Da‘wah literally means "issuing a summons" or "making an invitation". Grammatically, the word represents a gerund of a verb with the triconsonantal root d-ʕ-w دعو meaning variously "to summon" or "to invite" . A Muslim who practices da‘wah, either as a religious worker or in a volunteer community effort, is called a dā‘ī (داعي, plural du‘āh/du‘āt دعاة).
The term da'wah has other senses in the Qur'an. In sura (chapter) 30:25, for example, it denotes the call to the dead to rise on the Day of Judgment. When used in the Qur'an, it generally refers to Allah's invitation to live according to His will. Thus, when used in the first centuries of Islam, it usually referred to that message and was sometimes used interchangeably with sharī‘a and dīn.
Da‘wah is also described as the duty to "actively encourage fellow Muslims in the pursuance of greater piety in all aspects of their lives", a definition which has become central to contemporary Islamic thought.
During the Expedition of Al Raji in 625, Muhammad sent some men as missionaries to various different tribes. Some men came to Muhammad and requested that Muhammad send instructors to teach them Islam, but the men were bribed by the two tribes of Khuzaymah, who wanted revenge for the assassination of Khalid bin Sufyan (Chief of the Banu Lahyan tribe) by Muhammad's followers. A number of missionaries were killed in this expedition, either eight or, according to another account, ten.
Then during the Expedition of Bir Maona in July 625 Muhammad sent some missionaries at the request of some men from the Banu Amir tribe, but the Muslims were again killed in revenge for the assassination of Khalid bin Sufyan by Muhammad's followers. 70 Muslims were killed during this expedition.
During the Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Banu Jadhimah) in January 630, Muhammad sent Khalid ibn Walid to invite the Banu Jadhimah tribe to Islam. This is mentioned in the Sunni Hadith Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:628.
After Muhammad's death in 632, from the available historical evidence, it appears that after Muhammad's death Muslims did not immediately embark upon da'wa activities—during and after the rapid conquests of the Byzantine and Persian lands, they ventured little if at all to preach to local non-Muslims. Da'wa came into wider usage almost a hundred years after Muhammad's death, in the wake of 'Abbasid propaganda against the then ruling Umayyad clan in the 720s. However, the 'Abbasid da'wa ceased as soon as the 'Abbasids were in power—a fact that attests to its political nature. Da'wa as a truly missionary activity, albeit still within the Muslim Umma, appeared in the form of the Isma'ili da'wa of the 9th through 13th centuries. Isma'ilis, in many ways, can be seen as the pioneers of the organized Muslim missionary activities: their highly institutionalized and sophisticated da'wa structure has hardly been repeated until today. Moreover, for the Isma'ilis, da'wa was a state priority. The Isma'ili da'wa encompassed extra- and intra-ummatic forms and blended both theology and politics.
In Islamic theology, the purpose of da‘wah is to invite people, Muslims and non-Muslims, to understand the worship of God as expressed in the Qur'an and the sunnah of the prophet Muhammad and to inform them about Muhammad.
Da'wah as the "Call towards God" is the means by which Muhammad began spreading the message of the Qur'an to mankind. After Muhammad, his followers and the Ummah (Muslim community) assumed responsibility for it. They convey the message of the Qur'an by providing information on why and how the Qur'an preaches monotheism. Muhammad saw Islam as the true religion and mission of all earlier prophets. He believed that their call had been limited to their own people but that his was universal. His mission as the final prophet was to repeat to the whole world this call and invitation (dawa) to Islam. Muhammad wrote to various non-Muslim rulers, inviting them to convert.
