David Hunter

David Hunter (July 21, 1802 – February 2, 1886) was a Union general during the American Civil War. He achieved fame by his unauthorized 1862 order (immediately rescinded) emancipating slaves in three Southern states, for his leadership of United States troops during the Valley Campaigns of 1864, and as the president of the military commission trying the conspirators involved with the assassination of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln.

David Hunter
David Hunter
Nickname(s)"Black Dave"
BornJuly 21, 1802
Troy, New York, U.S.
DiedFebruary 2, 1886 (aged 83)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branchSeal of the United States Board of War and Ordnance.png U.S. Army (Union Army)
Years of service1822–1836; 1841–1866
RankUnion Army major general rank insignia.svg Major general
Commands heldDepartment of Kansas
Department of the West
Department of the South
Battles/warsSecond Seminole War
Mexican–American War
American Civil War

Early life and education

Hunter (son of Andrew Hunter & Mary Stockton) was born in Troy, New York,[1] or Princeton, New Jersey.[2] He was the cousin of writer-illustrator David Hunter Strother (who would also serve as a Union Army general) and his maternal grandfather was Richard Stockton, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. He graduated from the United States Military Academy, in 1822, and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 5th U.S. Infantry Regiment. Records of his military service prior to the Civil War contain significant gaps. From 1828 to 1831, he was stationed on the northwest frontier, at Fort Dearborn (Chicago, Illinois), where he met and married Maria Kinzie, the daughter of the city's first permanent white resident, John Kinzie. He served in the infantry for 11 years, and was appointed captain of the 1st U.S. Dragoons in 1833. He resigned from the Army in July 1836 and moved to Illinois, where he worked as a real estate agent[2] or speculator.[1] He rejoined the Army in November 1841 as a paymaster and was promoted to major in March 1842.[2] One source[3] claims that he saw action in the Second Seminole War (1838–42) and the Mexican–American War (1846–48).

In 1860, Hunter was stationed at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and he began a correspondence with Abraham Lincoln, focusing on Hunter's strong anti-slavery views. This relationship had long-lasting political effects, the first of which was an invitation to ride on Lincoln's inaugural train from Springfield, Illinois, to Washington, D.C., in February 1861. During this duty, Hunter suffered a dislocated collarbone at Buffalo, due to a crowd pressing the president-elect.


American Civil War

Soon after the firing on Fort Sumter, Hunter was promoted to colonel of the 6th U.S. Cavalry, but three days later (May 17, 1861), his political connection to the Lincoln administration bore fruit and he was appointed the fourth-ranking brigadier general of volunteers, commanding a brigade in the Department of Washington. He was wounded in the neck and cheek while commanding a division under Irvin McDowell at the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861. In August, he was promoted to major general of volunteers. He served as a division commander in the Western Army under Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont, and was appointed as commander of the Western Department on November 2, 1861, after Frémont was relieved of command due to his attempt to emancipate the slaves of rebellious slave holders. Hunter did not last long in this important responsibility and within two months was reassigned to the Department of Kansas, a post where there was little chance of getting in trouble. He did not accept his exile gracefully and wrote a series of fulminating protest letters to the president, who finally gave in to his complaints. In March 1862, Hunter was transferred again to command the Department of the South and the X Corps. Hunter served as the president of the court-martial of Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter (convicted for his actions at the Second Battle of Bull Run, but for which he was exonerated by an 1878 Board of Officers), and on the committee that investigated the loss of Harpers Ferry in the Maryland Campaign. He also served briefly as the Assistant Inspector General of the Department of the Gulf.

General Order No. 11

General Orders No. 7, Ft. Pulaski, GA, US
Historical marker about General Orders No. 7, erected by the Georgia Historical Society in 2008. Read more on the Georgia Historical Society's website.

