David II of Scotland

David II (5 March 1324 – 22 February 1371) was King of Scots for over 41 years, from 1329 until his death in 1371. He was the last male of the House of Bruce. Although David spent long periods in exile or captivity, he managed to resist English attempts to annex his kingdom, and left the monarchy in a strong position.

David II
Scotland penny 802002 (obverse)
A coin depicting David
King of Scots
Reign7 June 1329 – 22 February 1371
Coronation24 November 1331
PredecessorRobert I
SuccessorRobert II
Born5 March 1324
Dunfermline Abbey, Fife
Died22 February 1371 (aged 46)
Edinburgh Castle
SpouseJoan of England
Margaret Drummond
FatherRobert I of Scotland
MotherElizabeth de Burgh

Early life

David II was the elder and only surviving son of Robert I of Scotland and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. He was born on 5 March 1324 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife. His mother died in 1327, when he was 3 years old.[1] In accordance with the Treaty of Northampton's terms,[2] on 17 July 1328, when he was 4, David was married to 7 year old Joan of the Tower, at Berwick-upon-Tweed. She was the daughter of Edward II of England and Isabella of France. They had no issue.[1]


David became King of Scots upon the death of his father on 7 June 1329, aged 5 years, 3 months, and 3 days. David and his wife were crowned at Scone on 24 November 1331.[3]

During David's minority, Sir Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray was appointed Guardian of Scotland by the Act of Settlement of 1318. After Moray's death, on 20 July 1332, he was replaced by Donald, Earl of Mar, elected by an assembly of the magnates of Scotland at Perth, 2 August 1332. Only ten days later Mar fell at the Battle of Dupplin Moor. Sir Andrew Murray of Bothwell, who was married to Christian (or Christina), the sister of King Robert I, was chosen as the new Guardian. He was taken prisoner by the English at Roxburgh in April 1333 and was thence replaced as Guardian by Archibald Douglas (the Tyneman), who fell at Halidon Hill that July.[4]

Meanwhile, on 24 September 1332, following the Scots' defeat at Dupplin, Edward Balliol, a protégé of Edward III of England, and a pretender to the throne of Scotland, was crowned by the English and his Scots adherents. By December, however, Balliol was forced to flee to England, although he returned the following year as part of an invasion force led by the English king.[5]

Exile in France

Filip6 David2 Joan of the Tower
Joan & David II with Philip VI of France

Following the English victory at the Battle of Halidon Hill in July 1333, David and his wife were sent for safety into France, reaching Boulogne on 14 May 1334.[6] They were received very graciously by King Philip VI. Little is known about the life of the Scottish king in France, except that Château Gaillard was given to him for a residence, and that he was present at the bloodless meeting of the English and French armies in October 1339 at Vironfosse,[2] now known as Buironfosse, in the Arrondissement of Vervins.

By 1341, David's representatives had once again obtained the upper hand in Scotland. David was able to return to his kingdom, landing at Inverbervie in Kincardineshire on 2 June 1341. He took the reins of government into his own hands, at the age of 17.[2]

Captivity in England

David Bruce, king of Scotland, acknowledges Edward III as his feudal lord
David II, king of Scotland, acknowledges Edward III, king of England, as his feudal lord.

In 1346, under the terms of the Auld Alliance, David invaded England in the interests of the French, who were at war with the English in Normandy. After initial success at Hexham, David was wounded, and his army soundly defeated at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346.[7] David was captured and taken prisoner by Sir John de Coupland, who imprisoned him in the Tower of London. David was transferred to Windsor Castle in Berkshire upon the return of Edward III from France. The depiction of David being presented to King Edward III in the play The Reign of King Edward the Third is fictitious.[8] David and his household were later moved to Odiham Castle in Hampshire. His imprisonment was not reputed to be a rigorous one, although he remained captive in England for eleven years.[2]

On 3 October 1357, after several protracted negotiations with the Scots' regency council, a treaty was signed at Berwick-upon-Tweed under which Scotland's nobility agreed to pay 100,000 marks, at the rate of 10,000 marks per year, as a ransom for their king. This was ratified by the Scottish Parliament at Scone on 6 November 1357.

