David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville

David John Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville, FRS, HonFREng[2] (born 24 October 1940) is an English politician, businessman and philanthropist. From 1992 to 1997, he served as the Chair of Sainsbury's, the supermarket chain established by his great-grandfather John James Sainsbury in 1869.

He was made a life peer in 1997 as a member of the Labour Party, and is on a leave of absence from the House of Lords since 15 July 2013.[3] He served in the government as the Minister for Science and Innovation from 1998 and 2006.

He is a major donor to the University of Cambridge and in 2011 was elected Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.[4]


The Lord Sainsbury of Turville

Lord Sainsbury launching his new book 'Progressive Capitalism' at Policy Exchange
David Sainsbury in 2013
Chancellor of the University of Cambridge
Assumed office
16 October 2011
Preceded byPrince Philip
Parliamentary Undersecretary of State for Science & Innovation
In office
27 July 1998 – 10 November 2007
Prime MinisterTony Blair
Preceded byJohn Battle
Succeeded byMalcolm Wicks
Member of the House of Lords
Assumed office
3 October 1997
currently on Leave of Absence (since 2013)
Nominated byTony Blair
Appointed byElizabeth II
Personal details
Born
David John Sainsbury

24 October 1940 (age 78)
Political partyLabour
RelationsAlan Sainsbury (uncle)
ParentsRobert Sainsbury (father)
Lisa van den Bergh (mother)
Alma materColumbia Business School (MBA)
University of Cambridge (BA)
OccupationPolitician
ProfessionBusinessman, philanthropist

Early and private life

Etoncollege
Eton College

He is the son of Sir Robert Sainsbury and Lisa van den Bergh. His elder sister was Elizabeth (married name Clark, 19 July 1938 – 14 August 1977) and his younger sisters are Celia and Annabel. He is the nephew of Lord Sainsbury. His cousins are the Conservative peer Lord Sainsbury of Preston Candover, Simon Sainsbury, and former Tory MP Sir Tim Sainsbury. His great-grandparents, John James Sainsbury and Mary Ann Staples, established a grocer's at 173 Drury Lane in 1869 which became the British supermarket chain Sainsbury's.

He attended Eton College before going on to the University of Cambridge, where he earned a degree in History and Psychology at King's College. He then completed an MBA at Columbia Business School in the United States.

He and his wife, Susan Carol "Susie" (née Reid) a former teacher, have three daughters. Lady Sainsbury is a Trustee of the Royal Academy of Music. [5]

The family lives in the Manor of Turville in Turville, Buckinghamshire. The Manor once belonged to the abbey at St Albans, but was seized by the Crown in the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1547. The manor house has since been rebuilt as Turville Park, a fine stately home in the village.

He was also appointed as a Honorary Fellow[2] of the Royal Academy of Engineering[2] in 1994.

He was made a life peer as Baron Sainsbury of Turville in the County of Buckinghamshire in 1997, following the Labour Party's election victory.

In 2007, he was awarded an honorary degree in science by University College London and in 2008 an honorary degree in science by the University of Bath.

In 2007, Lord Sainsbury also received an Honorary Doctorate from Heriot-Watt University.[6]

Business career

David Sainsbury joined the family firm, then known as 'J. Sainsbury Ltd.', in 1963, working in the personnel department. He became a director in 1966. He was Financial Controller from 1971 to 1973, just before the company's flotation.

When the company listed on the London Stock Exchange on 12 July 1973, at the time the largest flotation ever, his family retained control with an 85% stake. His father, Sir Robert Sainsbury, gave almost his entire stake in the company to David Sainsbury, his only son, whereas his uncle Alan Sainsbury split his stake in the business between his sons John Davan Sainsbury, Simon Sainsbury and Tim Sainsbury. John Davan Sainsbury became chairman in 1969 on Sir Robert Sainsbury's retirement.