Hunter was a strong advocate of arming black men as soldiers for the Union cause. After the Battle of Fort Pulaski, he began enlisting black soldiers from the occupied districts of South Carolina and formed the first such Union Army regiment, the 1st South Carolina (African Descent),[4] which he was initially ordered to disband, but eventually got approval from Congress for his action. A second controversy was caused by his issuing an order emancipating the slaves in Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida:

The three States of Georgia, Florida and South Carolina, comprising the military department of the south, having deliberately declared themselves no longer under the protection of the United States of America, and having taken up arms against the said United States, it becomes a military necessity to declare them under martial law. This was accordingly done on the 25th day of April, 1862. Slavery and martial law in a free country are altogether incompatible; the persons in these three States — Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina— heretofore held as slaves, are therefore declared forever free.

— Maj. Gen. David Hunter, Department of the South, General Order No. 11, May 9, 1862[5]

This order was quickly rescinded[6] by President Abraham Lincoln, who was concerned about the political effects that it would have in the border states and who advocated instead a gradual emancipation with compensation for slave holders.[7] Despite Lincoln's concerns that immediate emancipation in the South might drive some slave-holding Unionists to support the Confederacy, the national mood was quickly moving against slavery, especially within the Army.[8] The president and Congress had already enacted several laws during the war to severely restrict the institution, beginning with the First Confiscation Act in August 1861 [9] and culminating in Lincoln's own Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862, taking effect January 1, 1863. Concerned Confederate slave holders had worried since before the war started that its eventual goal would become the abolition of slavery and they reacted strongly to the Union effort to emancipate Confederate slaves. Confederate President Jefferson Davis issued orders to the Confederate army that Hunter was to be considered a "felon to be executed if captured".[3]

Controversy over enlistment of ex-slaves

Undeterred by the president's reluctance and intent on extending American freedom to potential black soldiers, Hunter again flouted orders from the federal government and enlisted ex-slaves as soldiers in South Carolina without permission from the War Department.[10] This action incensed border state slave holders, and Kentucky Representative Charles A. Wickliffe sponsored a resolution demanding a response.

Hunter quickly obliged with a sarcastic and defiant letter on June 23, 1862, in which he delivered a stern reminder to the Congress of his authority as a commanding officer in a war zone:

. . . I reply that no regiment of "Fugitive Slaves" has been, or is being organized in this Department. There is, however, a fine regiment of persons whose late masters are "Fugitive Rebels"--men who everywhere fly before the appearance of the National Flag, leaving their servants behind them to shift as best they can for themselves. . . . So far, indeed, are the loyal persons composing this regiment from seeking to avoid the presence of their late owners, that they are now, one and all, working with remarkable industry to place themselves in a position to go in full and effective pursuit of their fugacious and traitorous proprietors. . . . the instructions given to Brig. Gen. T. W. Sherman by the Hon. Simon Cameron, late Secretary of War, and turned over to me by succession for my guidance,--do distinctly authorize me to employ all loyal persons offering their services in defence of the Union and for the suppression of this Rebellion in any manner I might see fit. . . . In conclusion I would say it is my hope,--there appearing no possibility of other reinforcements owing to the exigencies of the Campaign in the Peninsula,--to have organized by the end of next Fall, and to be able to present to the Government, from forty eight to fifty thousand of these hardy and devoted soldiers."[11]

While increasingly abolitionist Republicans in Congress were amused by the order, border state pro-slavery politicians such as Wickliffe and Robert Mallory were not. Mallory described the scene in Congress following the reading of the order as follows:

The scene was one of which I think this House should forever be ashamed . . . A spectator in the gallery would have supposed we were witnessing here the performance of a buffoon or of a low farce actor upon the stage . . . The reading was received with loud applause and boisterous manifestations of approbation by the Republican members of the House . . . It was a scene, in my opinion, disgraceful to the American Congress.[12]

The War Department eventually forced Hunter to abandon this scheme, but the government nonetheless moved soon afterward to expand the enlistment of black men as military laborers. Congress approved the Confiscation Act of 1862, which effectively freed all slaves working within the armed forces by forbidding Union soldiers to aid in the return of fugitive slaves.[13]

In 1863, Hunter wrote a letter to Confederate leader Jefferson Davis protesting against the Confederate army's brutal mistreatment of captured black U.S. soldiers. He lampooned the Confederates' claims that they were fighting for freedom, stating that the "liberty" that the Confederates were fighting for was the freedom to commit evil and enslave human beings:

