Daugava

The Daugava (Latgalian: Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga. The total length of the river is 1,020 km (630 mi):[1] 325 km (202 mi) in Russia

Daugava
Western Dvina, Russian: Западная Двина (Západnaya Dviná), Belarusian: Заходняя Дзвіна ([zaˈxodnʲaja dzʲvʲiˈna]), Livonian: Vēna, German: Düna
Fluss-lv-Düna
The drainage basin of the Daugava
Location
CountryBelarus, Latvia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia
Physical characteristics
Source 
 - locationValdai Hills, Russia
 - elevation221 m (725 ft)
Mouth 
 - location
Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea
 - elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Length1,020 km (630 mi)[1]
Basin size87,900 km2 (33,900 sq mi)[1]
Discharge 
 - average678 m3/s (23,900 cu ft/s)

Geography

The total catchment area of the river is 87,900 km2 (33,900 sq mi), 33,150 km2 (12,800 sq mi) of which are within Belarus.[1]

Etymology

Riga Dom Bruecke Daugava
Daugava flowing through Riga in Latvia

According to the Max Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary, the toponym Dvina clearly cannot stem from a Uralic language, and it possibly comes from Indo-European word which used to mean river or stream.[2]

Environment

The river began experiencing environmental deterioration in the era of Soviet collective agriculture (producing considerable adverse water pollution runoff) and a wave of hydroelectric power projects.[3]

Cities, towns and settlements

Russia

Andreapol, Zapadnaya Dvina and Velizh.

Belarus

Ruba, Vitebsk, Beshankovichy, Polotsk with Boris stones strewn in the vicinity, Navapolatsk, Dzisna, Verkhnedvinsk, and Druya.

Latvia

Krāslava, Daugavpils, Līvāni, Jēkabpils, Pļaviņas, Aizkraukle, Jaunjelgava, Lielvārde, Kegums, Ogre, Ikšķile, Salaspils and Riga.

History

Riga, Daugava River
Daugava sunset in Riga.
Ustdvinsk
The Swedish army bombarding the fortress of Daugavgriva at the Daugava's estuary in Latvia.

Humans have settled at the mouth of the Daugava and around the other shores of the Gulf of Riga for millennia, initially participating in a hunter-gatherer economy and utilizing the waters of the Daugava estuary as fishing and gathering areas for aquatic biota. Beginning around the sixth century AD, Viking explorers crossed the Baltic Sea and entered the Daugava River, navigating upriver into the Baltic interior.[4]

In medieval times the Daugava was an important area of trading and navigation - part of the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks - for transport of furs from the north and of Byzantine silver from the south. The Riga area, inhabited by the Finnic-speaking Livs, became a key element of settlement and defence of the mouth of the Daugava at least as early as the Middle Ages, as evidenced by the now destroyed fort at Torņakalns on the west bank of the Daugava at present day Riga. Since the Late Middle Ages the western part of the Daugava basin has come under the rule of various peoples and states; for example the Latvian town of Daugavpils, located on the western Daugava, variously came under papal rule as well as Slavonic, Polish, German and Russian sway until restoration of the Latvian independence in 1990 at the end of the Cold War.

Water quality

Upstream of the Latvian town of Jekabpils the pH has a characteristic value of about 7.8; in this reach the calcium ion has a typical concentration of around 43 milligrams per liter; nitrate has a concentration of about 0.82 milligrams per liter (as nitrogen); phosphate ion is measured at 0.038 milligrams per liter; and oxygen saturation was measured at eighty percent. The high nitrate and phosphate load of the Daugava is instrumental to the buildup of extensive phytoplankton biomass in the Baltic Sea; other European rivers contributing to such high nutrient loading of the Baltic are the Oder and Vistula Rivers.

In Belarus, water pollution of the Daugava is considered moderately severe, with the chief sources being treated wastewater, fish-farming and agricultural chemical runoff (e.g. herbicides, pesticides, nitrate and phosphate).