The importance of Dawah has been emphasised many times in the Quran:
Who is better in speech than one who calls to Allah, does righteous deeds and says indeed I am among the Muslims.— Quran, Sura 41 (HAA-meem-shisdah), ayah 33
You are the best nation raised up for humankind. You enjoin righteousness, forbid corruption and you believe in Allah.— Quran, Sura 3 (Al-Imran), ayah 110
Let there arise among you a group inviting to all that is good, enjoining righteousness and forbidding evil. Those are the successful ones.— Quran, Sura 3 (Al-Imran), ayah 104
Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good preaching.— Quran, Sura 16 (An-Nahl), ayah 125
Muhammad sent Muadh ibn Jabal to Yemen and told him “You will be going to Christians and Jews, so the first thing you should invite them to is the assertion of the oneness of Allah, Most High. If they realize that, then inform them that Allah has made five daily prayers obligatory on them. If they pray them, then inform them that Allah has made the payment of charity from their wealth obligatory on their rich to be given to their poor. If they accept that, then take it from them and avoid the best part of people’s property.”
And by the mercy of Allah you dealt with them gently. If you were harsh and hardhearted, they would have fled from around you. (Quran 3:159).
So speak to him, both of you, mildly in order that he may reflect or fear God. (Quran 20:44).
Muhammad was quoted by Jareer as saying,“One deprived of gentleness is deprived of all good."
Muslims made it a part of their political theory (through relating da'wa to jihad) and life (using the concept of da'wa in their political agendas). Taken in general, the intertwining of da'wa and politics, then, has been a feature throughout the Muslim history, though practical implications of this have been different in different ages.
A classical example of diversion in dawah can be seen in the case of Prophet Yusuf in prison when two prisoners asked him to interpret their dreams. One of them said: “I saw myself pressing wine.” The other said: “I saw myself carrying bread on my head and birds were eating from it.” They asked: “Inform us of the interpretation of these things. Indeed, we believe you are one of the righteous.” He replied: “Whenever food came to you as your provision, I informed you about it before it came. That is from what my Lord has taught me.... As for one of you, he will pour wine for his lord to drink, and as for the other, he will be crucified and birds will eat from his head. This is the case judged concerning which you both inquire.” (Quran 12:35–41)
Doing dawah in the right location. For example, Mount Safa in the time of Muhammad was used for announcements. So Muhammad went there to make his point. He chose that particular location because he knew the people who he was inviting to Islam. He knew their nature and characteristics, so he chose Mount Safa. He climbed up to its summit and addressed his people saying: “O people of Quraysh, if I were to tell you there was an army behind this hill would you listen to me?”
Modern dawah movements are varied in their objectives and activities. Examples include:
The common version, however, is that B. Lihyan wanted to avenge the assassination of their chief at Muhammad's instigation, and bribed two clans of the tribe of Khuzaymah to say they wanted to become Muslims and ask Muhammad to send instructors.(online)
Then in Safar (which began July 13, 625), four months after Uhud, he sent out the men of Bi'r Ma'unah
Ustad Abdul Rab Rasul Sayyaf ( (listen) ahb-DOOL rə-SOOL sy-YAHF; Pashto: عبد رب الرسول سياف, born 1946, Paghman Valley, Afghanistan) is an Afghan politician and former mujahideen commander. He took part in the war against the PDPA government in the 1980s, leading the Afghan mujahideen faction Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan. His party General secretary Maiwand Safa and youngest member of the party also.
During the war, he received patronage from Arab sources and mobilized Arab volunteers for the mujahideen forces. Sayyaf is said to have been the one who first invited Osama bin Laden to take refuge in Afghanistan (Jalalabad), after bin Laden's 1996 expulsion from Sudan by the otherwise sympathetic Sudanese régime under Saudi, Egyptian, and American pressure.In 2005, Sayyaf's Ittehad-al-Islami (or Islamic Union) was converted into the political party, the Islamic Dawah Organisation of Afghanistan. He has been considered a member of the Northern Alliance, despite his close relationship with militant groups such as Al-Qaeda that opposed it. He has also been accused of having knowingly assisted the two assassins that killed Northern Alliance leader Ahmad Shah Massoud in a suicide bomb blast two days before the attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001.Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai
Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai (Pashto: احمد شاه احمدزی - born 30 March 1944) is an Afghan politician. He served as the prime minister of Afghanistan from 1995 to 1996. He is an ethnic Pashtun from the Ahmadzai sub-tribe.Al-Muhajiroun
Al-Muhajiroun (Arabic: المهاجرون, The Emigrants) is a banned terrorist Salafi jihadist organisation that is based in the United Kingdom and which has been linked to international terrorism, homophobia, and antisemitism. The group in its original incarnation operated in the United Kingdom from 14 January 1986 until the British Government announced an intended ban in August 2005. The group became notorious for its September 2002 conference, "The Magnificent 19", praising the September 11, 2001 attacks. The group mutates periodically so as to evade the law; it then operates under different aliases. It was proscribed under the UK Terrorism Act 2000 on 14 January 2010 together with four other organisations including Islam4UK, and again in 2014 as Need4Khilafah.