You say you are fighting for liberty. Yes you are fighting for liberty: liberty to keep four millions of your fellow-beings in ignorance and degradation;–liberty to separate parents and children, husband and wife, brother and sister;–liberty to steal the products of their labor, exacted with many a cruel lash and bitter tear;–liberty to seduce their wives and daughters, and to sell your own children into bondage;–liberty to kill these children with impunity, when the murder cannot be proven by one of pure white blood. This is the kind of liberty–the liberty to do wrong–which Satan, Chief of the fallen Angels, was contending for when he was cast into Hell.[14][15]

The Valley and "Scorched Earth"

In the Valley Campaigns of 1864, Union Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel was ordered by Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant to move into the Shenandoah Valley, threaten railroads and the agricultural economy there, and distract Robert E. Lee while Grant fought him in eastern Virginia. Sigel did a poor job, losing immediately at the Battle of New Market to a force that included cadets from the Virginia Military Institute (VMI). Hunter replaced Sigel in command of the Army of the Shenandoah and the Department of West Virginia on May 21, 1864. Grant ordered Hunter to employ scorched earth tactics similar to those that would be used later in that year during Sherman's March to the Sea; he was to move through Staunton to Charlottesville and Lynchburg, "living off the country" and destroying the Virginia Central Railroad "beyond possibility of repair for weeks." Lee was concerned enough about Hunter that he dispatched a corps under Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early to deal with him.

On June 5, Hunter defeated Maj. Gen. William E. "Grumble" Jones at the Battle of Piedmont. Following orders, he moved up the Valley (southward) through Staunton to Lexington, destroying military targets and other industries (such as blacksmiths and stables) that could be used to support the Confederacy. After reaching Lexington, his troops burned down VMI on June 11 in retaliation of that institution sending cadets to fight at New Market. Hunter ordered the home of former Governor John Letcher burned in retaliation for its absent owner's having issued "a violent and inflammatory proclamation ... inciting the population of the country to rise and wage guerrilla warfare on my troops."[16] Hunter also wreaked havoc on Washington College in Lexington, later Washington and Lee University. According to Fitzhugh Lee's biography of his uncle, Robert E. Lee, "[Hunter] had no respect for colleges, or the peaceful pursuits of professors and students, or the private dwellings of citizens, though occupied by women and children only, and during his three days occupancy of Lexington in June, 1864, the college buildings were dismantled, apparatus destroyed, and the books mutilated."[17]

Hunter's campaign in the Valley came to an end after he was defeated by Early at the Battle of Lynchburg on June 19. His headquarters was at Sandusky House, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982, and now operated as a house museum. After the battle, Hunter retreated across the Allegheny Mountains into West Virginia, thereby taking his army out of the war altogether for a few weeks and allowing Early a free rein in the Valley. Though this retreat was widely criticized, Ulysses Grant in his Memoirs excused it as follows: "General Hunter, owing to a want of ammunition to give battle, retired from before the place. Unfortunately, this want of ammunition left him no choice of route for his return but by the way of the Gauley and Kanawha rivers, thence up the Ohio River, returning to Harper's Ferry by way of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad." Hunter would maintain until his dying day that it had been a strategically sound move and he wrote a series of persistent letters to Secretary of War Edwin Stanton and President Lincoln arguing that the retreat was entirely justified. He badgered Grant with letters a few months later arguing that the army and officers he inherited from Franz Sigel were below average, and that he had never been told that he had any assignment to defend Washington DC. After the war, he wrote a letter to Robert E. Lee asking if he as a fellow soldier did not agree with the soundness of the retreat. Lee, who had a loathing of Hunter, wrote back that he had no clue what the exact strategic value of retreating into West Virginia was, but that it had been extremely helpful to himself and the Confederate cause.

