Daur people

The Daur people (Khalkha Mongolian: Дагуур/Daguur; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Dáwò'ěr zú; the former name "Dahur" is considered derogatory) are a Mongolic-speaking ethnic group in northeastern China. The Daurian form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognised in the People's Republic of China. They numbered 131,992 according to the latest census (2010), and most of them live in Morin Dawa Daur Autonomous Banner in Hulun Buir, Inner Mongolia and Meilisi Daur District in Qiqihar, Heilongjiang of China. There are also some near Tacheng in Xinjiang, where their ancestors were moved during the Qing Dynasty.

Daur
Daur woman smiling
Daur woman
Total population
131,992 (2010 census)[1]
Regions with significant populations
People's Republic of China, in Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang and Xinjiang
Languages
Daur, Chinese
Religion
Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism
Related ethnic groups
Mongols, Khitan

Language

Daur is a Mongolic language. There is no written standard, although a Pinyin-based orthography has been devised by the native Daur scholar Merden Enhebatu. The Daur language retains some Khitan substratal features, including a number of lexemes not found in other Mongolic languages. It is made up of three dialects: Bataxan, Hailar, Qiqihar.

During Qing rule, some Daurs spoke and wrote Manchu as a second language.[2]

History

Mongolia XVI
Location of the Daur (Daguur) in the 16th century.
John-Tallis-1851-Tibet-Mongolia-and-Manchuria-NE
Dauria on a British 1851 map. As the map was published 7 years before the Treaty of Aigun, eastern (Amur) Dauria is still shown as part of the Qing dynasty
CEM-44-La-Chine-la-Tartarie-Chinoise-et-le-Thibet-1734-Amur-2572
The Daur (Tagour) placed between the Nonni River and the Amur River on a 1734 French map. Yaxa was a Daurian town prior to its fall to Khabarov's Russian raiders in 1651.
Two Daur men wrestling
Daur wrestling

Genetically, the Daurs are descendants of the Khitan, as recent DNA analyses have proven.[3] In the Qianlong Emperor's "钦定《辽金元三史语解》" (Imperially commissioned Translations of the History of Liao, History of Jin and History of Yuan) he retranslates "大贺", a Khitan clan described in the History of Liao, as "达呼尔". That is the earliest theory that claims Daurs are descendants of Khitans.

In the 17th century, some or all of the Daurs lived along the Shilka, upper Amur, on the Zeya and Bureya River. They thus gave their name to the region of Dauria, also called Transbaikal, now the area of Russia east of Lake Baikal.

By the mid-17th century, the Amur Daurs fell under the influence of the Manchus of the Qing Dynasty which crushed the resistance of Bombogor, leader of the Evenk-Daur Federation in 1640. When the Russian explorers and raiders arrived to the region in the early 1650 (notably, during Yerofei Khabarov's 1651 raid), they would often see the Daur farmers burn their smaller villages and taking refuge in larger towns. When told by the Russians to submit to the rule of the Tsar and to pay yasak (tribute), the Daurs would often refuse, saying that they already paid tribute to the Shunzhi Emperor (whose name the Russians recorded from the Daurs as Shamshakan).[4] The Cossacks would then attack, usually being able to take Daur towns with only small losses. For example, Khabarov reported that in 1651 he had only 4 of his Cossacks killed while storming the town of the Daur prince Guigudar (Гуйгударов городок) (another 45 Cossacks were wounded, but all were able to recover). Meanwhile, the Cossacks reported killing 661 "Daurs big and small" at that town (of which, 427 during the storm itself), and taking 243 women and 118 children prisoners, as well as capturing 237 horse and 113 cattle.[4] The captured Daur town of Yaxa became the Russian town Albazin, which was not recaptured by the Qing until the 1680s.

Facing the Russian expansion in the Amur region, between 1654 and 1656, during the reign of Shunzhi Emperor, the Daurs were forced to move southward and settle on the banks of the Nen River, from where they were constantly conscripted to serve in the banner system of the Qing emperors.