Al-Muhajiroun has also run a Lahore safe house for visiting British Muslims.Alkhairaat
Alkhairaat (Arabic: الخيرات, translit. al-Ḵayrāt, Arabic pronunciation: [al-xajraːt], "good things") is the largest Islamic community organization in eastern Indonesia based in Palu, Central Sulawesi. This organization was founded by an Arab Indonesians cleric who born in Hadhramaut named Habib Sayyid Idrus bin Salim al-Jufri on June 30, 1930 (1930-06-30).Asadullah Khalid
Asadullah Khalid is a politician in Afghanistan. He served as head of the National Directorate of Security (NDS), which is the domestic intelligence agency of Afghanistan. Before his appointment as the head of the NDS in September 2012, Khalid served as the Minister of Tribal and Border Affairs. Between 2005 and 2008, he was the Governor of Kandahar Province and prior to that as Governor of Ghazni Province (2002-2005). Khalid is said to be affiliated with the Islamic Dawah Organisation of Afghanistan (Ittihad-i Islami) and has been noted as one of many loyalists of Afghan President Hamid Karzai.Campus Dakwah Institute
Campus Dakwah Institute (Lembaga Dakwah Kampus), often abbreviated as LDK, is an inter-campus student organization linking every university in Indonesia, aimed for the proselytization of Islam (dawah). Most of the universities in Indonesia is required to have their LDK branch. In each campus, the LDK branch can be different in its organization, in which different names are often employed, including Unit Kegiatan Mahasiswa Islam (Islamic Student Activity Unit), Islamic Spirituality (Kerohanian Islam), Islamic Studies Forum (Forum Studi Islam), and Islamic Spiritual Body (Badan Kerohanian Islam).Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia
Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia (lit: Indonesian Islamic Dawah Council), often abbreviated as DDII, is a Sunni Islamic organization in Indonesia which aimed at dawah (proselytizing). The organization is considered one of the most prominent dawah organisations in modern Indonesia. It is also noted for being the primary receiver (along with the LIPIA) of funding for Islamic activities in Indonesia from Saudi Arabia.Indonesia Institute of Islamic Dawah
Lembaga Dakwah Islam Indonesia (Indonesia Institute of Islamic Dawah) or LDII, is an independent social organization for study and research on Alqur'an and Alhadist. Dakwah is Indonesian for religious proselytizing.
Indonesia Institute of Islamic Dawah, an independent civic organizations, official and legal follow the provisions of Law no. 8 1985 on Community Organisations, Article 9, paragraph (2), April 4, 1986 (State Gazette of 1986 number 24), including PP, and implementation. 18 in 1986 and Minister of Home Affairs Regulation No.. 5 1986 and other legal rules. LDII, have the Articles of Association and Bylaws, Work Program and Management from the Central level to village level. LDII already recorded in the Agency for National Unity and Community Protection Department of the Interior. LDII is a component part of the Indonesian Nation residing in the Republic of Indonesia Based on Pancasila and the Constitution 45.
Indonesia Institute of Islamic Dawah (LDII) established in accordance with the ideals of the pioneering scholars of the Muslims as a place to learn, practice and propagate Islamic teachings are based purely on the Alquran and Alhadith, the cultural background of the people of Indonesia, in the frame of State Unitary Republic of Indonesia based on Pancasila and the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia in 1945.
