere meaning not a peer, i.e. not a member of one of the teams, impartial) is a person who has the authority to make decisions about events on the cricket field, according to the Laws of Cricket. Besides making decisions about legality of delivery, appeals for wickets and general conduct of the game in a legal manner, the umpire also keeps a record of the deliveries and announces the completion of an over.

A cricket umpire is not to be confused with the referee who usually presides only over international matches and makes no decisions affecting the outcome of the game.

Zizinho

Thomaz Soares da Silva, also known as Zizinho (Portuguese pronunciation: [ziˈzĩɲu]; 14 October 1921 – 8 February 2002), was a Brazilian football player, who played as an attacking midfielder for the Brazil national football team. He came to international prominence at the 1950 World Cup, where he scored two goals. He was lauded as a complete player, renowned for his incredible array of offensive skills such as his dribbling, passing, and shooting ability with both feet, as well as his accuracy from dead ball situations and extraordinary vision.

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