He was the group's Finance Director from 1973 to 1990, during which time the company grew rapidly. He was Chair of Savacentre from 1984 to 1993, during which time the hypermarkets business grew slowly. He was deputy chairman from 1988 to 1992. On JD Sainsbury's retirement as chairman and chief executive on 2 November 1992, David Sainsbury became chairman.

In 1996, Sainsbury's announced its first drop in profits in 22 years, and the first of three profits warnings during his chairmanship was issued. Although there were senior management changes, which included David relinquishing the chief executive's role to Dino Adriano and becoming non-executive chairman, there were no new directors or outsiders appointed to the senior management team. Profits fell the next year, but rose in 1998. At this point, David Sainsbury, who had wanted to step down at the end of 1997, made a surprise announcement of his retirement as chairman to pursue his long-held ambition to have a career in politics, after "32 enjoyable and fulfilling years" working for Sainsbury's. Sainsbury's share price increased on the day of this announcement.

On his retirement as chairman, to avoid any conflict of interest, David Sainsbury placed his then 23% stake in Sainsbury's into a "blind" trust, to be administered by lawyer Judith Portrait. When David Sainsbury announced his intention to give away £1 billion to charity in 2005, his 23% stake was sold down, eventually to 12.9% by early 2007. His beneficial holding became just 7.75% when he regained control of his shares in February 2007 following his decision to step down as Science and Innovation Minister in November 2006. During the private equity takeover bid in the first half of 2007, David indicated he was willing to let the Sainsbury's board open its books for due diligence if someone offered him a price of 600 pence per share or more.

David Sainsbury retains a sizeable shareholding in his family's supermarket chain (around 5.85%).[7] To further his philanthropy interests, he placed 92million of his shares (representing 5.28% of the Company's share capital), into his investment vehicle, Innotech Advisers Ltd (which donates all its dividends to charity), meaning his beneficial stake is just 0.57% (lower than JD's 1.6% beneficial interest). The Sainsbury family as a whole control approximately 15% of Sainsbury's. In the Sunday Times Rich List 2008 his family fortune was estimated at £1.3 billion.

Political career

David Sainsbury joined the Labour Party in the 1960s, but was one of the 100 signatories of the 'Limehouse Declaration' in an advertisement in The Guardian on 5 February 1981;[8] he went on to be a member of the Social Democratic Party formed by the authors of the Declaration. After the 1983 election Sainsbury prompted the party to give more priority to recruiting members and finding a firm financial base; he was by far the biggest donor to the party, and a trustee,[9] giving about £750,000 between 1981 and 1987. Sainsbury's donations were typically earmarked to specific projects rather than general day-to-day operations.[10]

Along with David Owen, Sainsbury opposed merging the SDP with the Liberal Party after the 1987 election, and provided office space for Owen to help him re-establish a separate political party, the "continuing" SDP, which was created in 1988.[11]

That party was wound up in 1990, and Sainsbury changed allegiance back to the Labour Party, rejoining them in 1996. A year later, he entered the House of Lords as a Labour peer, being created Baron Sainsbury of Turville, of Turville in the County of Buckinghamshire on 3 October 1997.[12]

Between 1996, the year he rejoined Labour, and 2006, when he stood down as a government minister, Sainsbury donated £16 million to the Labour Party, usually in batches of £1 million or £2 million each year.[13] He donated a further £2 million on 7 September 2007, stating that he was impressed by Gordon Brown's leadership and believed "that Labour is the only party which is committed to delivering both social justice and economic prosperity".[14] He gave another £500,000 on 15 December 2008,[15] making a total of £18.5 million. Sainsbury is associated with the Labour Friends of Israel.[16]

It was reported in April 2006 that Sainsbury, "faced a possible probe into an alleged breach of the ministerial code after admitting he had failed to disclose a £2 million loan he had made to the Labour Party – despite publicly stating that he had." He subsequently apologised for "unintentionally" misleading the public, blaming a mix-up between the £2 million loan and a £2 million donation he had made earlier.[17][18][19]