Return to Scotland

David II, King of Scotland and Edward III, King of England (British Library MS Cotton Nero D VI, folio 66v)
David II (left) and Edward III (right)

David returned at once to Scotland. After six years, owing to the poverty of the kingdom, it was found impossible to raise the ransom installment of 1363. David then made for London and sought to get rid of the liability by offering to bequeath Scotland to Edward III, or one of his sons, in return for a cancellation of the ransom. David did this with the full awareness that the Scots would never accept such an arrangement. In 1364, the Scottish parliament indignantly rejected a proposal to make Lionel, Duke of Clarence, the next king. Over the next few years, David strung out secret negotiations with Edward III,[2] which apparently appeased the matter.

His wife, Queen Joan, died 7 September 1362 (aged 41) at Hertford Castle, Hertfordshire, most likely a victim of the Black Death. He remarried, about 20 February 1364, Margaret Drummond, widow of Sir John Logie, and daughter of Sir Malcolm Drummond. He divorced her about 20 March 1370. They had no children.[1][9] Margaret, however, travelled to Avignon, and made a successful appeal to the Pope Urban V to reverse the sentence of divorce which had been pronounced against her in Scotland. She was still alive in January 1375, four years after David died.[10]

From 1364, David governed with vigour, dealing firmly with recalcitrant nobles, and a wider baronial revolt. David continued to pursue the goal of a final peace with England. At the time of his death, the Scottish monarchy was stronger, and the kingdom and the royal finances more prosperous than might have seemed possible.


David II died unexpectedly, and at the height of his power, in Edinburgh Castle on 22 February 1371. He was buried in Holyrood Abbey.[1][9] The funeral was overseen by Abbot Thomas.[11]

At the time of his death, he was planning to marry his mistress, Agnes Dunbar, the niece of Agnes Randolph, who was known as "Black Agnes of Dunbar". He left no children and was succeeded by his nephew, Robert II, the son of David's half-sister Marjorie Bruce.[2] He was the last male of the House of Bruce.

Fictional portrayals

David II has been depicted in historical novels. They include[12]

David II also appears as a character in the Elizabethan play Edward III.


  1. ^ a b c d Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2004, p. 23, ISBN 0-8063-1750-7
  2. ^ a b c d e f  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "David II. (king of Scotland)" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 860. Endnotes:
    • Andrew of Wyntoun, The orygynale cronykil of Scotland, edited by D. Laing (Edinburgh, 1872–1879)
    • John of Fordun, Chronica gentis Scotorum, edited by W. F. Skene (Edinburgh, 1871–1872)
    • J. H. Burton, History of Scotland, vol. ii. (Edinburgh, 1905)
    • A. Lang, History of Scotland, vol. i. (Edinburgh, 1900).
  3. ^ Dunbar, Sir Archibald H., Scottish Kings — A Revised Chronology of Scottish History 1005–1625, Edinburgh, 1899, pp. 146–7
  4. ^ Dunbar (1899) pp. 147–9
  5. ^ Dunbar (1899) pp. 148–9
  6. ^ Dunbar (1899) p. 150
  7. ^ Dunbar (1899) p. 152
  8. ^ http://www.britroyals.com/scots.asp?id=david2)
  9. ^ a b Dunbar (1899) p. 154
  10. ^ Dunbar (1899) p. 156.
  11. ^ Grants Old and New Edinburgh
  12. ^ a b c Nield (1968), p. 42
  13. ^ Shattock (2000), p. 1785-1786
  14. ^ "Nigel Tranter Historical Novels",timeline of events depicted


Further reading

  • Michael Brown. (2004). The Wars of Scotland, 1214–1371. The New Edinburgh History of Scotland, volume 4. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Ranald Nicholson. (1975)., Scotland. The Later Middle Ages. Edinburgh: Mercat Press.
  • Michael Penman. (2003). David II, 1329–71: The Bruce Dynasty in Scotland. East Linton: Tuckwell Press.
David II of Scotland
Born: 1324 Died: 1371
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Robert I
King of Scots
7 June 1329 – 22 February 1371
Succeeded by
Robert II
Adam de Lanark