LDII was founded in Surabaya, East Java, in 1972, but had its roots in 1941. LDII now has branches throughout Indonesia. LDII is viewed as a puritanical Islamic organization by the Indonesian Religion Department. The LDII requires its members not to touch the hands of the opposite sex who are not their mahram (mahram: a person whom you cannot mary) which is in accordance with several shahih hadiths. Women must cover themselves completely except for the face, hands, and feet. They also have to lengthen the headscarf/hijab to cover the chest.Islamic Dawah Organisation of Afghanistan
The Islamic Dawah Organization of Afghanistan (Pashto: د اسلامي دعوت تنظيم افغانستان,Persian: تنظیم دعوت اسلامی افغانستان, Tanzim-e Dahwat-e Islami-ye Afghanistan) is a political party in Afghanistan led by Abdul Rasul Sayyaf. Founded in the early 1980s as the Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan (Ittehad-e Islami bara-ye Azadi-ye Afghanistan, اتحاد اسلامی برای آزادی افغانستان), it was originally an attempt to bring unity amongst Islamist opposition forces in Afghanistan. However, the creation of the new umbrella organization effectively created a split and the organization became a political party of its own. The organization was part of the 'Peshawar Seven', the coalition of mujahedin forces supported by the United States, Pakistan and various Arab states of the Persian Gulf in the war against the PDPA government and Soviet forces. Through the financial aid received from Saudi sources, the organization was able to attract a considerable military following. Arab volunteers fought in the militia forces of the organisation.Lashkar-e-Taiba
Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT, Urdu: لشکر طیبہ [ˈləʃkər eː ˈt̪ɛːjbaː]; literally Army of the Good, translated as Army of the Righteous, or Army of the Pure and alternatively spelled as Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, Lashkar-e-Taiba; Lashkar-e-Taiba; Lashkar-i-Tayyeba) is one of the largest and most active Islamist militant organisations in South Asia, operating mainly from Pakistan. It was founded in 1987 by Hafiz Saeed, Abdullah Azzam and Zafar Iqbal in Afghanistan, with funding from Osama bin Laden. Its headquarters are in Muridke, near Lahore in Punjab province of Pakistan, and the group operates several training camps in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.Lashkar-e-Taiba has been accused by India of attacking military and civilian targets in India, most notably the 2001 Indian Parliament attack, the 2008 Mumbai attacks and the 2019 Pulwama attack on Armed Forces. Its stated objective is to introduce an Islamic state in South Asia and to "liberate" Muslims residing in Indian Kashmir. The organization is banned as a terrorist organization by India, the United States, the United Kingdom the European Union, Russia, Australia, and the United Nations (under the UNSC Resolution 1267 Al-Qaeda Sanctions List). Though formally banned by Pakistan, the general view of India and the Western countries, including of experts such as former French investigating magistrate Jean-Louis Bruguière and New America Foundation president Steve Coll is that Pakistan's main intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), continues to give LeT help and protection.Whilst LeT remains banned in Pakistan, the political arm of the group, Jamat ud Dawah (JuD) has remained un-banned for spans of time. As of February 2019, it is deemed as a proscribed organisation per an order of the Interior Ministry.Latino American Dawah Organization
The Latino American Dawah Organization (LADO) is a grassroots organization founded in September 1997 by a handful of Latino converts to Islam in New York City. The organization's name was selected to express LADO's ethnic and religious identity as Latinos/Hispanics and as Muslims. LADO also wanted to emphasize that this would be an Islamic organization whose primary purpose would be dawah and education to Latinos. Today, the Latino American Dawah Organization is known by most Muslims as simply "LADO" and as "The LADO Group." In Spanish, LADO is known as "El Grupo LADO." The acronym LADO means 'side' in Spanish. The motto of the Latino American Dawah Organization is "¡Puro Latino! ¡Puro Islam! ¡A su LADO!" (meaning "Pure Latino! Pure Islam! At your side!").Mohammad Omar (Afghan governor)
Mohammad Omar (Pashto: انجنير محمد عمر) (died October 8, 2010) was the Governor of Kunduz Province, Afghanistan. He was an ethnic Andar Pashtun from Baharak District of Afghanistan.