The burning of the Virginia Military Academy by Hunter also angered the Confederates and made them more vengeful than before. After retaking possession of the Valley, Early described the scene as "truly heart-rending. Houses had been burned, and helpless women and children left without shelter. The country had been stripped of provisions and many families left without a morsel to eat. Furniture and bedding had been cut to pieces, and old men and women and children robbed of all the clothing they had except that on their backs. Ladies trunks had been rifled and their dresses torn to pieces in mere wantonness. Even the negro girls had lost their little finery. . . At Lexington he had burned the Military Institute, with all of its contents, including its library and scientific apparatus; and Washington College had been plundered and the statue of George Washington stolen. The residence of Ex-Governor Letcher at that place had been burned by orders, and but a few minutes given Mrs. Letcher and her family to leave the house. . . [A] Mr. Creigh, had been hung, because, on a former occasion, he had killed a straggling and marauding Federal soldier while in the act of insulting and outraging the ladies of his family."[18] The Confederate raids into Maryland and Pennsylvania in July were accompanied by widespread looting and destruction.

On August 1, Grant placed Maj. Gen Phil Sheridan in command of the effort to destroy Jubal Early's army. The Shenandoah, Maryland, and Washington DC area all fell under Hunter's military department, but Grant had no intention of allowing Hunter any direct command over the campaign against Early. He therefore informed him that he could retain department command on paper while Sheridan did the active field campaigning. Hunter however declined this offer, stating that he had been so beset by contradictory War Department orders that he had no idea where Jubal Early's army even was, and he would rather just turn everything over to Sheridan. Grant immediately accepted and relieved Hunter of his post.[19] He would serve in no more combat commands. He was promoted to brevet major general in the regular army on March 13, 1865, an honor that was relatively common for senior officers late in the war.

Later life and death

Hunter served in the honor guard at the funeral of Abraham Lincoln and accompanied his body back to Springfield. He was the president of the military commission trying the conspirators of Lincoln's assassination, from May 8 to July 15, 1865. He retired from the Army in July 1866. He was the author of Report of the Military Services of Gen. David Hunter, U.S.A., during the War of the Rebellion, published in 1873.[20]

Hunter died in Washington, D.C., and is buried at the Princeton Cemetery in Princeton, New Jersey.

In popular culture

See also


  1. ^ a b Warner, Ezra J. (1964) Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. p. 243. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
  2. ^ a b c Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 310. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  3. ^ a b David Hunter. Spartacus Educational Publishers Ltd.
  4. ^ The famous 54th Massachusetts was the first black regiment raised in a Northern state.
  5. ^ Hunter, Maj. Gen. David (May 9, 1862). "General Order No. 11". Department of the South.
  6. ^ President Lincoln's Proclamation Overruling Hunter's Emancipation, May 19, 1862. Freedmen.umd.edu (December 10, 2017). Retrieved on 2018-05-02.
  7. ^ Berlin et al., pp. 46–48
  8. ^ Berlin et al., chapter 1
  9. ^ Berlin et al., p. 11
  10. ^ Berlin et al., 56
  11. ^ Berlin et al, pp. 56–59
  12. ^ Miller, Edward A. (1997) Lincoln's Abolitionist General: The Biography of David Hunter. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. p. 106. ISBN 1-57003-110-X.
  13. ^ Berlin et al., pp. 59–60
  14. ^ Hayman, Robert L. The Smart Culture: Society, Intelligence, and Law. pp. 59–61. Retrieved March 30, 2016. You say you are fighting for liberty. Yes you are fighting for liberty: liberty to keep four millions of your fellow-beings in ignorance and degradation;–liberty to separate parents and children, husband and wife, brother and sister;–liberty to steal the products of their labor, exacted with many a cruel lash and bitter tear;–liberty to seduce their wives and daughters, and to sell your own children into bondage;–liberty to kill these children with impunity, when the murder cannot be proven by one of pure white blood. This is the kind of liberty–the liberty to do wrong–which Satan, Chief of the fallen Angels, was contending for when he was cast into Hell.
  15. ^ Crofts, Daniel W. (June 22, 2012). "Runaway Masters". The New York Times. New York: The New York Times Company. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
  16. ^ Foote, Shelby (1974). The Civil War: A Narrative. Vol. 3, Red River to Appomattox. New York: Random House. p. 310. ISBN 0-394-74913-8.
  17. ^ Lee, Fitzhugh (1894). General Lee. D. Appleton. pp. 405–406
  18. ^ Early, Jubal (1866). A Memoir of the Last Year of the War for Independence. Toronto: Lovell & Gibson. p. 51
  19. ^ Gallagher, Gary W., ed. (1991) Struggle for the Shenandoah: Essays on the 1864 Valley Campaign. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press. pp. 42–43. ISBN 0-87338-429-6.
  20. ^ Hunter, David (1873) Report of the Military Services of Gen. David Hunter, U.S.A., during the War of the Rebellion. New York : D. Van Nostrand.

