Dea Dia

Dea Dia ("The Divine Goddess") was a goddess of fertility and growth in ancient Roman religion. She was sometimes identified with Ceres, and sometimes with her Greek equivalent Demeter.[1]

She was worshiped during Ambarvalia, a festival to Ceres.[2] Every May, her priests, the Fratres Arvales, held a three-day festival in her honor.[3][4]

See also

References

  1. ^ Michael Lipka (2009). Roman Gods: A Conceptual Approach. BRILL. pp. 64–. ISBN 90-04-17503-2.
  2. ^ Hildegard Temporini (1 December 1985). Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1949–. ISBN 978-3-11-008289-0.
  3. ^ Notes on Strabo's account, 5.3
  4. ^ Angelo Pellegrini (1865). Gli edifici del collegio dei Fratelli Arvali nel lugo della dea dia e i di loro avanzi: opuscolo corredato con pianta delineata dal medesimo. tipografia Chassi. pp. 6–.
Acca Larentia

Acca Larentia or Acca Larentina was a mythical woman, later goddess, in Roman mythology whose festival, the Larentalia, was celebrated on December 23.

Acta Arvalia

The Acta Arvalia were the recorded protocols of the Arval Brothers (Arvales fratres), a priestly brotherhood (sodalitas) of ancient Roman religion.

The acta were inscribed in marble tablets fastened to the walls of the Temple of Dea Dia, goddess of the grove, near the present borough of the Magliana Vecchia, between the right bank of the Tiber and the hill Monte delle Piche. The oldest of the protocols are evidence of early Latin. They are mentioned by Varro. "The transcription of the records of this priesthood onto stone provided possibly the biggest coherent complex of inscriptions of the Roman ancient world," Jörg Rüpke has observed.The acta document routine rituals and special occasions, the vota of participating members, the name of the place where sacrifices occurred, and specific dates. They are an important source for ancient Roman prosopography and a useful one for the study of Rome's distinctive archaic religious traditions. Actual liturgies are lacking: the first instance of a Latin hymn text, the famous and incomprehensibly archaic Carmen Arvale, was not entrusted to publication in a stone inscription until the beginning of the third century CE, when few could have deciphered it.Fragments of the inscriptions were first recovered by Wilhelm Henzen, 1866-69. Further fragments subsequently came to light.

Though their rituals were conducted outside the pomerium that demarcated the official confines of the city in earliest times, the Arvales emerged from obscurity toward the end of the Roman Republic as an elite group, to judge from the status of their known members in the Augustan period.

Angerona

In Roman religion, Angerona or Angeronia was an old Roman goddess, whose name and functions are variously explained. She is sometimes identified with the goddess Feronia.

Arval Brethren

In ancient Roman religion, the Arval Brethren (Latin: Fratres Arvales, "Brothers of the Fields") or Arval Brothers were a body of priests who offered annual sacrifices to the Lares and gods to guarantee good harvests. Inscriptions provide evidence of their oaths, rituals and sacrifices.

Dea

Dea is the Latin for "goddess", see Roman pantheon. Specific goddesses referred to as "Dea" in Roman antiquity:

Bona Dea, a (mostly) exclusively women's goddess introduced from Magna Graeca

Dea Dia, goddess of growth in Roman mythology

Dea Matrona, or "Divine mother goddess", goddess of the river Marne in Gaul

Dea Sequana, goddess of the river Seine in Gallo-Roman religion

Dea Syria, or Atargatis, "Goddess of Syria"

Dea Tacita, or "Silent goddess", goddess of the dead in Roman mythologyDea may also refer to a given name – mostly as short form of various feminine names, such as Dorothea or Andrea:

Dea Trier Mørch (1941–2001), Danish writer

Dea Birkett (b. 1958), British writer

Dea Loher, pseudonym of German writer Andrea Beate Loher (b. 1964)

Dea Norberg (b. 1974), Swedish singer

Dea Klein-Šumanovac (b. 1981), Croatian basketball player

Dea Herdželaš (b. 1996), Bosnian tennis playerDea is also the given name of the heroine in The Man Who Laughs by Victor Hugo. She is a blind girl who is in love with the novel's protagonist, Gwynplaine, a disfigured clown. As her name suggests, Dea represents the Divine Feminine within the world of the book, and especially to Gwynplaine--"You are the soul, I am the heart," he often tells her.Dea is an English surname:

Billy Dea (b. 1933), Canadian ice hockey player

Matt Dea (b. 1991), Australian football player

Jean-Sébastien Dea (b. 1994), Canadian ice hockey player

Marie Déa, pseudonym of French actress Odette Alice Marie Deupès (1912–1992)Dea is also the title of an album

Dea (album) (2001), album by Russian group CatharsisDea is the name used for dialects of two Papua New Guinea languages:

Dea, a dialect of the Managalasi or Ese language

Dea, an alternative name for the Zimakani language

Dia (mythology)

Dia (Ancient Greek: Δία or Δῖα, "heavenly", "divine" or "she who belongs to Zeus"), in ancient Greek religion and folklore, may refer to:

Dia, a goddess venerated at Phlius and Sicyon. She was seen by the locals as identical to Hebe and/or Ganymeda.

