David Belasco

David Belasco (July 25, 1853 – May 14, 1931) was an American theatrical producer, impresario, director and playwright.[1] He was the first writer to adapt the short story Madame Butterfly for the stage, and he launched the theatrical career of many actors, including Mary Pickford, Lenore Ulric and Barbara Stanwyck. Belasco pioneered many innovative new forms of stage lighting and special effects in order to create realism and naturalism.[2][3]

David Belasco
David Belasco circa 1915 oval portrait
Belasco circa 1915
BornJuly 25, 1853
DiedMay 14, 1931 (aged 77)
OccupationTheatrical producer, director, playwright
Years active1884 to 1930
Known forBelasco Theatre; Pioneer of modern stage lighting and stage effects; stage naturalism
Notable credit(s)
Madame Butterfly
Cecilia Loverich
(m. 1873; her death 1926)

Early years

David Belasco was born in San Francisco, California, the son of Abraham H. Belasco (1830–1911) and Reyna Belasco (née Nunes, 1830–1899), Sephardic Jews who had moved from London’s Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community during the California Gold Rush.[3]:13 He began working in a San Francisco theatre doing a variety of routine jobs, such as call boy, script copier or as an extra in small parts.[3]:14 He received his first experience as a stage manager while on the road. He said, "We used to play in any place we could hire or get into—a hall, a big dining room, an empty barn; any place that would take us."[3]:14

From late 1873 to early 1874, he worked as an actor, director, and secretary at Piper's Opera House in Virginia City, Nevada, where he found "more reckless women and desperadoes to the square foot…than anywhere else in the world". He said that while there, seeing "people die under such peculiar circumstances" made him "all the more particular in regard to the psychology of dying on the stage. I think I was one of the first to bring naturalness to bear in death scenes, and my varied Virginia City experiences did much to help me toward this. Later I was to go deeper into such studies." By March 1874, he was back at work in San Francisco. His recollections of that time were published in Hearst's Magazine in 1914.[4]

He eventually was given the opportunity to act and serve as a stage manager, learning the business inside out. A gifted playwright, Belasco went to New York City in 1882 where he worked as stage manager for the Madison Square Theatre (starting with Young Mrs. Winthrop), and then the old Lyceum Theatre while writing plays. By 1895, he was so successful that he set himself up as an independent producer.


David Belasco 1873
Belasco in 1873

During his long creative career, stretching between 1884 and 1930, Belasco either wrote, directed, or produced more than 100 Broadway plays including Hearts of Oak, The Heart of Maryland, and Du Barry, making him the most powerful personality on the New York city theater scene. He also helped establish careers for dozens of notable stage performers, many of whom went on to work in films.

Among them were Leslie Carter, dubbed "The American Sarah Bernhardt,"[5] whose association with Belasco skyrocketed her to theatrical fame after her roles in Zaza (1898) and Madame Du Barry (1901).[5] Ina Claire's lead in Polly with a Past (1917) and The Gold Diggers (1919), similarly propelled her career.[5] Belasco wrote a lead part for 18-year-old Maude Adams, in his new play, Men and Women (1890), which ran for 200 performances.[5]

Other stars whose careers he helped launch included Jeanne Eagels, who would later achieve immortality as Sadie Thompson in Rain (1923), which played for 340 performances.[6] Belasco discovered and managed the careers of Lenore Ulric[7] and David Warfield, both of whom became major stars on Broadway. He launched the career of Barbara Stanwyck, which included changing her name.[5]

Belasco is perhaps most famous for having adapted the short story Madame Butterfly into a play with the same name and for penning The Girl of the Golden West for the stage, both of which were adapted as operas by Giacomo Puccini (Madama Butterfly 1904—twice, after revision) and La fanciulla del West (1910). More than forty motion pictures have been made from the many plays he authored.

Many prominent performers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries sought the opportunity to work with Belasco; among them were D. W. Griffith, Helen Hayes, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford[5] and Cecil B. DeMille.[5] DeMille's father had been close friends with Belasco, and after DeMille graduated from the American Academy of Dramatic Arts, he began his stage career under Belasco's guidance.[8] DeMille's later methods of handling actors, using dramatic lighting and directing films, was modeled after Belasco's staging techniques.[5]

Pickford appeared in his plays The Warrens of Virginia at the first Belasco Theatre in 1907 and A Good Little Devil in 1913. The two remained in touch after Pickford began working in Hollywood; Belasco appeared with her in the 1914 film adaptation of A Good Little Devil. He is also credited as giving Pickford her stage name. He also worked with Lionel Barrymore who starred in his play Laugh, Clown, Laugh opposite Lucille Kahn, whose Broadway career Belasco launched. Belasco was a member of The Lambs from 1893 to 1931.


