David B. Norman

David Bruce Norman (born 20 June 1952 in the United Kingdom) is a British paleontologist, currently the main curator of vertebrate paleontology at the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge University.[1] For many years until 2013, Norman has also been the Sedgwick Museum's director.

Life and career

Norman is a fellow at Christ's College, Cambridge where he teaches geology in the Natural Sciences tripos. A member of the Palaeontological Association,[2] he has studied Iguanodon[3] and also has participated in the studies and scientific surveys included in the dinosaur work The Dinosauria (2nd edition, 2004). The species epithet of Equijubus normani was named in honour of him.[4]

In 2017, Dr Norman was one of three British palaeontologists who proposed a radical new hypothesis for early dinosaur evolution and interrelationships in a paper in the journal Nature. In this work, Dr Matthew Grant Baron, Dr David Bruce Norman and Prof. Paul Michael Barrett (2017) suggested that Ornithischia and Theropoda were closely related as part of a new clade that they named Ornithoscelida.[5]

He also possesses a keen interest in rugby, and he regularly referees for Cambridge University and District Rugby Referees Society (CUDRRS), earning himself the nickname 'Refosaurus Rex'.


Children books

  • The Poster Book of Dinosaurs, Hodder Children's Books, 1988 (illustrations by John Sibbick)
  • The Humongous Book of Dinosaurs, Publisher: Stewart, Tabori and Chang (April 1997) ; ISBN 978-1556705960
  • The Big Book of Dinosaurs, Publisher: Welcome Books (April 2001) ; ISBN 978-0941807487
  • Dinosaurs Sticker Book, Usborne Sticker Books, 2010, ISBN 978-1409520610

Popular science books

  • Spotter's Guide to Dinosaurs & Other Prehistoric Animals, Usborne Publishing, London, 1980 (illustrations by Bob Hersey)
  • When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1985 (illustrations by John Sibbick)
  • The Age of Dinosaurs, Hodder Wayland, November 1985
  • Dinosaurs!, E.D.C. Publishing, December 1985 (illustrations by Ruth Thomson and Bob Hersey)
  • Dinosaur, co-authored with Angela Milner, Dorling Kindersley Eyewitness Books, London, 1989
  • Dinosaur!, Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1991, ISBN 978-0-13-218140-2 (the official companion to A&E's 1991 four-part television series hosted by Walter Cronkite)
  • Prehistoric Life: the rise of the vertebrates, John Wiley & Sons, New York, December 1994 (illustrations by John Sibbick)
  • The Smithsonian Handbook to Dinosaurs and Other Prehistoric Animals, co-authored with Hazel Richardson, Dorling Kindersley, 2003, ISBN 978-0-7894-9361-3

Scientific books and surveys

TV documentaries

Crew member, as a scientific advisor

On screen, as himself

  • Dinosaur! (four-part TV series documentary, hosted by Walter Cronkite, A&E, 1991, Norman appears in all four episodes: "The Tale of a Tooth", "The Tale of a Bone", "The Tale of an Egg" and "The Tale of a Feather")
  • The Dinosaurs! (television documentary miniseries produced by PBS in 1992)
  • Dinosaurs Myths & Reality (TV movie documentary, 1995, Produced by Castle Communications and Cromwell Productions Ltd.)
  • The Making of Walking with Dinosaurs (TV movie documentary about the series Walking with Dinosaurs, 1999, "making of" produced and directed by Jasper James for the BBC)


TV credits


  1. ^ "Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences - Staff". Sedgwick Museum.
  2. ^ "| Reg. Charity No. 1168330". The Palaeontological Association.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-01. Retrieved 2010-01-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ You, Luo, Shubin, Witmer, Tang and Tang (2003). "The earliest-known duck-billed dinosaur from deposits of late Early Cretaceous age in northwest China and hadrosaurid evolution." Cretaceous Research, 24: 347-353.
  5. ^ Baron, M.G., Norman, D.B., and Barrett, P.M. (2017). A new hypothesis of dinosaur relationships and early dinosaur evolution. Nature, 543: 501–506. doi:10.1038/nature21700

External links


Altirhinus (; "high snout") is a genus of iguanodontian ornithopod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Period of Mongolia.