Adam de Lanark, O.P. (died 1378) was a 14th-century Scottish Dominican friar and prelate. Possibly from a Lanark burgess family, he was a Dominican and a priest by 1356, and by 1364 was styled Magister, indicating the completion of a long university education. He first appears in the sources, c. 1355/6 as a confessor of King David II of Scotland; he retained this royal position through the 1350s and into the 1360s; Adam received a number of English safe-conducts (between May 1356 and August 1357) to visit King David, who for a time was a prisoner in England.Adam spent a great deal of time at the papal court in Avignon, France. He was there on 29 January 1359, as a proctor for Patrick Leuchars, Bishop of Brechin. He was sent there again at some point by the crown, receiving payment for this trip sometime between August 1362 and November 1364; he is not styled "bishop elect", meaning that this trip must have occurred before 1363. In 1363, Adam de Lanark was elected Bishop of Galloway and received papal provision to the vacant bishopric on 17 November 1363. He was consecrated by 2 January 1364. While seeking confirmation at the papal court, he probably presented a roll of petitions on behalf of King David II and did receive a number of faculties in order to grant dispensations in the bishopric of Galloway.Bishop Adam's return to Scotland is signalled by the grant of safe-conduct through England issued to him on 20 February. Sometime before 25 January 1365, he was in Galloway witnessing a charter of Thomas Fleming, Earl of Wigtown. He was a frequent attender of royal councils and parliaments until 1371, when his patron David II died and was replaced on the throne by David II's long-time rival, Robert Stewart, Earl of Strathearn, who became Robert II of Scotland. Bishop Adam is thereafter a harder figure to trace, and little more is known about his activities besides the fact that he is said to have died at the papal court in Avignon during the vacancy of the papacy; that is, Bishop Adam died between the death of Pope Gregory XI on 27 March 1378 and the consecration of Avignon Pope Clement VII on the following 31 October.

Agnes Dunbar (mistress)

Agnes Dunbar (fl. late 14th century) was a mistress of King David II of Scotland, son of Robert the Bruce.

She was the niece (and possibly fosterling) of Agnes Randolph, Countess of Dunbar and March. Her mother was Isabella Randolph, sister of Countess Agnes and daughter of Thomas Randolph, first Earl of Moray. Her father, Sir Patrick Dunbar, was the son of Sir Alexander Dunbar and grandson of Patrick, seventh Earl of Dunbar, and his wife, Cecilia.She was first married to a man called Robert, and they had children.

She appears to have become a mistress of King David II around 1369, as payments to her began then. A payment of 1000 merks, a very large sum at that time, was arranged for her a month before the king died suddenly in February 1371, which indicates that he had been very likely planning to marry her.

On 21 November 1372 she married Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith. Their son was James Douglas, 1st Lord Dalkeith. Their great-grandson was James Douglas, 1st Earl of Morton.

Alexander Bur

Alexander Bur (died 1397) was a 14th-century Scottish cleric. It is highly possible that Bur came from somewhere in or around Aberdeenshire, although that is not certain and is only based on the knowledge that Aberdeenshire is where other people bearing his surname come from in this period. He entered the service of King David II of Scotland sometime after 1343, perhaps as a member of David's exiled court at Château Gaillard. Although Alexander by this point in time already held prebends in both the bishopric of Aberdeen and the bishopric of Dunkeld (where he also held a canonry), on that date King David petitioned Pope Clement VI for another canonry in the bishopric of Moray. Alexander had become a royal clerk and had obtained a Licentiate in Canon Law by 1350. By the latter date, upon the death of Adam Penny (or Adam Parry), Archdeacon of Moray, Alexander himself became Archdeacon.In the autumn of this year King David II made an expedition into the north, apparently to escape the effects of the Black Death. David was also re-establishing his authority in the area, which involved seizing the castle of Kildrummy from its owner, Thomas, Earl of Mar. Soon after David reached Kildrummy, John de Pilmuir, Bishop of Moray, died. This gave King David the opportunity to secure the election of his close follower, Alexander Bur, as the successor to Pilmuir. David had moved to secure the episcopal castle at Spynie, and his presence there undoubtedly made sure that the canons carried out the king's will. Alexander was at Avignon in late December 1362, where he is mentioned as "bishop-elect and confirmed" of Moray, but he was not consecrated by the Pope until sometime between early January and early February 1363.Alexander Bur was involved in a famous conflict with Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan and Lord of Badenoch which famously led to the burning of Elgin Cathedral. He died at Spynie Palace on 15 May 1397.