In July 2006, he became the first government minister to be questioned by police in the "Cash for Peerages" inquiry.[17][20] On 10 November 2006, he resigned as Science Minister, stating that he wanted to focus on business and charity work.[21] He categorically denied that his resignation had anything to do with the "Cash for Peerages" affair, stating that he was "not directly involved in whether peerages were offered for cash",[22] although this was contradicted by subsequent press reports attributed to "Labour insiders" which suggested that his resignation was indeed a direct consequence of the affair.[23]

From July 1998 to November 2006, he held the post of Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the Department of Trade and Industry, as the Minister for Science and Innovation in the House of Lords, a government position for which he accepted no salary.

Because of his importance to the Labour Party as a donor, contemporary press reports described him as "unsackable."[24] He has argued that there are "far too many reshuffles", and that there were considerable benefits to his remaining in post for so long.[25]

David Sainsbury has also been associated with the Institute for Public Policy Research and Progress. Between 2001 and 2011 he provided £2 million of funding for Progress.[26] In 2009, he created the Institute for Government with £15 million of funding through the Gatsby Charitable Foundation to help government and opposition politicians to prepare for political transitions and government.[24][27] Sainsbury donated £390,000 to Progress and the Movement for Change between December 2011 and April 2013, while he was not on a UK electoral register, which is contrary to electoral law, leading to Progress and the Movement for Change being fined by the Electoral Commission.[28][29]

Sainsbury funded the "Remain" side of the 2016 European Union membership referendum campaign,[30] giving £2,150,000 to the Labour and £2,125,000 to the Liberal Democrats "Remain" campaigns.[31]

After the 2017 general election Sainsbury announced he will no longer provide financial backing to party political causes, but will donate to charitable causes. During 2016 he had donated £260,000 to Progress in addition to backing "Remain" organisations.[32]

Charitable works

David Sainsbury founded the Gatsby Charitable Foundation in 1967.[33][34] In 1993, he donated £200 million of Sainsbury's shares to the Foundation's assets.[35] By 2009 the foundation had given £660 million to a range of charitable causes.[36] In 2009, he allocated a further £465 million to the foundation, making him the first Briton to donate more than £1 billion to charity.[36]

He set up the Sainsbury Management Fellowship scheme in 1987 to develop UK engineers into leaders in industry. He was also made an honorary fellow of the Royal Society in 2008.[37]

Sainsbury has donated £127 million of the Gatsby Charitable Foundation's money to Cambridge University in the last decade: he gave £45 million to the Cambridge University Botanic Garden in 2005.[38] In 2011, Cambridge's Sainsbury Laboratory opened, paid for by an £82 million donation from the Gatsby Foundation made in 2008. It was hailed by the Financial Times as "one of the biggest donations ever made to a British university...surpassed only by a 2000 gift to the university by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation."[39]

In 2013, together with his wife Susie, joined the Giving Pledge, the group started by Warren Buffett and Bill and Melinda Gates, pledging to donate half his fortune to charitable trusts during his lifetime.[40]