Barilium is a genus of iguanodontian dinosaur which was first described as a species of Iguanodon (I. dawsoni) by Richard Lydekker in 1888, the specific epithet honouring the discoverer Charles Dawson.

In 2010 it was reclassified as a separate genus by David Norman. The generic name Barilium is derived from Greek barys, "heavy", and Latin ilium. Later in 2010, Kenneth Carpenter and Yusuke Ishida independently assigned it to the new genus Torilion, which is thus a junior objective synonym of Barilium. It is known from two partial skeletons found near St Leonards-on-Sea in East Sussex, England, from the middle Valanginian-age Lower Cretaceous Wadhurst Clay. Lydekker based the species on the syntype series BMNH R798, 798a, 803-805, 806, 798b, 802, 802a and 799-801. Norman chose NHMUK R 798 and R802, a dorsal vertebra and a left ilium, as the lectotype.

A contemporary of Hypselospinus (also once thought to be a species of Iguanodon), Barilium was a robust iguanodontian estimated at 8 metres (26 feet) long.Barilium is separated from Hypselospinus on the basis of vertebral and pelvic characters, size, and build. For example, Barilium was more robust than Hypselospinus, with large Camptosaurus-like vertebrae featuring short neural spines, whereas Hypselospinus is known for its "long, narrow, and steeply inclined neural spines".


Cerapoda ("ceratopsians and ornithopods") is a clade of the dinosaur order Ornithischia.


Echinodon (pronounced eh-KY-no-don) meaning "hedgehog tooth" in reference to the spines on its teeth (Ancient Greek: εχινος, romanized: echinos, lit. 'hedgehog', + ὀδών, odṓn, 'tooth'), occasionally known as Saurechinodon, is a genus of small European dinosaur of the early Cretaceous Period (Berriasian age), 140 million years ago.


Eocursor (meaning "dawn runner") was a primitive genus of dinosaur. It was an ornithischian which lived in what is now South Africa. Remains of this animal have been found in the Lower Elliot Formation and might be the most complete known from a Triassic ornithischian, shedding new light on the origin of this group.The exact age of this taxon is uncertain. It was originally interprereted as living during the Late Triassic (Norian age), around 210 million years ago; however, Olsen, Kent & Whiteside (2010) stated that there is no independent geochronological support for its assumed age, and the available data makes it impossible to conclusively determine whether Eocursor is of Triassic or Early Jurassic (potentially as young as Sinemurian) age. Eocursor was subsequently interpreted as a taxon of Early Jurassic age by Mcphee et al. (2017).Fossils of Eocursor were originally collected in 1993, but were not formally described until fourteen years later. The type species, Eocursor parvus, was described in 2007 by Richard J. Butler, Roger M. H. Smith, and David B. Norman. Eocursor was one of the earliest known ornithischians, and sheds some light on early dinosaur relationships because early dinosaurs are known from mostly incomplete skeletons. Eocursor is known from partial skeletal elements, including skull fragments, spinal elements, pelvis, long leg bones, and unusually large grasping hands.


Equijubus (Chinese: 马鬃龙; pinyin: Mǎzōng lóng; Mǎzōng meaning "horse mane" after the area Mǎzōng Mountain 马鬃山 in which it was found), is a genus of herbivorous hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian stage) of northwestern China.


Hadrosauromorpha is a cohort of iguanodontian ornithopods, defined in 2014 by David B. Norman to divide Hadrosauroidea into the basal taxa with compressed manual bones and a pollex, and the derived taxa that lack them. The clade is defined as all the taxa closer to Edmontosaurus regalis than Probactrosaurus gobiensis. This results in different taxon inclusion depending on the analysis.


Huxleysaurus (meaning "Huxley's lizard") is a genus of herbivorous styracosternan ornithopod dinosaur.