Andrew Murray (Scottish soldier)

Sir Andrew Murray (1298–1338), also known as Sir Andrew Moray, or Sir Andrew de Moray, was a Scottish military and political leader who supported David II of Scotland against Edward Balliol and King Edward III of England during the so-called Second War of Scottish Independence. He held the lordships of Avoch and Petty in north Scotland, and Bothwell in west-central Scotland. In 1326 he married Christina Bruce, a sister of King Robert I of Scotland. Murray was twice chosen as Guardian of Scotland, first in 1332, and again from 1335 on his return to Scotland after his release from captivity in England. He held the guardianship until his death in 1338.

Banquet of the Five Kings

The Banquet of the Five Kings was a meeting, in 1363, of the kings of England, Scotland, France, Denmark and Cyprus. It was arranged by Sir Henry Picard, a former Lord Mayor of London. The five kings were:

Peter I of Cyprus

Edward III of England

David II of Scotland

John II of France

Valdemar IV of DenmarkThe occasion (the toast of the five kings) was hosted by the Vintners' Company at their hall in the City of London.

The Cypriot beverage company KEO created a brandy, produced in Limassol, to commemorate the occasion.

Battle of Annan

The Battle of Annan, known in the sources as the Camisade of Annan took place on 16 December 1332. It took place at Annan, Dumfries and Galloway in Scotland. In it the Bruce loyalist supporters of King David II of Scotland (son of Robert the Bruce) surprised Edward Balliol and his supporters while they were in bed, and completely threw them out of Scotland. The Bruce loyalists were led by Sir Archibald Douglas, supported by John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray, the Steward, the future Robert II of Scotland, and Simon Fraser. Balliol had seized the Scottish crown after the Battle of Dupplin Moor (10–11 August 1332). Robert the Bruce had died on 7 June 1329. At the time of Annan, David was seven years old.

Clackmannan Tower

Clackmannan Tower is a five-storey tower house, situated at the summit of King's Seat Hill in Clackmannan, Clackmannanshire, Scotland. It was built in the 14th century by King David II of Scotland and sold to his cousin Robert Bruce in 1359.

It is a designated scheduled ancient monument.

Cultural depictions of Robert II of Scotland

Robert II of Scotland has been depicted in historical novels. They include:

The Three Perils of Man; or, War, women, and witchcraft (1822) by James Hogg. The tale takes place in the reign of Robert II whose "country enjoyed happiness and peace, all save a part adjoining to the borders of England." Part of the action takes place at Linlithgow Palace, where Robert promises to marry his daughter Margaret Stewart "to the knight who shall take that castle of Roxburgh out of the hands of the English". With Margaret adding her own terms, that "in case of his attempting and failing in the undertaking, he shall forfeit all his lands, castles, towns, and towers to me." In the absence of volunteers, Margaret vows to take the Castle herself, defeating Lord Musgrave and his mistress Jane Howard.

The Lords of Misrule (1976) by Nigel Tranter. Covers events from c. 1388 to 1390. Depicting the last years of Robert II and the rise of Robert III of Scotland to the throne. As the elderly king has grown "feeble, weary and half-blind", his sons, daughters and other nobles campaign for power. An ungoverned Scotland is ravaged by their conflicts. Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan are prominently featured.

Courting Favour (2000) by Nigel Tranter. Follows the career of John Dunbar, Earl of Moray in the courts of David II of Scotland and Robert II. John is a son-in-law to the latter and serves him as a diplomat.