David Belasco was married to Cecilia Loverich for over fifty years; they had two daughters, Reina and Augusta.


Belasco died in 1931 at the age of 77 in Manhattan.[1] He was interred in the Linden Hill Jewish Cemetery on Metropolitan Avenue in Ridgewood, Queens.[9][10]

Influence on American theatre

Belasco demanded a natural acting style, and to complement that, he developed stage settings with authentic lighting effects to enhance his plays. His productions inspired several generations of theatre lighting designers.[11]:29

Belasco's contributions to modern stage and lighting techniques were originally not appreciated as much as those of his European counterparts, such as André Antoine and Constantin Stanislavski, however today he is regarded as "one of the first significant directorial figures in the history of the American theatre," writes theatre historian Lise-Lone Marker.[3]:xi

He brought a new standard of naturalism to the American stage as the first to develop modern stage lighting along with the use of colored lights, via motorized color changing wheels, to evoke mood and setting.[3]:xi[11] America's earliest stage lighting manufacturer, Kliegl Brothers, began by serving the specialized needs of producers and directors such as Belasco and Florenz Ziegfeld.[11]:157 With regard to these modern lighting effects, Belasco is best remembered for his production of Girl of the Golden West (1905), with the play opening to a spectacular sunset which lasted five minutes before any dialogue started.[11]:29

Belasco became one of the first directors to eschew the use of traditional footlights in favor of lights concealed below floor level, thereby hidden from the audience. His lighting assistant, Louis Hartmann, fabricated Belasco's design ideas.[11]:29 He also used follow spots to further create realism and often tailored his lighting configurations to complement the complexions and hair of the actors.[11]:135 He ordered a specially made 1000-watt lamp developed just for his own productions, and was the only director to have one for the first two years after its introduction (1914-1915).[11]:135

In his own theatres, the dressing rooms were equipped with lamps of several colors, allowing the performers to see how their makeup looked under different lighting conditions.

Supposedly he put appropriate scents to set scenes in the ventilation of the theaters, while his sets paid great attention to detail, and sometimes spilled out into the audience area. In one play, for instance, an operational laundromat was built onstage. In The Governor's Lady, there was a reproduction of a Childs Restaurant kitchen where actors actually cooked and prepared food during the play. He is even said to have purchased a room in a flophouse, cut it out of the building, brought it to his theater, cut out one wall and presented it as the set for a production. Belasco's original scripts were often filled with long, specific descriptions of props and set dressings. He has not been noted for producing unusually naturalistic scenarios.

Belasco also embraced existing theatre technology and sought to expand on it. Both of Belasco's New York theatres were built on the cutting edge of their era's technology. When Belasco took over the Republic Theatre he drilled a new basement level to accommodate his machinery; the Stuyvesant Theatre was specially constructed with enormous amounts of flyspace, hydraulics systems and lighting rigs. The basement of the Stuyvesant contained a working machine shop, where Belasco and his team experimented with lighting and other special effects. Many of the innovations developed in the Belasco shop were sold to other producers.

F. Scott Fitzgerald references Belasco's reputation for realism in The Great Gatsby when he has a drunken visitor in the library of Gatsby's mansion exclaim in amazement that the books are genuine: "See!" he cried triumphantly. "It's a bona-fide piece of printed matter. It fooled me. This fella's a regular Belasco. It's a triumph. What thoroughness! What realism! Knew when to stop, too—didn't cut the pages."[12]


The first Belasco Theatre in New York was located at 229 West 42nd Street, between 7th and 8th Avenues, in the Times Square district of Manhattan. Belasco took over management of the theater and completely remodeled it in 1902, only two years after it was constructed as the Theatre Republic by Oscar Hammerstein (the grandfather of the famous lyricist). He gave up the theater in 1910 and it was renamed the Republic. Under various owners, it went through a tumultuous period as a burlesque venue, hosted second-run and, eventually, pornographic films and fell into a period of neglect before being rehabilitated and reopened as the New Victory Theater in 1995.