Cited sources

  • Berlin, Ira, et al. Free at Last: A Documentary History of Slavery, Freedom, and the Civil War. New York: The New Press, 1992. ISBN 1-56584-120-4.

Further reading

External links

1909 U.S. Open (golf)

The 1909 U.S. Open was the fifteenth U.S. Open, held June 24–25 at Englewood Golf Club in Englewood, New Jersey, north of downtown New York City (Manhattan). George Sargent established a new U.S. Open scoring record to win his only major title, four strokes ahead of runner-up Tom McNamara.In the opening round on Thursday morning, David Hunter made U.S. Open history as the first player to break 70, but he had some problems in the second round when he hit his ball into a brook and subsequently used four niblick shots in getting out. After reaching the turn in 47 he made a nice recovery on the back nine and came home in 37 for 84 (he had another 84 in the third round and finished thirtieth). McNamara also had a sub-70 score with 69 in the second round and led by four strokes midway at 142.McNamara carried a two-stroke lead over Sargent into the final round on Friday afternoon. Sargent birdied the final hole for 71 and his third consecutive round of 72 or better. McNamara struggled over the final 18 holes with 77 and finished four back of Sargent. Sargent's winning total of 290 broke the U.S. Open scoring record by five shots. Bob Peebles was well positioned after three rounds on 222 but struggled and fell back into the pack with a final round 78.

John McDermott made his U.S. Open debut at age 17 and was 49th. He placed in the top-ten in each of the next five, with consecutive wins in 1911 and 1912, the first American-born champion. Four-time champion Willie Anderson tied for fourth in his penultimate U.S. Open. Horace Rawlins, the inaugural champion fourteen years earlier in 1895, made his last cut in the championship and finished sixtieth.

Arthur Dolphin

Arthur Dolphin (24 December 1885 – 23 October 1942) was an English first-class cricketer, who kept wicket for Yorkshire County Cricket Club between 1905 and 1927. He is part of a tradition of Yorkshire wicket-keepers, stretching from Ned Stephenson, George Pinder, Joe Hunter and David Hunter before him, to Arthur Wood, Jimmy Binks, David Bairstow plus Richard Blakey to the present day. The successor to David Hunter as Yorkshire's wicket-keeper he served the county for twenty two years.

He also played first-class cricket for the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC).

Carus, Oregon

Carus is an unincorporated community in Clackamas County, Oregon, United States. It is located about seven miles south of Oregon City, on Oregon Route 213.Carus post office ran from 1887 to 1907. The name may have come from a misreading of the name "Carns" on the application to the Post Office Department. It is unknown whether it was to be named for a place in another state or for a local family. The Fred Vonder Ahe House, now located in Molalla, served as the post office when it first opened. David Hunter was the first postmaster.In 1915 the community had two sawmills, a daily stagecoach to Oregon City and a twice-daily stagecoach to Canby. As of 1990 there was a school and a church. Carus Elementary School is part of the Canby School District. A cemetery near the community is owned by the Followers of Christ.

Confiscation Act of 1861

The Confiscation Act of 1861 was an act of Congress during the early months of the American Civil War permitting court proceedings for confiscation of any of property being used to support the Confederate independence effort, including slaves.