David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay

David Stewart (24 October 1378 – 26 March 1402) was heir apparent to the throne of Scotland from 1390 and the first Duke of Rothesay from 1398. He was named after his great-great-uncle, David II of Scotland, and also held the titles of Earl of Atholl (1398–1402) and Earl of Carrick (1390–1402). He shares with his uncle and arch-rival, Robert Stewart, first Duke of Albany, the distinction of being first dukes to be created in the Scottish peerage. David never became king. His marriage to Mary Douglas, daughter of Archibald the Grim, the third Earl of Douglas, was without issue.

Joan of the Tower

Joan of England (5 July 1321 – 7 September 1362), known as Joan of the Tower because she was born in the Tower of London, was the first wife and Queen consort of David II of Scotland.

John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray

John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray (1306 – 17 October 1346) was an important figure in the reign of David II of Scotland, and was for a time joint Regent of Scotland.

John de Carrick

John de Carrick (died c. 1380), a native of Carrick, Scotland, was a 14th-century Chancellor of Scotland and Bishop-elect of Dunkeld. Although John's exact origins are obscure, he seems to have come from a branch of the old native comital family of Carrick. Later evidence suggests he was a graduate of canon law, but the university is not known.

He was Chancellor of the diocese of Glasgow by the early 1360s, during the episcopate of William Rae (1339–1367), and held Moffat parish church in Annandale as a prebend. In political circles, he was associated with Archbald the Grim, Lord of Galloway; perhaps with the latter's assistance, he rose in royal service during the 1360s, as Clerk of the Wardrobe, Keeper of the Privy Seal and then in 1370 Chancellor of Scotland. Despite the death of David II of Scotland and accession of Robert II of Scotland in 1371, John remained Chancellor.

In 1370 he was given the royal nomination to fill the vacant see of Dunkeld, which was free because of the death of John Luce that year. He failed, however, to secure papal approval, and the Pope instead provided Michael de Monymusk to the Bishopric. Carrick continued in royal service until 1377, after which it appears he was allowed to retire on the revenues of the burgh of Lanark. His death can probably be placed in 1380.

Margaret Drummond, Queen of Scotland

Margaret Drummond (c. 1340 – after 31 January 1375), known also by her first married name as Margaret Logie, was the second queen of David II of Scotland, daughter of Sir Malcolm Drummond of Tullicraven, 10th Thane of Lennox and Chief of Clan Drummond (b. after 1295 – d. 17 October 1346 at the Battle of Neville's Cross, Durham, England) by his wife and Margaret Graham, Countess of Menteith, and aunt of Anabella Drummond.

Monan (saint)

Saint Monan (fl. 6th-7th century) is a legendary saint about whom very little is known. He may have lived in the 6th to 7th centuries. The only description of his life comes from the Brevarium Aberdonense, which was published in Edinburgh in 1509 - 1510. This account has numerous demonstrable errors, but it claims that St. Monan was a companion of Saint Adrian who was with him on the Isle of May when he suffered martyrdom and then went on to Inverey in Fife and set up a chapel. This chapel was rebuilt by David II of Scotland between 1329 and 1371 after he recovered from battle wounds thanks to the intercession of the saint. This place is the modern day St Monans in Fife, Scotland. The only other corroboration for the saint comes from the monks of Ireland who recorded a "Saint Moenenn" for the same feast day as Monan. This Moenenn was a bishop in Ireland.

Monan's feast day in the Roman Catholic Church is March 1.


Odiham ( or ) is a small historic town and civil parish in the Hart district of Hampshire, England. It is twinned with Sourdeval in the Manche Department of France. The current population is 4,406. The parish has an area of 7,354 acres with 50 acres covered with water. The nearest railway station is at Hook, on the London and South Western Railway. The town had its own hundred in the nineteenth century, named The Hundred of Odiham. The town is situated slightly south of the M3 motorway and approximately midway between the north Hampshire towns of Fleet and Basingstoke, some 41 miles (66 km) southwest of London.

RAF Odiham, home of the Royal Air Force's Chinook heavy lift helicopter fleet, lies to the south of the town.

Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby

Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville of Raby (c.1291 – 5 August 1367) was an English aristocrat, the son of Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby by Eupheme de Clavering.Neville led the English forces to victory against the Scottish king David II of Scotland at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346.