Chancellor of the University of Cambridge

In 2011, Lord Sainsbury was formally proposed by the Nominations Board of Cambridge University to succeed the Duke of Edinburgh as Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.[41] If his election had not been contested by 17 June, he would have assumed office on 1 July.[41] However, his nomination became the first in 163 years to be contested by another candidate when, on 29 May, local shopkeeper Abdul Arain, standing against Sainsbury in protest at a planning application for a Sainsbury's Local branch in Cambridge's Mill Road district, triggered a contest that would have to wait until an October ballot.[42] Four days later, a group of Cambridge University alumni successfully drafted actor Brian Blessed as an alternative candidate.[43][44] On 20 June, socialist barrister Michael Mansfield became the third candidate to oppose Sainsbury. An election took place on 14 and 15 October 2011[45] which Lord Sainsbury won with 52% of the votes (2893 votes out of 5558) on a 2.5% turnout and he was confirmed to the position on 16 October 2011.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Lord Sainsbury and family". Sunday Times Rich List 2008. London: The Sunday Times. 27 April 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
  2. ^ a b c "List of Fellows".
  3. ^ "Lord Sainsbury of Turville". UK Parliament. Retrieved 2016-08-27.
  4. ^ a b "Sainsbury wins Chancellor election". Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  5. ^ "Governing Body". Royal Academy of Music.
  6. ^ "Annual Review 2007 : Principal's Review". www1.hw.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  7. ^ J Sainsbury plc major shareholders Archived 29 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Ivor Crewe, Anthony King, "SDP: The Birth, Life and Death of the Social Democratic Party", Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 94.
  9. ^ Jenkins, Roy. A Life at the Centre. Politico's. p. 599. ISBN 978-1-84275-177-0. David Sainsbury, a trustee and major benefactor of the SDP, as well as a dedictated Owenite
  10. ^ Ivor Crewe, Anthony King, "SDP: The Birth, Life and Death of the Social Democratic Party", Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 249, 251.
  11. ^ Ivor Crewe, Anthony King, "SDP: The Birth, Life and Death of the Social Democratic Party", Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 422.
  12. ^ "No. 54914". The London Gazette. 8 October 1997. p. 11339.
  13. ^ "Cash for honours: What am I bid? £10,000? £1m? A loan, no questions asked?". The Independent. London. 12 March 2006.
  14. ^ "Lord Sainsbury gives Labour £2m". BBC News. 7 September 2007.
  15. ^ "Billionaire Lord Sainsbury hands Labour £500,000 general election boost". Daily Mail. London. 15 December 2008.
  16. ^ Pierce, Andrew (18 November 1997). "Blair's chance to raise cash for Pounds 1m refund". The Times. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  17. ^ a b "Government ministers quizzed in cash-for-honours probe". Daily Mail. London. 14 July 2006.
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ Mulholland, Hélène (19 April 2006). "Falconer defends Sainsbury's loans". The Guardian. London.
  20. ^ Ministers quizzed in donor probe. BBC News (14 July 2006) (accessed 19 January 2009)
  21. ^ "Lord Sainsbury quits as minister". 10 November 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2018 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  22. ^ "Lord Sainsbury insists 'cash for honours' not behind his resignation". Daily Mail. London. 10 November 2006.
  23. ^ Wilson, Graeme (11 November 2006). "Sainsbury quits 'in anger at loans affair'". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  24. ^ a b
  25. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 July 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ Kayte Rath (15 June 2012). "New Labour group Progress rejects GMB union 'outlaw' threat". BBC. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 October 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ "Sainsbury-backed Labour groups fined by Electoral Commission". BBC. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  29. ^ "Electoral Commission fines Progress Ltd and Movement for Change - failure to return impermissible donations". Electoral Commission. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  30. ^ Gordon, Sarah (February 23, 2016). "The public wants to know where companies stand on Brexit". Financial Times. Retrieved February 25, 2016. Sainsbury is unusually sensitive on the issue because of the close involvement of one of its shareholders, David Sainsbury, in funding the Remain campaign.
  31. ^ "Lord Sainsbury gives to Labour and Lib Dems". BBC News. 25 August 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  32. ^ Stewart, Heather (23 June 2017). "UK's biggest political donor, Lord Sainsbury, to end his contributions". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  33. ^ "Homepage". The Gatsby Charitable Foundation. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
  34. ^ Cookson, Clive. "The billion-pound philanthropist". The Financial Times. Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved 29 June 2011.
  35. ^ "Profile: Lord Sainsbury". 10 November 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2018 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  36. ^ a b Butterworth, Myra (19 April 2009). "Lord Sainsbury becomes first Briton to donate more than £1 billion to charity". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
  37. ^ "- Royal Society". royalsociety.org. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  38. ^ [www.formoda.co.uk], Formoda. "The Queen opens new plant science laboratory at Cambridge - Plant Science". www.plantsci.org.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  39. ^ "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  40. ^ "The Giving Pledge List". Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  41. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  42. ^ "Mill Road shopkeeper to take on Lord Sainsbury for Chancellorship". Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  43. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  44. ^ "Brian Blessed bids to be Cambridge chancellor". BBC News. 3 June 2011.
  45. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