The bill passed the House of Representatives 60-48 and in the Senate 24-11. Abraham Lincoln was reluctant to sign the act; he felt that, in light of the Confederacy's recent battlefield victories, the bill would have no practical effect and might be seen as a desperate move. He was also worried that it could be struck down as unconstitutional, which would set a precedent that might derail future attempts at emancipation. Only personal lobbying by several powerful Senators persuaded Lincoln to sign the legislation, which he did on August 6, 1861. Due to the fact that the bill was based on military emancipation, no judicial proceedings were required and therefore Lincoln gave Attorney General Edward Bates no instructions on enforcing the bill. Within a year of its passage, tens of thousands of slaves had been freed by the First Confiscation Act.With respect to slaves, the act authorized court proceedings to strip their owners of any claim to them but did not clarify whether the slaves were free. As a result of this ambiguity, these slaves came under Union lines as property in the care of the U.S. government. In response to this situation, General David Hunter, the Union Army military commander of Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida, issued General Order No. 11 on May 9, 1862 freeing all slaves in areas under his command. Upon hearing of Hunter's action one week later, Lincoln immediately countermanded the order, thus returning the slaves to their former status as property in the care of the federal government.Before the act was passed, Benjamin Franklin Butler had been the first Union general to declare slaves as contraband. Some other Northern commanders followed this precedent, while officers from the border states were more likely to return escaped slaves to their masters. The Confiscation Act was an attempt to set a consistent policy throughout the army.

David H. Hubel

David Hunter Hubel (February 27, 1926 – September 22, 2013) was a Canadian neurophysiologist noted for his studies of the structure and function of the visual cortex. He was co-recipient with Torsten Wiesel of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (shared with Roger W. Sperry), for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system. For much of his career, Hubel was the John Franklin Enders University Professor of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School. In 1978, Hubel and Wiesel were awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University.

David Hunter (New South Wales politician)

David Benjamin Hunter (5 September 1905 – 31 August 1981) was an Australian politician. He was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly from 1940 to 1976, representing three successive conservative parties - the United Australia Party, Democratic Party, and Liberal Party. He was the first blind member of the Parliament of New South Wales, and held the seat of Croydon and its successor seats of Ashfield-Croydon and Ashfield for a total of 36 years.

Hunter was born in Sydney, and lost his sight at the age of six after contracting meningitis. He was educated at the Royal Institute for Deaf and Blind Children, and worked as an insurance broker before his election to parliament. He was actively involved in the United Australia Party, serving on its central council from 1937 to 1937 and 1940 to 1942. His local member, former Premier Bertram Stevens, resigned to contest a federal seat in 1940, and Hunter won preselection to contest the subsequent by-election. He was easily elected, in doing so becoming the first blind person to be elected to the Parliament of New South Wales.

Hunter was forceful from the beginning that his disability would not impact upon his performance as a member of parliament. He stated in his inaugural speech that he would "endeavour to make [fellow members] forget that there is a physical handicap under which [he laboured]", urged that he be treated as a "normal, ordinary citizen", and urged opposition members not to soften their responses to him out of sympathy. He did not use a walking stick or guide dog, and memorised his way around the corridors of Parliament. He made notes in Braille, wrote his own correspondence, and could read Braille at a speed of more than 200 words per minute.

Hunter was active in advocating for the deaf and blind communities throughout his lifetime. He served as the vice-president of the Institute for Deaf and Blind Children and as honorary treasurer of the Blinded Servicemen's Club. He was responsible for legislation in 1944 which made the education of deaf and blind children compulsory; upon his death, a number of MLAs spoke of his efforts to ensure that the deaf and blind were treated as ordinary citizens. He was also concerned with issues of disadvantaged children, serving as chairman of the Society for Providing Homes for Neglected Children, and acting as a board member and frequent supporter of a nearby orphanage. Hunter was also a strong advocate for improved parliamentary services to allow members to better represent constituents. He campaigned for increased secretarial assistance, and as a member of the Library Committee for several decades, vigorously defended the independence of the Parliamentary Library.