Dia, daughter of Aeolus.

Dia, daughter of King Porthaon of Calydon and mother of Thersites and possibly the remaining five sons by Agrius.

Dia, daughter of the king Lycaon (thus sister of Callisto), mother of Dryops by Apollo. She concealed her new-born infant in a hollow oak tree.

Dia, second wife of the Thracian king Phineus and by him, mother of Mariandynus and Thynus. She falsely accused of rape her step sons, Parthenius and Crambis, resulting to their blindness and eventual imprisonment by Phineus.

Dia, daughter of Deioneus or Eioneus, wife of Ixion (who killed her father so as to not pay the bride price) and with her husband, she became mother of the Lapith Pirithous, whose marriage to Hippodameia was the occasion of the Lapiths' battle with the Centaurs. According to Homer, after having sex with Zeus, who was disguised as a stallion, she gave birth to Pirithous; a folk etymology derived Pirithous' name from peritheein (περιθεῖν "to run around"), because that was what Zeus did to seduce Dia.

Dia, alternate name for Hippodamia, the wife of Pirithous (thus daughter-in-law of another Dia).

Dia, mother of Pittheus by Pelops. She may have been identical with another Hippodamia, daughter of Oenomaus.In ancient Roman religion, Dia may refer to Dea Dia.

Falacer

Falacer, or more fully dīvus pater falacer, was an ancient Italic god, according to Varro. Hartung is inclined to consider him an epithet of Jupiter, since falandum, according to Festus, was the Etruscan name for "heaven."

His name may appear in the name of the city of Falacrine (Latin: Falacrīnum or Phalacrīna).

Fontus

In ancient Roman religion,Fontus or Fons (plural Fontes, "Font" or "Source") was a god of wells and springs. A religious festival called the Fontinalia was held on October 13 in his honor. Throughout the city, fountains and wellheads were adorned with garlands.Fons was the son of Juturna and Janus. Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome, was supposed to have been buried near the altar of Fons (ara Fontis) on the Janiculum. William Warde Fowler observed that between 259 and 241 BC, cults were founded for Juturna, Fons, and the Tempestates, all having to do with sources of water. As a god of pure water, Fons can be placed in opposition to Liber as a god of wine identified with Bacchus.An inscription includes Fons among a series of deities who received expiatory sacrifices by the Arval Brothers in 224 AD, when several trees in the sacred grove of Dea Dia, their chief deity, had been struck by lightning and burnt. Fons received two wethers. Fons was not among the deities depicted on coinage of the Roman Republic.In the cosmological schema of Martianus Capella, Fons is located in the second of 16 celestial regions, with Jupiter, Quirinus, Mars, the Military Lar, Juno, Lympha, and the Novensiles.Prophecy Writer

(Fonzerelli Brown)

Supreme Tribunal

Laverna

In Roman mythology, Laverna was a goddess of thieves, cheats and the underworld. She was propitiated by libations poured with the left hand. The poet Horace and the playwright Plautus call her a goddess of thieves. In Rome, her sanctuary was near the Porta Lavernalis.

Lemuria (festival)

The Lemuralia or Lemuria was a feast in the religion of ancient Rome during which the Romans performed rites to exorcise the malevolent and fearful ghosts of the dead from their homes. The unwholesome spectres of the restless dead, the lemures or larvae were propitiated with offerings of beans. On those days, the Vestals would prepare sacred mola salsa, a salted flour cake, from the first ears of wheat of the season.

List of Roman deities

The Roman deities most familiar today are those the Romans identified with Greek counterparts (see interpretatio graeca), integrating Greek myths, iconography, and sometimes religious practices into Roman culture, including Latin literature, Roman art, and religious life as it was experienced throughout the Empire. Many of the Romans' own gods remain obscure, known only by name and sometimes function, through inscriptions and texts that are often fragmentary. This is particularly true of those gods belonging to the archaic religion of the Romans dating back to the era of kings, the so-called "religion of Numa", which was perpetuated or revived over the centuries. Some archaic deities have Italic or Etruscan counterparts, as identified both by ancient sources and by modern scholars. Throughout the Empire, the deities of peoples in the provinces were given new theological interpretations in light of functions or attributes they shared with Roman deities.

An extensive alphabetical list follows a survey of theological groups as constructed by the Romans themselves. For the cult pertaining to deified Roman emperors (divi), see Imperial cult.