Hypselospinus is a genus of iguanodontian dinosaur which was first described as a species of Iguanodon (I. fittoni) by Richard Lydekker in 1889, the specific name honouring William Henry Fitton.In May 2010 the fossils comprising Hypselospinus were by David Norman reclassified as a separate genus, among them the holotype BMNH R1635, consisting of a left ilium, a sacrum, tail vertebrae and teeth. The generic name is derived from Greek hypselos, "high" and Latin spina, "thorn", in reference to the high vertebral spines. Later that same year, a second group of scientists independently re-classified I. fittoni into a new genus they named Wadhurstia, which thus is a junior objective synonym of Hypselospinus. Hypselospinus lived during the lower Valanginian stage, around 140 million years ago. A contemporary of Barilium (also once thought to be a species of Iguanodon), Hypselospinus was a lightly built iguanodontian estimated at 6 metres (19.7 ft) long. The species Iguanodon fittoni was described from the lower Valanginian-age Lower Cretaceous Wadhurst Clay of East Sussex, England. Remains from Spain may also pertain to it. Norman (2004) wrote that three partial skeletons are known for it, but this is an error.Hypselospinus is separated from Barilium on the basis of vertebral and pelvic characters, size, and build. For example, Barilium was more robust than Hypselospinus, with large Camptosaurus-like vertebrae featuring short neural spines, whereas Hypselospinus is known for its "long, narrow, and steeply inclined neural spines".


Lesothosaurus was a genus of omnivorous ornithischian dinosaur from South Africa and Lesotho. It was named by paleontologist Peter Galton in 1978, the name meaning "lizard from Lesotho". The genus has only one valid species, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus.


Mantellodon (meaning "Gideon Mantell's tooth") is a genus of styracosternan ornithopod. The type species is Mantellodon carpenteri. The holotype specimen is NHMUK R3741 consisting of a partial associated postcranial skeleton. It was formerly referred to Iguanodon.


Neornithischia ("new ornithischians") is a clade of the dinosaur order Ornithischia. They are the sister group of the Thyreophora within the clade Genasauria. Neornithischians are united by having a thicker layer of asymmetrical enamel on the inside of their lower teeth. The teeth wore unevenly with chewing and developed sharp ridges that allowed neornithischians to break down tougher plant food than other dinosaurs. Neornithischians include a variety of basal forms historically known as "hypsilophodonts", including the Parksosauridae; in addition, there are derived forms classified in the groups Marginocephalia and Ornithopoda. The former includes clades Pachycephalosauria and Ceratopsia, while the latter typically includes Hypsilophodon and the more derived Iguanodontia.

Raptor Red

Raptor Red is a 1995 American novel by paleontologist Robert T. Bakker. The book is a third-person account of dinosaurs during the Cretaceous Period, told from the point of view of Raptor Red, a female Utahraptor. Raptor Red features many of Bakker's theories regarding dinosaurs' social habits, intelligence, and the world in which they lived.

The book follows a year in Raptor Red's life as she loses her mate, finds her family, and struggles to survive in a hostile environment. Bakker drew inspiration from Ernest Thompson Seton's works that look at life through the eyes of predators, and said that he found it "fun" to write from a top predator's perspective. Bakker based his portrayals of dinosaurs and other prehistoric wildlife on fossil evidence, as well as studies of modern animals.

When released, Raptor Red was generally praised: Bakker's anthropomorphism was seen as a unique and positive aspect of the book, and his writing was described as folksy and heartfelt. Criticisms of the novel included a perceived lack of characterization and average writing. Some scientists, such as paleontologist David B. Norman, took issue with the scientific theories portrayed in the novel, fearing that the public would accept them as fact, while Discovery Channel host Jay Ingram defended Bakker's creative decisions in an editorial.