The second Belasco Theatre is located at 111 West 44th Street, between 6th and 7th Avenues, only a few blocks away from the New Victory. It was constructed in 1907 as the Stuyvesant Theatre and renamed after Belasco in 1910. The theater was built to Belasco's wishes, with Tiffany lighting and ceiling panels, rich woodwork and murals. His business office and private apartment were also housed there. The Belasco is still in operation as a Broadway venue with much of the original decor intact. In 2010 it underwent a massive US $14.5 million restoration, which strove to renovate and restore the theater to the condition it was in when David Belasco was alive.[13]

Belasco Theatres also existed in several other cities. In Los Angeles, the first Belasco Theatre was located at 337 S. Main St. The theater, which hosted the Belasco Stock Company, opened in 1904 and was operated by David Belasco's brother, Frederick. This theater was renamed twice: as the Republic in about 1913 and as the Follies, circa 1919. The theater eventually became a burlesque venue in the 1940s, fell into sharp decline, and was demolished in May 1974.[14][15]

The second, and perhaps more well known, Los Angeles Belasco Theatre is located at 1050 S. Hill St in Downtown Los Angeles. The theatre, which was built by Morgan, Walls & Clements, opened in 1926, and was managed by Edward Belasco, another of David's brothers. Many Hollywood stars with theatrical roots, as well as Broadway stars who were visiting the West Coast, appeared at the theatre.[16] The theater declined after the death of Edward Belasco in 1937. After closing altogether in the early 1950s, the theater was used as a church for several decades.[17] In 2010 - 2011, the theater underwent an extensive restoration, and is currently in operation as a nightclub and convention venue.[18]

The Shubert-Belasco Theatre, purchased by Belasco in September 1905, was located in Washington D.C. Originally built in 1895 as the Lafayette Square Opera House, at 717 Madison Place, across from the White House, the theater was razed in 1962 and replaced by the U.S. Court of Claims building.[19]

Selected plays



Films about David Belasco


  1. ^ a b "David Belasco Dies. Dean Of Theatre, 76, Had Long Been Ill. Stage Genius Who Is Dead At 76". The New York Times. May 15, 1931.
  2. ^ Osnes, Beth, and Gill, Sam. Acting: An International Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO (2001) p. 34
  3. ^ a b c d e f Marker, Lise-Lone, David Belasco: Naturalism in the American Theater, Princeton Univ. Press (1975)
  4. ^ Belasco, David. Gala Days of Piper's Opera House and the California Theater. 1914. Sparks, NV:, Falcon Hill Press, 1991: v–vi, 18, 42
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wilson, Victoria. A Life of Barbara Stanwyck: Steel-True 1907-1940, Simon and Schuster (2013) ebook
  6. ^ Botto, Louis; Viagas, Robert. At this Theatre: 100 Years of Broadway Shows, Stories and Stars, Hal Leonard Corp. (2002) p. 28
  7. ^ "Lenore Ulric, Broadway Star of Belasco Era, Is Dead at 78", The New York Times, December 31, 1970
  8. ^ Wallace, David. Lost Hollywood, Macmillan (2001) p. 21
  9. ^ "Throng At Funeral Of David Belasco". The New York Times. May 18, 1931.
  10. ^ "Actors Eulogize Belasco. At Meeting of Jewish Guild Frohman Recalls Early Days". The New York Times. May 20, 1931.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Cox, Jim. Sold on Radio: Advertisers in the Golden Age of Broadcasting. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, 2008; reprint 2013. ISBN 9780786433919.
  12. ^ F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, chapter 3.
  13. ^ Isherwood, Charles. "Belasco Theater Is Burnished, and Back". Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  14. ^ "Follies Theatre - Historic Los Angeles Theatres - Downtown". google.com.
  15. ^ "Follies Theatre". cinematreasures.org.
  16. ^ "Belasco Theatre - Historic Los Angeles Theatres - Downtown". google.com.
  17. ^ "Historic Belasco Theater Awaits Its Next Act". blogdowntown.com.
  18. ^ "Bringing Back the Belasco". Los Angeles Downtown News - For Everything Downtown L.A.!.
  19. ^ "White House Area - Sites on the East side of Lafayette Park". Library.thinkquest.org. Archived from the original on 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2013-01-24.