River Browney

The River Browney is a river in County Durham, England, and the largest tributary of the River Wear.

The River Browney rises from a spring in Head Plantation, on the eastern slope of Skaylock Hill, about a mile south east of Waskerley. The spring rises approximately 500 metres from a tributary stream to the River Wear, in an area of moorland, forestry and springs, and of disused coal mines, quarries and mineral railway lines, remnants of an industrial past. Running eastwards towards Lanchester, the river skirts to the south of the village. Continuing eastwards past Langley Park and Witton Gilbert, the river then turns south and skirts the western edge of Durham. The Browney is joined by the River Deerness north of Langley Moor and finally joins the Wear to the south of Durham, close to Sunderland Bridge. Until the last Ice Age, the Browney entered the River Wear just north of Durham City, in Pelaw Woods.

The Browney was contaminated by local industry, particularly lead and coal mining, but has recovered in recent years. The river was stocked with around 3000 grayling in September 2006.Legend has it that following his defeat at Neville's Cross in 1346, King David II of Scotland was captured having sought shelter under a bridge over the Browney at Bearpark, close by where his Scottish soldiers had camped overnight beneath Beaurepaire Priory.Andrew Breeze has argued that the river name forms the first element of 'Brunanburh', in the Battle of Brunanburh. He interprets 'Brunanburh' as 'stronghold of the Browney', referring to the Roman fort of Longovicium.

Thomas Bruce, 1st Baron of Clackmannan

Sir Thomas Bruce, 1st Baron of Clackmannan (died before 1348) was the first Baron of Clackmannan.

King David II of Scotland, near the end of his life, appears to have regarded Thomas as the next most senior member of the Bruce family, but his exact relationship to the royal Bruces is unclear. It has been suggested that he was the son of an illegitimate son of Robert the Bruce or Edward Bruce, but there is no clear evidence for this; he may have belonged to a more distant branch of the family.Thomas was granted land in Clackmannan by King Robert II of Scotland after organising a revolt against the English in 1334. He married Marjorie Charteris of Stenhouse and it is from this line which most Bruces descend, including the current Chief of Clan Bruce, Andrew Bruce, 11th Earl of Elgin. Thomas and Marjorie's children included Robert Bruce, 2nd Baron of Clackmannan.

William de Moravia, 5th Earl of Sutherland

William de Moravia (also known as William Sutherland) (died 1370) was the 5th Earl of Sutherland and chief of Clan Sutherland. William, 5th Earl of Sutherland was a loyal supporter of David II of Scotland in the wars against England. William succeeded in taking Roxburgh Castle back from the English.He married Margaret Bruce in 1345, a daughter of King Robert I of Scotland (Robert the Bruce) and his second wife Elizabeth de Burgh. With Margaret Bruce, William, Earl of Sutherland only had one son:

John of Sutherland, who was to succeed to the throne of Scotland by royal descent through his mother Margaret Bruce, but died of plague in London and so Robert II of Scotland, nephew of David II of Scotland became the next king.William, Earl of Sutherland married his second wife, Joanna daughter of Sir John Menteith in 1346.

In 1360, William, 5th Earl of Sutherland granted to his brother Nicholas Sutherland, younger son of the 4th Earl, the barony of Thoroboll. From this Nicholas Sutherland descended the Sutherland Lairds of Duffus.William de Moravia, 5th Earl of Sutherland had issue:

Robert de Moravia, 6th Earl of Sutherland (Robert Sutherland).

Kenneth Sutherland, 1st Laird of the Sutherland of Forse family.

John Beg Sutherland.

Ancestors of David II of Scotland
8. Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale
4. Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale
9. Isabella de Clare
2. Robert I, King of Scotland
10. Niall, Earl of Carrick
5. Marjorie, Countess of Carrick
11. Margaret Stewart
1. David II, King of Scotland
12. Walter de Burgh, 1st Earl of Ulster
6. Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster
13. Isabel FitzJohn
3. Elizabeth de Burgh
14. John de Burgh
7. Margaret de Burgh
15. Hawise de Lanvaley
Monarchs of the Picts
Monarchs of the Scots
Native line
Bruce line
Stewart earls

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