Saurischia ( saw-RIS-kee-ə, meaning "reptile-hipped" from the Greek sauros (σαῦρος) meaning 'lizard' and ischion (ἴσχιον) meaning 'hip joint') is one of the two basic divisions of dinosaurs (the other being Ornithischia). ‘Saurischia’ translates to lizard-hipped.

In 1888, Harry Seeley classified dinosaurs into two orders, based on their hip structure, though today most paleontologists classify Saurischia as an unranked clade rather than an order.


Shuangmiaosaurus is a genus of herbivorous ornithischian dinosaur which lived during the late Albian age of the Early Cretaceous Period, about 100 million years ago. It was an iguanodont euornithopod which lived in China.

The type species, Shuangmiaosaurus gilmorei, was named and described by You Hailu, Ji Qiang Li Jinglu and Li Yinxian in 2003. The generic name refers to the village of Shuangmiao in Beipiao in Liaoning Province, the site of the discovery. The specific name honours the American paleontologist Charles Whitney Gilmore.The holotype, specimen LPM 0165, was found in the Sunjiawan Formation, originally seen as dating to the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian) but today considered to have been somewhat older. It consists of a partial left upper jaw and lower jaw, including the maxilla, part of the praemaxilla, elements of the lacrimal and the dentary.

Shuangmiaosaurus was a rather large euornithopod. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated its length at 7.5 metres, its weight at 2.5 tonnes.Shuangmiaosaurus was originally considered a basal member of the Hadrosauroidea, one closely related to the Hadrosauridae. Subsequent authors, including David B. Norman of Cambridge University, consider it a more basal member of the Iguanodontia outside of the Hadrosauroidea.


Tatisaurus is a genus of ornithischian dinosaur from the Early Jurassic from the Lower Lufeng Formation in Yunnan Province in China. Little is known as the remains are fragmentary.


Taveirosaurus (tah-VAY-roo-SAWR-us) (meaning "Taveiro lizard") is a genus of ornithischian dinosaur that lived in Europe during the Late Cretaceous. The genus is based solely on teeth.

From 1968 Miguel Telles Antunes and Giuseppe Manuppella uncovered fossils at the Cerâmica do Mondego quarry near Taveiro, a village in Portugal, southwest of Coimbra. Among them were a number of low triangular teeth of a herbivorous dinosaur. In 1991 these were named and described by Telles Antunes and Denise Sigogneau-Russell as the type species Taveirosaurus costai. The generic name refers to Taveiro. The specific name honours the Portuguese geologist João Carrington da Costa.The holotype, CEGUNL-TV 10, was found in ancient river clay of the Argilas de Aveiro Formation dating from the Maastrichtian. It consists of one of the teeth. Nine other teeth were also assigned to the genus, CEGUNL-TV 6–9, 11 and 13–16. Later also some teeth found near Laño in Spain were referred.

Having only the teeth to base themselves on, Telles Antunes and Sigogneau originally thought that Taveirosaurus belonged to some pachycephalosaurian group. In 1991 they assigned it to the Homalocephalidae, in 1992 to the Pachycephalosauridae. However, they soon rejected this possibility — and Taveirosaurus has not been included in this group in recent reviews — in 1995 considering it a member of the Nodosauridae. In 1996 Peter Galton suggested it might have belonged to the Fabrosauridae, pointing out a similarity to the teeth of Alocodon and Trimucrodon, two other "tooth genera". In 2004 David B. Norman concluded it was a nomen dubium.


Zalmoxes is an extinct genus of rhabdodontid ornithopod dinosaur from the Maastrichtian of Romania. The genus is known from specimens first named as the species Mochlodon robustum in 1899 by Franz Nopcsa before being reclassified as Rhabdodon robustum by him in 1915. In 1990 this name was corrected to Rhabdodon robustus by George Olshevsky, and in 2003 the species was once more reclassified, this time as the type species Zalmoxes robustus. Zalmoxes refers to the Dacian deity Zalmoxis, and robustus to the robustness of the remains. In 2003 another species was named, Zalmoxes shqiperorum, named for the Albanian name for Albanians.


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