Hunter was highly popular in his electorate, and won thirteen consecutive elections in Croydon and its successor electorates. He ran unopposed in 1950, and easily defeated fellow UAP MLA Richard Murden in 1959 when their seats were merged in an electoral redistribution. He was only forced to preferences twice; at his last two elections, in 1971 and 1973, and took 52% of the vote at his closest re-election in 1971. He retired at the 1976 election, where his seat of Ashfield was won by the Labor Party, remaining safely Labor thereafter until its abolition in 1999.

Hunter was made an Officer of the Order of British Empire (OBE) in 1975. He died in Sydney in 1981.

David Hunter (disambiguation)

David Hunter (1802–1886) was a U.S. Army general in the American Civil War.

David Hunter may also refer to:

David Hunter of Blackness (died 1809), subject of a famous portrait by Sir Henry Raeburn

David Hunter (Queensland politician) (1858–1927), Queensland politician

David Hunter (English cricketer) (1860–1927), English cricketer

David Ferguson Hunter (1891–1965), Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross

David Hunter (New South Wales politician) (1905–1981), New South Wales politician

Dave Hunter (politician) (1912–1985), Canadian politician

David Peter Lafayette Hunter (1919–2001), British Royal Marines Officer

Dave Hunter (born 1958), Canadian ice hockey player

David Hunter (Harvard), administrator at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

David Hunter (New Zealand cricketer) (born 1968), New Zealand cricketer

David Hunter (American football) (born 1989), American football defensive tackle

David Hunter McAlpin

David Hunter McAlpin (1816–1901) was a prominent industrialist and real estate owner in New York City. He owned the D.H. McAlpin Tobacco Company. Among his children was a Civil War General and a prominent physician.

David Hunter Miller

David Hunter Miller (1875–1961) was a US lawyer and an expert on treaties who participated in the drafting of the covenant of the League of Nations.

He practiced law in New York City from 1911 to 1929; served on the Inquiry, a body of experts that collected data for the Paris Peace Conference (1917–1919); and was legal adviser to the American commission to the conference.

As an officer of the US Department of State (1929–1944), Miller headed the American delegation to the 1930 Hague Conference for the codification of international law. His published works include My Diary at the Conference of Paris, with Documents (21 vol., 1924–26) and Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America (8 vol., 1931–1948).

David Hunter Riddle

David Hunter Riddle (April 14, 1805 – 1888) was the ninth and last president of Jefferson College from 1862 until its union with Washington College to form Washington & Jefferson College in 1865. He also served as trustee and the acting Principal of the Western University of Pennsylvania, today known as the University of Pittsburgh, from 1849 to 1855.

David Hunter Strother

David Hunter Strother (September 26, 1816 – March 8, 1888) was an American journalist, artist, soldier, innkeeper, politician and diplomat. Both before and after the American Civil War (in which he was initially a war correspondent), Strother was a successful 19th century American magazine illustrator and writer, popularly known by his pseudonym, "Porte Crayon" (French, porte-crayon: "pencil/crayon holder"). He helped his father operate a 400-guest hotel at Berkeley Springs which was the only spa accessible by rail in the mid-Atlantic states. A Union topographer and nominal cavalry commander during the war, Strother rose to the rank of brevet Brigadier General of Volunteers, and afterward restructured the Virginia Military Institute, as well as served as U.S. consul to Mexico (1879–1885).

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (formerly Harvard School of Public Health) is the public health graduate school of Harvard University, located in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston, Massachusetts adjacent Harvard Medical School. The Chan School is considered a preeminent school of public health in the United States. The school grew out of the Harvard-MIT School for Health Officers, the nation's first graduate training program in population health, which was founded in 1913 and became the Harvard School of Public Health in 1922. Michelle Williams, faculty and chair of the school's Department of Epidemiology, became the school's dean in July 2016, following the departure of former dean Julio Frenk and interim service of acting dean David Hunter. She then became the first African American individual to head a Harvard faculty.As of 2015, the school is ranked as one of the best in the nation (with Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Washington School of Public Health and UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health) in the U.S. News & World Report. U.S. News consistently ranks Harvard #1 in Health Policy and Management.