External links

Academic offices
Preceded by
HRH The Duke of Edinburgh
Chancellor of the University of Cambridge
2011 – present
Incumbent
2006-2007 Life Peerages scandal

The 2006-2007 Life Peerages scandal (also known as Cash for Honours, Cash for Peerages, Loans for Lordships, Loans for Honours or Loans for Peerages) was a political scandal in the United Kingdom in 2006 and 2007 concerning the connection between political donations and the award of life peerages. A loophole in electoral law in the United Kingdom means that although anyone donating even small sums of money to a political party has to declare this as a matter of public record, those loaning money at commercial rates of interest did not have to make a public declaration.

In March 2006, several men nominated for life peerages by then Prime Minister Tony Blair were rejected by the House of Lords Appointments Commission. It was later revealed they had loaned large amounts of money to the governing Labour Party, at the suggestion of Labour fundraiser Lord Levy. Suspicion was aroused by some that the peerages were a quid pro quo for the loans. This resulted in three complaints to the Metropolitan Police by Scottish National Party MP Angus MacNeil, Plaid Cymru parliamentary leader Elfyn Llwyd, and a third individual who continues to remain unidentified, as a breach of the law against selling honours. The investigation was headed by Assistant Commissioner John Yates who later resigned over the News of the World phone hacking scandal. During the investigation various members of the Labour Party (including Tony Blair), the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats were questioned, and Labour's Lord Levy was arrested and later released on bail. The investigation continued to have political impact throughout, as a range of stories continued to leak from the police investigation and damaged the government and Labour Party.Following the unveiling of the scandal the Labour Party had to repay the loans and was said to be in financial difficulty. The police investigation was long and involved. It expanded to encompass potential charges of perverting the course of justice, apparently relating to suspected attempts to present evidence to the police in a particular way. At one point the Attorney General, Lord Goldsmith, obtained an injunction against the BBC, preventing them from reporting a story they claimed was in the public interest while he argued that the story was sub judice. This raised the possibility of a conflict of interest, the Attorney General being a political appointee. Tony Blair was interviewed three times as Prime Minister, though only as a witness and not under caution.

After a long review of the police file, it was reported on 20 July 2007 that the Crown Prosecution Service would not bring any charges against any of the individuals involved. Their decision stated that while peerages may have been given in exchange for loans, it could not find direct evidence that that had been agreed in advance; this would have been required for a successful prosecution. Notwithstanding the lack of any charges, some considered that the investigation had severely undermined Tony Blair's position, and possibly hastened his resignation as Prime Minister.

2011 University of Cambridge Chancellor election

The University of Cambridge Chancellor election, 2011 refers to a rare instance of a contested election for this position of Chancellor that occurred in October 2011, resulting in the choice of Lord Sainsbury of Turville to succeed the retiring incumbent Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. The Duke had retired on 30 June 2011, shortly after his 90th birthday, having been Chancellor since December 1976. Three other candidates were nominated to oppose the candidate proposed by the university's Nomination Board; the post was won by Lord Sainsbury with 52% of the vote, with a simple majority required to avoid a runoff. Contesting the post were actor Brian Blessed, who finished second with 25% of the votes cast, barrister Michael Mansfield, QC with 17%, and local grocery-owner Abdul Arain with 6%. The election was the first time the Chancellorship had been contested since 1950, and the first actively fought contest since 1847. Although the election was conducted by the single transferable vote system, no transfers of votes were needed as Sainsbury secured a majority of first preference votes.

Baron Sainsbury

Baron Sainsbury was created in 1962 for Alan Sainsburyin the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

There have been two other peers with the surname "Sainsbury" who included their surname as part of their titles; all are from the Sainsbury family, namesake of the supermarket chain Sainsbury's.