When the Japanese invaded the area of present-day Morin Dawa in Inner Mongolia in 1931, the Daurs carried out an intense resistance against them.[5]

Konan Naito pointed out that Takri Kingdom where King Dongmyeong, a founder of Buyeo was born, as a country of Daur people who lived by Songhua River.[6]

Culture

There is a very noticeable hierarchic structure. People sharing the same surname are in groups called hala, they live together with the same group, formed by two or three towns. Each hala is divided in diverse clans (mokon) that live in the same town. If a marriage between different clans is made, the husband continues to live with the clan of his wife without holding property rights.

During the winter, the Daur women wear long dresses, generally blue in color and boots of skin which they change for long trousers in summer. The men dress in orejeros caps in fox or red deer skin made for winter. In the summer, they cover the animal's head with white colored fabrics or straw hats.

A customary sport of the Daur is Beikou, a game similar to field hockey or street hockey, which has been played by the Daur for about 1,000 years.[7]

Religion

Many Daurians are shamanists. Each clan has its own shaman in charge of all the important ceremonies in the lives of the Daur. However, there are a significant number of Daurs who have taken up Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Multicultural China: A Statistical Yearbook (2014), p349
  2. ^ Evelyn S. Rawski (15 November 1998). The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions. University of California Press. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-0-520-92679-0.
  3. ^ Li Jinhui (2 August 2001). "DNA Match Solves Ancient Mystery". china.org.cn.
  4. ^ a b Вадим Тураев (Vadim Turayev), О ХАРАКТЕРЕ КУПЮР В ПУБЛИКАЦИЯХ ДОКУМЕНТОВ РУССКИХ ЗЕМЛЕПРОХОДЦЕВ XVII Archived 2004-12-30 at Archive.today ("Regarding the omissions in published documents of Russian 17th-century explorers") (in Russian)
  5. ^ Bulag, Uradyn E. The Mongols at China's edge: history and the politics of national unity. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002. p.158
  6. ^ 李成市 (1998-03-25). 古代東アジアの民族と国家. Iwanami Shoten. p. 76. ISBN 978-4000029032.
  7. ^ McGrath, Charles (August 22, 2008). "A Chinese Hinterland, Fertile With Field Hockey". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-23.

External links

Albazino

Albazino (Russian: Албазино́) is a village (selo) in Skovorodinsky District of Amur Oblast, Russia, noted as the site of Albazin (Албазин), the first Russian settlement on the Amur River.

Before the arrival of Russians, Albazino belonged to the Daur people, the Mongolic peoples indigenous to this area. The town was originated by prince Albaz as the capital of Solon Khanate (Sinicized: 索伦汗国).

Later in the 17th century, the town was center of a petty kingdom known as Yagsi (Manchu: yaksa; Chinese: 雅克薩; Russian: Якса).

In the late 1640s, a team of Russian Cossacks under Yerofey Khabarov arrived to explore Dauria. They were keen to gain a foothold in the proximity of the Amur River and, after several clashes with the Daurs under Prince Albaza or Albaaši (Sinicized: 阿尔巴西), established a Russian fort of Albazin in 1651. The Russians were defeated here by Qing China in 1686 (see below). By the Treaty of Nerchinsk the area was assigned to China.

Following the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 a new Amur Cossack stanitsa appeared on the site. A municipal museum is sited among the remains of the 17th-century Russian fort.

Amur River

The Amur River (Even: Тамур, translit. Tamur; Russian: река́ Аму́р, IPA: [ɐˈmur]) or Heilong Jiang (Chinese: 黑龙江; pinyin: Hēilóng Jiāng, "Black Dragon River", IPA: [xéi.lʊ̌ŋ tɕjáŋ]; Manchu: ᠰᠠᡥᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠨᡠᠯᠠorᡥᡝᠯᡠᠩᡤᡳᠶᠠᠩ; Möllendorff: sahaliyan ula/helung giyang; Abkai: sahaliyan ula/helung giyang, "Black River") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria). The largest fish species in the Amur is the kaluga, attaining a length as great as 5.6 metres (18 ft). The river basin is home to a variety of large predatory fish such as northern snakehead, Amur pike, taimen, Amur catfish, predatory carp and yellowcheek, as well as the northernmost populations of the Amur softshell turtle and Indian lotus.