Mount Porte Crayon

Mount Porte Crayon is a mountain in the Roaring Plains Wilderness of the Monongahela National Forest in the northeastern corner of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA. It rises to an elevation of 4,770 feet (1,450 m), the elevational climax of the Allegheny Front. The mountain is named for 19th century writer and illustrator David Hunter Strother (1816–88), known as "Porte Crayon" (French, porte-crayon: "pencil/crayon holder"), who produced a wide array of early West Virginia landscapes in his work.

Piedmont, Augusta County, Virginia

Piedmont is an unincorporated community in Augusta County, Virginia, United States. Piedmont is located 10.4 miles (16.7 km) northeast of Staunton, Virginia and 10.1 miles (16.3 km) north-northwest of Waynesboro, Virginia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Piedmont between Union forces under Maj. Gen. David Hunter and Confederate forces under William E. Jones was fought on June 5, 1864 just north of Piedmont. During the battle, Jones was killed and Hunter's forces captured nearly 1,000 Confederate prisoners. The Confederate defeat near Piedmont allowed Hunter to easily occupy Staunton the next day, and threatened the Confederacy's security in the Shenandoah Valley as well as on other fronts, since it necessitated the need to detach Early's Second Corps from the main body of the Army of Northern Virginia near Petersburg, Virginia.

Simon Beckett

Simon Beckett (born 20 April 1960 in Sheffield, England) is a British journalist and author. His books, in particular the crime series around forensic anthropologist Dr David Hunter, have sold 21 million of copies worldwide, and enjoyed particular success in Germany and Scandinavia.

Superstar (UK TV series)

Superstar was a UK talent search, looking for the lead role in the production Jesus Christ Superstar. The series started on 7 July 2012 on ITV and was presented by Amanda Holden.

In the final, on 25 July 2012, 31-year-old Ben Forster was chosen as Jesus to perform the role in the UK arena tour starting in September 2012.

The Inquiry

The Inquiry was a study group established in September 1917 by Woodrow Wilson to prepare materials for the peace negotiations following World War I. The group, composed of around 150 academics, was directed by presidential adviser Edward House and supervised directly by philosopher Sidney Mezes. The Heads of Research were Walter Lippmann, who was later replaced by Isaiah Bowman. The group first worked out of the New York Public Library, but later worked from the offices of the American Geographical Society of New York, once Bowman joined the group.Mezes's senior colleagues were geographer Isaiah Bowman, historian and librarian Archibald Cary Coolidge, historian James Shotwell, and lawyer David Hunter Miller. Progressive confidants who were consulted on staffing but who did not contribute directly to the administration or reports of the group included James Truslow Adams, Louis Brandeis, Abbott Lawrence Lowell and Walter Weyl.

Twenty-one members of The Inquiry, later integrated into the larger American Commission to Negotiate Peace, traveled to the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919, accompanying Wilson aboard the USS George Washington to France.

Also included in the group were such academics as Paul Monroe, professor of history at Columbia University, a key member of the Research Division who drew on his experience in the Philippines to assess the educational needs of developing areas such as Albania, Turkey and central Africa, and Frank A. Golder, a history professor from Washington State University specializing in the diplomatic history of Russia, who wrote papers on Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland, and Russia.

Union Army of the Shenandoah

The Army of the Shenandoah was a Union army during the American Civil War. First organized as the Department of the Shenandoah in 1861 and then disbanded in early 1862, it became most effective after its recreation on August 1, 1864, under Philip Sheridan. Its Valley Campaigns of 1864 rendered the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia unable to produce foodstuffs for the Confederate States Army, a condition which would speed the end of the Civil War.

Upper Victoria

Upper Victoria is a hamlet in Angus, Scotland. It lies on the A92 road between Arbroath and Dundee and is the location of the junction of the A92 and the Marches, the Craigton to Carnoustie road, forming the main route into Carnoustie.Upper Victoria was the site of Pitskelly quarry and, in the early 19th century, David Hunter of Blackness constructed a railway line between the quarry and Carnoustie to transport stone railway sleepers to the main line. The stone ultimately proved to be of inferior quality and the venture was abandoned.

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