The three Sainsburys, in order of when they received their title, are: Alan Sainsbury, John Davan Sainsbury and David Sainsbury. The original Sainsbury's Supermarkets founder, John James Sainsbury, never officially received or held any Queen's honours.

The three peers are:

Alan Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury, of Drury Lane in the Borough of Holborn (1902–1998) — John James's grandson (Labour)

John Davan "JD" Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Preston Candover, of Preston Candover in the County of Hampshire (b. 1927) — Alan's eldest son (Conservative)

David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville, of Turville in the County of Buckinghamshire (b. 1940) — only son of Alan's only brother Robert (Labour)

Cambridge Antibody Technology

Cambridge Antibody Technology (officially Cambridge Antibody Technology Group Plc, informally CAT) was a biotechnology company headquartered in Cambridge, England, United Kingdom. Its core focus was on antibody therapeutics, primarily using phage display and ribosome display technology.

Technology developed by CAT was used to create adalimumab, the first fully human antibody blockbuster drug. Humira, the brand name of adalimumab, is an anti-TNF antibody discovered by CAT as D2E7, then developed in the clinic and marketed by Abbott Laboratories. The company was also behind belimumab, the anti-BlyS antibody drug marketed as Benlysta and the first new approved drug for systemic lupus in more than 50 years.Founded in 1989, CAT was acquired by AstraZeneca for £702m in 2006. AstraZeneca subsequently acquired MedImmune LLC, which it combined with CAT to form a global biologics division called MedImmune. CAT was often described as the 'jewel in the crown' of the British biotechnology industry and during the latter years of its existence was the subject of frequent acquisition speculation.

Fellow of the Royal Society

Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a 'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'.

Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour which has been awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton (1672), Charles Darwin (1839), Michael Faraday (1824), Ernest Rutherford (1903), Srinivasa Ramanujan (1918), Albert Einstein (1921), Winston Churchill (1941), Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1944), Dorothy Hodgkin (1947), Alan Turing (1951) and Francis Crick (1959). More recently, fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking (1974), Tim Hunt (1991), Elizabeth Blackburn (1992), Tim Berners-Lee (2001), Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (2003), Atta-ur Rahman (2006), Andre Geim (2007), James Dyson (2015), Ajay Kumar Sood (2015), Subhash Khot (2017), Elon Musk (2018) and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900. As of October 2018, there are approximately 1689 living Fellows, Foreign and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year.

Jan Löwe

Jan Löwe (born 14 July 1967) is a German molecular and structural biologist who works at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB) in Cambridge, UK. Löwe became Director of the MRC-LMB in April 2018 taking over from Hugh Pelham. Löwe is known for his contributions to the current understanding of bacterial cytoskeletons.

Jumby Bay

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King's College, Cambridge

King's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. Formally The King's College of Our Lady and Saint Nicholas in Cambridge, the college lies beside the River Cam and faces out onto King's Parade in the centre of the city.

King's was founded in 1441 by Henry VI, soon after he had founded its sister college in Eton. However, the King's plans for the college were disrupted by the Wars of the Roses and resultant scarcity of funds, and his eventual deposition. Little progress was made on the project until in 1508 Henry VII began to take an interest in the college, most likely as a political move to legitimise his new position. The building of the college's chapel, begun in 1446, was finally finished in 1544 during the reign of Henry VIII.

King's College Chapel, Cambridge is regarded as one of the greatest examples of late Gothic English architecture. It has the world's largest fan vault, and the chapel's stained-glass windows and wooden chancel screen are considered some of the finest from their era. The building is seen as emblematic of Cambridge. The chapel's choir, composed of male students at King's and choristers from the nearby King's College School, is one of the most accomplished and renowned in the world. Every year on Christmas Eve the Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols (a service devised specifically for King's by college dean Eric Milner-White) is broadcast from the chapel to millions of listeners worldwide.