Further reading

  • Broadway Theatres: History and architecture, William Morrison, Dover Publications, 1999, ISBN 0-486-40244-4
  • Sunshine and Shadows, Mary Pickford, Doubleday, 1956, ASIN B0006AU3U6
  • The Shuberts Present: 100 Years of American Theater, Maryann Chach, Reagan Fletcher, Mark Evan Swartz, Sylvia Wang, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 2001, ISBN 0-8109-0614-7
  • Theatre through Its Stage Door, David Belasco, New York and London: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1919, published Sept. 1919. Also Ayer Co. Publishing (reprint), 1919, ISBN 0-405-08261-4

External links

Belasco Theatre

The Belasco Theatre is a Broadway theatre which opened in 1907 at 111 West 44th Street in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Originally known as the Stuyvesant Theatre, it was designed by architect George Keister for impresario David Belasco. The interior featured Tiffany lighting and ceiling panels, rich woodwork and expansive murals by American artist Everett Shinn, and a ten-room duplex penthouse apartment that Belasco utilized as combination living quarters/office space.

Hearts of Oak (play)

Hearts of Oak is an 1879 play by Americans James Herne and David Belasco taken from the British play, The Mariner's Compass, by Henry Leslie (1830–1881).

Laugh, Clown, Laugh

Laugh, Clown, Laugh is a 1928 American silent drama film starring Lon Chaney and Loretta Young. The movie was directed by Herbert Brenon and produced and released through MGM Studios.

The film is based on the 1923 Broadway stage production Laugh, Clown, Laugh, by David Belasco and Tom Cushing, based on a 1919 play Ridi, Pagliaccio by Fausto Maria Martini.

Lyceum Theatre (Park Avenue South)

The Lyceum Theatre was a theatre in New York City located on Fourth Avenue, now Park Avenue South, between 23rd and 24th Streets in Manhattan. It was built in 1885 and operated until 1902, when it was torn down to make way for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower. It was replaced by a new Lyceum Theatre on 45th Street. For most of its existence, the theatre was home to Daniel Frohman’s Lyceum Theatre Stock Company, which presented many important plays and actors of the day.

Madame Butterfly (play)

Madame Butterfly: A Tragedy of Japan is a play in one act by David Belasco adapted from John Luther Long's 1898 short story "Madame Butterfly". It premiered on March 5, 1900, at the Herald Square Theatre in New York City and became one of Belasco's most famous works. The play and Long's short story served as the basis for the libretto of Puccini's 1904 opera, Madama Butterfly. The title role was originally played in New York and London by Blanche Bates; in 1900–01 in New York by Valerie Bergere; and in 1913 by Clara Blandick.

May Blossom (film)

May Blossom is a 1915 American silent drama film directed by Allan Dwan and written by David Belasco based upon his 1884 play. The film stars Russell Bassett, Donald Crisp, Marshall Neilan, Gertrude Norman, and Gertrude Robinson. The film was released on April 15, 1915, by Paramount Pictures.

Men and Women (1925 film)

Men and Women is a lost 1925 American silent drama film produced by Famous Players-Lasky and released by Paramount Pictures. It was directed by William C. deMille and starred Richard Dix, Claire Adams, and Neil Hamilton. It is based on a play, Men and Women, written years earlier by David Belasco and Henry Churchill de Mille, father of the director.

The Fighting Hope

The Fighting Hope is a 1915 silent film drama directed by George Melford and starring Thomas Meighan and Laura Hope Crews, both in their film debuts. Jesse Lasky produced and Paramount Pictures released. Based on a 1908 play by William J. Hurlbut that was produced by David Belasco.

Incomplete surviving film at BFI Institute (London).

The Girl of the Golden West (1915 film)

The Girl of the Golden West is a surviving 1915 American Western silent black-and-white film directed by Cecil B. DeMille. It was based on the 1905 play The Girl of the Golden West by David Belasco. Prints of the film survive in the Library of Congress film archive. It was the first of four film adaptations that have been made of the play.

The Girl of the Golden West (1938 film)

The Girl of the Golden West is a 1938 American musical western film adapted from the play of the same name by David Belasco, better known for providing the plot of the opera La fanciulla del West by Giacomo Puccini. A frontier woman falls in love with an outlaw.