An (surname)

The surname An (Chinese: 安; pinyin: Ān) literally means "peace" or "tranquility". It also serves as an abbreviation of Anxi (安息), meaning "Arsacid" in Chinese and can be romanized as On. Visitors to China who came from Arsacid-held territories often took the name An. In 2008, it was the 110th most common surname in the People's Republic of China, shared by over 1.7 million citizens. The surname is most common in Northern China.

During the Song Dynasty, another An (俺) was a Jewish Chinese surname.

Baarins

The Baarin are a Southern Mongol subgroup. Daur people and some Baarin people of Baarin Right Banner are direct descendants of Khitans. The hairstyles of some Baarin women are similar to the Khitans. They live in Bairin Left Banner and Baarin Right Banner of Inner Mongolia of China.

Beikou

Boikoo tarkbei or Daur hockey is a game similar to field hockey or street hockey. It has been played for about 1,000 years by the Daur people, an ethnic group from Inner Mongolia, China.The game involves teams of men playing a ball-like knob of apricot root (in lieu of a ball) with long wooden branches (in lieu of sticks). At night, the game is played with a felt-covered ball that is set alight. A game is reported to last for two periods of roughly 15 minutes.Poolie tarkbei is the Daur version of polo. Boikoo and poolie are two popular game among Daurs.

Some Daurs believe the Daur term boikoo and poolie was originated from Chinese term buqiu (budaqiu or buqiu was a popular game in Tang China) and Tibetan term polon, and deny the Khitan origin of Daurs. Others believe the Daur boikoo was originated from the Khitan hockey.[1]

When Western field hockey was introduced to China, it was taken up enthusiastically by the Daurs, whose affinity for the game has helped China to improve its global standing in field hockey. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, a third of the Chinese men's field hockey team was from Morin Dawa, a city in the Morin Dawa Daur Autonomous Banner in Inner Mongolia.

China men's national field hockey team

The China men's national field hockey team represents the China in international field hockey matches and tournaments.

Dagur

Dagur may refer to:

Dagur (name), an Icelandic masculine given name

the Daur people, also known as Dagur, an ethnic group mostly living in Inner Mongolia, China

Daur language, a Mongolic language primarily spoken by the Daur people

Dagur the Deranged, an antagonist in the animated television series DreamWorks Dragons

Daur

Daur or Dahur may refer to:

Daur people, a sub-ethnic group mostly living in Inner Mongolia, China

Daur language, a Mongolic language primarily spoken by the Daur people

Daur, Pakistan, a town in the Pakistani province of Sindh

Dawar (Pashtun tribe), a Pashtun tribe in North Waziristan, Pakistan

Dahur, Iran, a village in South Khorasan Province, Iran

Ad-Dawr, a town in Iraq

Daughter, esp. in older census data where Daur is used as an abbreviation for Daughter

Evenks

The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki) are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia. In Russia, the Evenks are recognised as one of the indigenous peoples of the Russian North, with a population of 38,396 (2010 census). In China, the Evenki form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognised by the People's Republic of China, with a population of 30,875 (2010 census). There are 537 Evenks, called Khamnigan in Mongolian, in Mongolia (2015 census).

Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County

Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County is a county situated in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is under the administrative jurisdiction of the Tacheng Prefecture. It has an area of 28,799 km² with a population of 50,000. The Postcode is 834400.

Hockey

Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to manoeuvre a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick. There are many types of hockey such as bandy, field hockey and ice hockey.

In most of the world, hockey refers to field hockey, while in Canada, the United States, Finland, Sweden, Latvia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, hockey usually refers to ice hockey.

Index of Mongolia-related articles

Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Mongolia include:

Individual administrative districts are listed in Sums of Mongolia.