Omar completed two years of a four-year engineering program at Polytechnical University of Kabul.Muhammad Abdul Malek
Muhammad Abdul Malek (Bengali: মুহাম্মাদ আবদুল মালেক) is a Bangladeshi Islamic scholar and researcher of Hadith. He is the founder of the monthly Bengali Islamic magazine Al-Kawsar and head of the of Hadith studies at Markazud Dawah Al-Islamia, a higher Islamic research and education institution situated at Dhaka. He is also a member of Qaumi Madrasa Education Commission, founded by Government in 2012.Sher Alam Ibrahimi
Hajii Sher Alam Ibrahimi was the governor of Ghazni Province from around 2005–2006 until 2007 and is a major commander aligned with Ittihad-i Islami and Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, having fought with him in the Afghan Civil War.
During the fighting in Kabul in 1992, it was reported that Alem was captured by Hezb-e Wahdat forces. Although he was released, his bodyguard was shot, leading to retaliatory fighting. In the lead-up to the Afshar Operation, Alem was reported to have been present at both the major meeting with Ahmad Shah Massoud as well as the meeting with Sayyaf the following day, in which the operation was planned. At that time some of his subcommanders included Commander Naqibuddin in Qala-i Qazi and Commander Hafiz in Shakar Dara.
In November 2001, Shir led a failed Northern Alliance attack against a Taliban stronghold in Maidan Shar, Wardak Province. After the fall of the Tailban, he became the commander of the First army Corps until early 2005.
Currently, Shir has been listed as one of the most powerful commanders in Paghman district in Kabul province, where he has control over all the checkpoints. In mid-2005 he was a parliamentary candidate.
In 2005, Alam turned over hundreds of mt of arms to the government including RPGs and other weapons.On June 29, 2005, Alam was appointed as the Governor of Ghazni province. As with many politicians with roots in the country's violent past, Alam is a source of controversy. His campaigners were accused of threats and intimidation during the 2005 Afghan election and in 2006 he was one of a number of Sayyaf's allies to be accused of appropriating land near Kabul.In September 2006, hundreds of residents of Paghman District in Kabul Province accused him and his commanders of stealing land and protested for the government to intervene. The protesters were joined by some commanders, including Commander Abdul Ghafar. Alam denied the charges.
Alam has also been associated with Tanzim-e-Dawat-e-Islami. In 2006, he survived a Taliban attack on his life.Sunan Gunungjati
Sunan Gunungjati (1448 – 19 September 1568) was one of the Wali Songo, or nine saints of Islam revered in Indonesia. He founded the Sultanate of Banten, as well as the Sultanate of Cirebon on the north coast of Java. He was born Syarif Hidayatullah (Arabic: شريف هداية الله Sharīf Hidāyah Allāh in 1448 CE: the child of a dynastic union between Syarif Abdullah Maulana Huda, an Egyptian of Hashemite descent, and Nyai Rara Santang, daughter of the Prabu Siliwangi, King of Sunda ( Pajajaran ). As such, Syarif Hidayatullah could claim descent, on his paternal side, from the Islamic prophet Muhammad, through his daughter, Fatima; and on his mother's side, a Hindu Devaraja of Sunda.
There is much historical uncertainty as to his early life and later career in the Indonesian Archipelago. Some say that he was born in Pasai, one of the earliest centres of Islam in Southeast Asia; whilst others say that he was born in Pajajaran, capital of his maternal grandfather's Kingdom of Sunda. He is reported to have married a sister of Trenggono, Sultan of Demak, and to have led military expeditions for Demark against Sunda. As Fatahillah - so the story goes - he defeated the Portuguese at their base in Sunda Kelapa, and renamed it Jayakarta in 1527. To this day, his victory over the Portuguese is commemorated as the official anniversary of the founding of Jakarta. The many conflicting stories about Sunan Gunungjati led some scholars to conclude that he might be a conflation of more than one historical figure.Tabligh Akbar
Tabligh Akbar is a large-scale Qur'anic recitation event or mass religious meeting held throughout the Indonesian archipelago. The event often accompanies khutbah (sermon), preaching, and dawah (proselytizing). The scale of Tabligh Akbar can vary, from the local level which fits within the local mosques, to the national level which rallies thousands of participants. Tabligh Akbar of the latter kind often disseminate their information widely throughout the social media and performed in a national level mosques or stadiums.Tablighi Jamaat
Tablighi Jamaat (Tablīghī Jamā‘at; lit. Society for spreading faith) is a non-political global Sunni Islamic missionary movement that focuses on urging Muslims to return to primary Sunni Islam, and particularly in matters of ritual, dress, and personal behavior.