List of British Jewish politicians

List of British Jewish politicians This list is Jewish people by birth but not necessarily Jewish people by religious belief and declaration, a list that includes people of Jewish descent who served as politicians in the United Kingdom and its predecessor states or who were born in the United Kingdom and had notable political careers abroad.

List of Columbia University alumni and attendees

This is a partial list of notable persons who have had ties to Columbia University. For further listings of notable Columbians see notable alumni at:

Columbia College of Columbia University

Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science

Columbia University School of General Studies

Barnard College of Columbia University

Columbia Law School

Columbia Business School

Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism

Columbia Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

Columbia University Graduate School of Education (Teachers College)

Columbia Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

Columbia University School of the Arts

School of International and Public Affairs

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2008

Fellows, Foreign Members and Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2008.

List of Honorary Fellows of King's College, Cambridge

This is a list of Honorary Fellows of King's College, Cambridge.

Neal Ascherson

John Barrell

George Benjamin

Sir Adrian Cadbury

Anthony Clarke, Baron Clarke of Stone-cum-Ebony

Caroline Elam

John Ellis

E. M. Forster

Sir John Eliot Gardiner

Sir Nicholas Goodison

John Habgood, Baron Habgood

Hermann Hauser

Eric Hobsbawm

Lisa Jardine

Mervyn King, Baron King of Lothbury

Sir Geoffrey Lloyd

Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis

Karl Pearson

Nicholas Phillips, Baron Phillips of Worth Matravers

Sir Edward Playfair

Atta ur Rahman

C. R. Rao

Martin Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow

David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville

Alic Halford Smith

Robert Tear

Leslie Valiant

Herman Waldmann

Judith Weir

Sir David Willcocks

List of barons in the peerages of Britain and Ireland

This is a list of the 1187 present and extant Barons (Lords of Parliament, in Scottish terms) in the Peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. Note that it does not include those extant baronies which have become merged (either through marriage or elevation) with higher peerage dignities and are today only seen as subsidiary titles. For a more complete list, which adds these "hidden" baronies as well as extinct, dormant, abeyant, and forfeit ones, see List of Baronies.

This page includes all life barons, including the Law Lords created under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876. However hereditary peers with the rank of viscount or higher holding also a life peerage are not included.

List of political families in the United Kingdom

During its history, the United Kingdom (and previously the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland and Kingdom of Ireland) has seen many families who have repeatedly produced notable politicians, and consequently such families have had a significant impact on politics in the British Isles.

Certain families, such as the Cecils, owe their long-standing political influence to the composition and role of the House of Lords, which was still mainly composed of hereditary legislators until the passing of the House of Lords Act 1999. Other families, such as the Longs, have had a long tradition of standing for elected office, usually in the House of Commons. Many such families were part of the landed gentry, who often exerted political control in a certain locality over many generations.

October 24

October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 68 days remaining until the end of the year.

President's Medal (Royal Academy of Engineering)

The President's Medal, also known as the Royal Academy of Engineering President's Medal, is an award given by the President of the Royal Academy of Engineering. It was first given in 1987.

Robert Sainsbury

Sir Robert James Sainsbury (24 October 1906 – 2 April 2000), was the son of John Benjamin Sainsbury (the eldest son of Sainsbury's supermarkets founder John James Sainsbury), and along with his wife Lisa began the collection of modern and tribal art housed at the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts in Norwich.

Sainsbury family

The Sainsbury family (also Lord Sainsbury and family and incorrectly the Sainsbury's family) founded Sainsbury's, the UK's second-largest supermarket chain. Today, the family has many interests, including business, politics, philanthropy, arts, and sciences.

University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (legally The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge) is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university. The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two 'ancient universities' share many common features and are often referred to jointly as 'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world. The university also operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden. Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library.

In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”. The university is closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as 'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the 'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.

As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, and 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects. The university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, scientists, politicians, lawyers, philosophers, writers, actors and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, alumni, faculty or research staff.

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