The Girl of the Golden West (play)

The Girl of the Golden West is a theatrical play written, produced and directed by David Belasco, set in the California Gold Rush. The four-act melodrama opened at the old Belasco Theatre in New York on November 14, 1905 and ran for 224 performances. Blanche Bates originated the role of The Girl, Robert C. Hilliard played Dick Johnson, and Frank Keenan played Jack Rance. Bates was joined by Charles Millward and Cuyler Hastings for two-week Broadway runs in 1907 and 1908. William Furst composed the play's incidental music. The play toured throughout the US for several years.The play has been adapted numerous times, most notably as the 1910 opera La fanciulla del West by Giacomo Puccini. It was also made into four films, all titled The Girl of the Golden West, in 1915, 1923, 1930 and 1938. In 1911, Belasco wrote a novel based on the play.

The Hatchet Man

The Hatchet Man (1932) is a pre-Code film directed by William A. Wellman and starring Edward G. Robinson. Warner Bros. had purchased the David Belasco/Achmed Abdullah play The Honorable Mr. Wong about the Tong gang wars. Made during the few years before strict enforcement of the Production Code, The Hatchet Man has elements that would not be allowed later, such as adultery, narcotics, and a somewhat graphic use of a flying hatchet.

The Heart of Maryland (play)

The Heart of Maryland was a theatrical play written, produced and directed by David Belasco. The four-act melodrama set in the American Civil War opened at the Herald Square Theatre in New York on October 22, 1895 and ran for 240 performances. Mrs. Leslie Carter originated the role of Maryland Calvert and Maurice Barrymore originated the role of Col. Alan Kendrick. William Furst composed the play's incidental music. The play toured throughout the United States for several years, and was made into a silent film by the same title in 1927. Silent versions also appeared in 1915, with Mrs. Carter in her original role, and in 1921.

Belasco said that the play was inspired in part by the poem Curfew Must Not Ring Tonight by Rose Hartwick Thorpe. As he recalled, "The picture of that swaying young figure hanging heroically to the clapper of an old church bell lived in my memory for a quarter of a century. When the time came that I needed a play to exploit the love and heroism of a woman I wrote a play around that picture. It furnished me the idea for 'The Heart of Maryland'."The Best Plays of 1894-1899 featured The Heart of Maryland as the most notable play of the 1895-1896 season.

The Lily (film)

The Lily is a 1926 American drama film directed by Victor Schertzinger and written by Eve Unsell. It is based on the 1923 play The Lily by David Belasco. The film stars Belle Bennett, Ian Keith, Reata Hoyt, Barry Norton, John St. Polis and Richard Tucker. The film was released on October 3, 1926, by Fox Film Corporation.

The Return of Peter Grimm

The Return of Peter Grimm is a 1935 American drama film directed George Nicholls, Jr. from a screenplay by Francis Edwards Faragoh based upon the 1911 Broadway play of the same name by David Belasco. Produced by Kenneth Macgowan and released by RKO Radio Pictures on September 13, 1935, it stars Lionel Barrymore, Helen Mack, Edward Ellis, and Donald Meek.Previously filmed by Fox Film Corporation in 1926 as a silent film, The Return of Peter Grimm.

The Return of Peter Grimm (1926 film)

The Return of Peter Grimm is a 1926 American silent fantasy film directed by Victor Schertzinger based on the 1911 play by David Belasco. It was produced and distributed by the Fox Film Corporation.A print survives at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York.A previous short film of this play appeared in 1913. A sound feature was made in 1935 as The Return of Peter Grimm.

Twentieth Century (play)

For the 1934 film of the same name, see Twentieth Century (film).Twentieth Century is a play by Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur based on the unproduced play Napoleon of Broadway by Charles B. Millholland, inspired by his experience working for the eccentric Broadway impresario David Belasco.

Zaza (1923 film)

Zaza is a 1923 American silent romantic drama film directed and produced by Allan Dwan, and starring Gloria Swanson. This film is based on the 1899 French play of the same name produced on Broadway by David Belasco and starring Mrs. Leslie Carter. A print of the film is housed at the George Eastman House and the Library of Congress.A previous film version was released by Paramount in 1915 starring Pauline Frederick. A third version, directed by George Cukor and starring Claudette Colbert, was released in 1939.

Zaza (play)

Zaza is a French-language play written by playwrights Pierre Berton and Charles Simon, and staged for the first time at the Théâtre du Vaudeville in Paris, in May 1898. The title character is a prostitute who becomes a music hall entertainer and the mistress of a married man.

The play is probably best known in the English-speaking world in the adaptation of the same title by David Belasco, which premiered at the Lafayette Square Opera House in Washington, D.C., in December 1898, and subsequently opened at the Garrick Theatre in New York City, in January 1899.

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