Lyndon LaRouche

Lyndon Hermyle LaRouche Jr. (September 8, 1922 – February 12, 2019) was an American political activist and founder of the LaRouche movement, whose main organization was the National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC). He wrote on economic, scientific, and political topics, as well as on history, philosophy, and psychoanalysis. LaRouche was a presidential candidate in each election from 1976 to 2004, running once for his own U.S. Labor Party and seven times for the Democratic Party nomination.

Despite LaRouche's self-identification with the left and some leftist policies, his critics have said that he had "fascistic tendencies", took positions on the far-right, and created disinformation.

Mother of the Lares

The Mother of the Lares (Latin Mater Larum) has been identified with any of several minor Roman deities. She appears twice in the records of the Arval Brethren as Mater Larum, elsewhere as Mania and Larunda. Ovid calls her Lara, Muta (the speechless one) and Tacita (the silent one).

Old High German declension

Old High German is an inflected language, and as such its nouns, pronouns, and adjectives must be declined in order to serve a grammatical function. A set of declined forms of the same word pattern is called a declension. There are five grammatical cases in Old High German.

Palatua

Palatua was a Roman goddess who was provided an official priest or flamen, the Flamen Palatualis, and was charged with guarding the Palatine Hill. Aside from this little else is known about her, and it is a safe assumption that her cult, like those of Falacer or Volturnus, had diminished during the late republican period, and that by the beginning of the Empire there were few, if any, followers aside from the flamen.

Sterquilinus

In Roman mythology, Sterquilinus ("manure" or "feces") — also called Stercutus and Sterculius — was a god of feces. He may have been equivalent to Picumnus. The Larousse Encyclopaedia of Mythology gives the name as Stercutius, a pseudonym of Saturn, under which the latter used to supervise the manuring of the fields.

The name Sterquilinus comes from the Latin stercus meaning "fertilizer" or "manure". His name was altered to avoid confusion.Early Romans were an agrarian civilization and, functionally, most of their original pantheon of gods — as against the later ones they adapted to Greek stereotypes — were of a rural nature with figures such as Pomona, Ceres, Flora, Dea Dia; so it was only apt for them to have a god supervising the basics of organic fertilization. Sterquilinus essentially taught the use of manure in agricultural processes. He was not the sole deity of manure on its own; as in, sewage.

Modern writers later elaborated upon and exaggerated the significance of Sterquilinus/Sterculius and other "earthy" deities of antiquity, sometimes with moralistic disapproval. One editor of An Encyclopædia of Plants, published in 1836, related that Sterculius was the god of the privy, from stercus, excrement. It has been well observed by a French author, that the Romans, in the madness of paganism, finished by deifying the most immodest objects and the most disgusting actions. They had the gods Sterculius, Crepitus, Priapus; and the goddesses Caca, Pertunda, &c, &c.

Terminus (god)

In Roman religion, Terminus was the god who protected boundary markers; his name was the Latin word for such a marker. Sacrifices were performed to sanctify each boundary stone, and landowners celebrated a festival called the "Terminalia" in Terminus' honor each year on February 23. The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill was thought to have been built over a shrine to Terminus, and he was occasionally identified as an aspect of Jupiter under the name "Jupiter Terminalis".

Ancient writers believed that the worship of Terminus had been introduced to Rome during the reign of the first king Romulus (traditionally 753–717 BC) or his successor Numa (717–673 BC). Modern scholars have variously seen it as the survival of an early animistic reverence for the power inherent in the boundary marker, or as the Roman development of proto-Indo-European belief in a god concerned with the division of property.

Terra (mythology)

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Tellus Mater or Terra Mater ("Mother Earth") is a goddess of the earth. Although Tellus and Terra are hardly distinguishable during the Imperial era, Tellus was the name of the original earth goddess in the religious practices of the Republic or earlier. The scholar Varro (1st century BC) lists Tellus as one of the di selecti, the twenty principal gods of Rome, and one of the twelve agricultural deities. She is regularly associated with Ceres in rituals pertaining to the earth and agricultural fertility.

The attributes of Tellus were the cornucopia, or bunches of flowers or fruit. She was typically depicted reclining. Her male complement was a sky god such as Caelus (Uranus) or a form of Jupiter. A male counterpart Tellumo or Tellurus is mentioned, though rarely. Her Greek counterpart is Gaia, and among the Etruscans she was Cel. Michael Lipka has argued that the Terra Mater who appears during the reign of Augustus is a direct transferral of the Greek Ge Mater into Roman religious practice, while Tellus, whose temple was within Rome's sacred boundary (pomerium), represents the original earth goddess cultivated by the state priests.The word tellus, telluris is also a Latin common noun for "land, territory; earth," as is terra, "earth, ground". In literary uses, particularly in poetry, it may be ambiguous as to whether the goddess, a personification, or the common noun is meant.

This article preserves the usage of the ancient sources regarding Tellus or Terra.

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