The organisation is estimated to have between 12 million and 150 million adherents), and a presence in somewhere between 150 and 200 countries. It has been called "one of the most influential religious movements in 20th century Islam".The movement was founded in 1927 by Muhammad Ilyas al-Kandhlawi in India which is in accordance to the teachings and practices that take place in The Prophet's Mosque and Ashabus Suffah.
Its stated primary aim is spiritual reformation of Islam by reaching out to Muslims across social and economic spectra and working at the grassroots level, to bring them in line with the group's understanding of Islam.
The teachings of Tabligh Jamaat are expressed in "Six Principles" (Kalimah, Salat, Ilm-o-zikr, Ikraam-e-Muslim, Ikhlas-e-Niyyat, Dawat-o-Tableegh). Tablighi Jamaat believes that Muslims are in a constant state of spiritual Jihad in the sense of fight against evil, the weapon of choice is Dawah (proselytization) and that battles are won or lost in the "hearts of people."
Tablighi Jamaat began as an offshoot of the Deobandi movement, and a response to perceived deteriorating moral values and a supposed negligence of aspects of Islam. It expanded from a local to a national to an international movement.
Tablighi Jamaat denies any affiliation in politics and fiqh (jurisprudence), focusing instead on the Quran and Hadith, and states that it rejects violence as a means for evangelism,
(although some have complained that adherents have become involved in politics in Pakistan).
Tablighi Jamaat has claimed to avoid electronic media and in favor of personal communication for proselytising, although prominent Tablighi personalities such as Tariq Jameel are featured on an extensive range of Internet videos and often appear on TV.
Tablighi Jamaat attracted significant public and media attention when it announced plans for the largest mosque in Europe to be built in London, United Kingdom.Tausiyah
Tausiyah or tausiah is a term used among the Muslim community in Indonesia, referring to the broadcast of dawah (proselytizing) which is conducted informally. Tausiyah is distinguished from regular khutbah (sermon) which has more serious tone, or Tabligh Akbar which can be attended by thousands of participants.
In practice, tausiyah also refers to the promotion of patience in life, stemming from the Islamic teaching in the Qur'an Surah Al-Asr verse 3: Except those who have faith and do righteous deeds, and enjoin one another to [follow] the truth, and enjoin one another to patience.Yusuf Najmuddin ibn Sulaiman
Syedna Yusuf Najmuddin bin Sulaiman (death: June 23, 1567 CE or 16 Dhu al-Hijjah 974 AH, Taiba, Yemen) was the 24th Da'i al-Mutlaq (Absolute Missionary) of the Taiyabi Ismailis. He succeeded Mohammad Ezzuddin to the religious post.
Yusuf Najmuddin's native city was Sidhpur, Gujarat, India. He was one of many bright students who went to Yemen, to study Islamic education. The 23rd Da'i, Muhammad Izzudin, personally began to educate him. In 942 AH, Muhammad Izzudin gave his nass to Yusuf Najmuddin when he was in Sidhpur. For five years he stayed at Sidhpur, built a mosque and 24 shops for the community to establish. After this, he decided to travel to Yemen, where enemies had captured many fortresses belonging to the Dawah. He recaptured most of the forts, and the dignity and glory of the Dawat returned to Yemen. Syedna Yusuf Najmuddin appointed Jalal Shamsuddin in Ahmedabad as Wali al-Hind: leader of the dawah in India.
His tenure of da'i was for 28 years 9 months and 23 days. His grave is located at Taiba in Yemen.Syedna Yusuf Najmuddin gave nass or succession to Jalal Shamsuddin of Ahmedabad as his successor, the 25th Da'i.