Mentha dahurica

Mentha dahurica is known by the common name of Dahurian thyme. It is a mint species within the genus Mentha, native to Siberia, the Russian Far East, Japan, and northeastern China.The epithet honors the Daur people of Inner Mongolia.

Morin Dawa Daur Autonomous Banner

Morin Dawa Daur Autonomous Banner (Mongolian: ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ Morin Dabaɣ-a Daɣur öbertegen jasaqu qosiɣu; Daur: Morin Dawaa Daor weerie ixkiewu guasei; simplified Chinese: 莫力达瓦达斡尔族自治旗; traditional Chinese: 莫力達瓦達斡爾族自治旗; pinyin: Mòlì Dáwǎ Dáwò'ěrzú Zìzhìqí) is one of three autonomous banners in Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, created for the Daur people. It lies on the Nen River, borders Heilongjiang province to the east, south, and southwest, and is under the administration of Hulunbuir City.

Primorskaya Oblast

Primorskaya Oblast (Russian: Примо́рская о́бласть) was an administrative division of the Russian Empire and the early Russian SFSR, created on October 31, 1856 by the Governing Senate. The name of the region means Littoral, Maritime or Coastal. The region was established upon a Russian conquest of Daur people that used to live along Amur River. Before the conquest, the territory belonged to the Chinese region of Manchuria.

Solon people

The Solon people (simplified Chinese: 索伦; traditional Chinese: 索倫; pinyin: Suǒlún) are a subgroup of the Ewenki (Evenk) people of northeastern Asia. They live in China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Heilongjiang Province, and constitute the majority of China's Ewenki.

Takri Kingdom

Gori Kingdom (Hangul: 고리국; Hanja: 槀離國) was a country where King Dongmyeong who was the founder of Buyeo, was born.It is said that Gori Kingdom was located in the north of Buyeo.Konan Naito pointed out that the Gori Kingdom where King Dongmyeong, a founder of Buyeo was born, as a country of Daur people who lived by Songhua River.

Toli (shamanism)

A toli is a round, ritual mirror used in Shamanism in some parts of Mongolia and in the Republic of Buryatia. The mirror, ornamented on one side and polished on the other, may be made of bronze, brass or copper.Toli are traditionally worn as part of a shaman's attire around the shaman's neck, or in quantity on the shaman's kaftan or apron - often called their armour as these pieces of ritual clothing help to protect the shaman from hostile spirit attack. Toli help ward off harmful or attacking spirits in their own right, and also can be thought of as an object which signifies the shaman's authority or role.Toils have additional purposes as well, for example, amongst the Daur people and all the other shamanistic groups who use them, they are used for a variety of practices, including to purifying and empowering water or vodka, collecting and trapping hostile spirits, and providing a home for helper spirits. They also act as vessels for spiritual power - called 'wind horse' in Mongolia - which is the shaman's power. They can also collect and store the power of blessings, or power given from the sun, moon, stars or other parts of Creation, all of which can be given to a sick person, or which can be added to the shaman's own power.

Walther Heissig, describing shamans and their incantations in Hure Banner in the 1940s, remarks that one shamaness indicated that the toli contained "the white horses of the shamans"; the mirror itself was seen as a vehicle for the shamans.Toli may be used in different sizes; among the Daur, the front and back of the shaman's costume was covered with small toli placed like overlapping scales while the front might also feature eight large mirrors and one medium-sized mirror to protect the heart, the neker-toli; according to Heissig, in Hure Banner shamans wore nine mirrors, nine being a particularly meaningful number in Mongolian religion and mythology. The neker-toli might be plated in nickel. The number of toli collected by the Daur shaman was an indicator of his or her level of power.

Transbaikal

Transbaikal, Trans-Baikal, Transbaikalia (Russian: Забайка́лье, tr. Zabaykalye, IPA: [zəbɐjˈkalʲjɪ]), or Dauria (Даурия, Dauriya) is a mountainous region to the east of or "beyond" (trans-) Lake Baikal in Russia.

The steppe and wetland landscapes of Dauria are protected by the Daurian Nature Reserve, which forms part of a World Heritage Site named "The Landscapes of Dauria".

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