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Main Geographic Characteristics of the Republic of Belarus. Main characteristics of the largest rivers of Belarus". Land of Ancestors. Data of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Belarus. 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  2. ^ Фасмер, Макс. Этимологический словарь Фасмера (in Russian). p. 161.
  3. ^ C.Michael Hogan (2012). "Daugava River". Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment.
  4. ^ Compare: Frucht, Richard C. (2005-01-01). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781576078006. Retrieved 2017-07-06. The Daugava was an important transit river (carrying everything from Vikings to floating lumber) for centuries [...].

Further reading

  • Richard C. Frucht; Aldis Purs. Latvia. Eastern Europe. ABC-CLIO. p. 115. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
  • Francis W. Carter and David Turnock. 2002. Environmental problems of East Central Europe. 442 pages Google eBook

External links

Coordinates: 57°3′42″N 24°1′50″E / 57.06167°N 24.03056°E

2008 Latvian Football Cup

Latvian Football Cup 2008 was the sixty-seventh season of the Latvian annual football knock-out competition. For the first time it was won by FK Daugava Daugavpils, by outrivaling FK Ventspils. The winners qualified for the second qualifying round of the UEFA Europa League 2009–10.

2010 Latvian Higher League

2010 Latvian Higher League (Latvian: LMT Virslīga 2010) was the 19th season of top-tier football in Latvia. It began on 9 April 2010 with the first round of games. Liepājas Metalurgs were the defending champions, having won their second league title last season.

With the re-expansion of the league to 10 clubs, the format of the competition was altered for the third year in a row. The ten clubs played 18 rounds of matches, once at home and once away, against each of the other nine clubs in the league. After this, another nine rounds of matches were played for a total of 27 matches. The clubs finishing in the first five positions after 18 rounds received the benefit of hosting five of their last nine matches.

2011 Latvian Higher League

The 2011 Latvian Higher League (Latvian: Virslīga 2011) was the 20th season of top-tier football in Latvia. It began on 15 April 2011 and ended on 5 November 2011.The competition was won by FK Ventspils, who thus qualified for the 2012–13 UEFA Champions League. Runners-up Liepājas Metalurgs and third-placed sides Daugava Daugavpils earned spots for the 2012–13 UEFA Europa League. On the bottom end of the table, JFK Olimps/RFS were relegated after losing their play-off series against Spartaks Jūrmala.

All nine clubs played every other club four times during the course of the season: twice at home and twice away. In addition, there will be no direct relegation to the Latvian First League this year.

2012 Latvian Higher League

The 2012 Latvian Higher League was the 21st season of top-tier football in Latvia. It began on 24 March 2012 and ended on 10 November 2012. FK Ventspils are the defending champions.

The league comprised ten teams, one more than in the previous season.

2013 Latvian Higher League

The 2013 Latvian Higher League was the 22nd season of top-tier football in Latvia. FC Daugava were the defending champions. The season started on 29 March 2013.The league comprised ten teams. The champions of this season were FK Ventspils, followed by Skonto FC

2013 Latvian Supercup

The 2013 Latvian Supercup was the 1st edition of the Latvian Supercup, an annual football match organised by Latvia and contested by the reigning champions of the two main Latvian club competitions, the Latvian Higher League and the Latvian Football Cup. It was played at the Celtnieks Stadium in Daugavpils, Latvia on 9 March 2013, between the 2012 Latvian Higher League winners Daugava and the 2011–12 Latvian Football Cup winners Skonto.

2013–14 Latvian Football Cup

The 2013–14 Latvian Football Cup is the nineteenth season of the Latvian annual football knock-out competition. The winners will qualify for the first qualifying round of the 2014–15 UEFA Europa League.

2014 Latvian Higher League

The 2014 Latvian Higher League was the 23rd season of top-tier football in Latvia. FK Ventspils are the defending champions. The season started on 21 March 2014. Initially, Skonto Riga and Daugava Daugavpils, the second and third teams from the previous season, were denied a license to participate and the league began with eight clubs. However, their appeals against this were successful and the league was restored to ten clubs.

Aleksandrs Starkovs

Aleksandrs Starkovs (born 26 July 1955) is a Latvian football coach and a former footballer.

Starkovs has managed clubs such as Spartak Moscow in Russia, FK Baku in Azerbaijan and Skonto FC in Latvia as well as the Latvia national football team from 2001 to 2004 and from 2007 to July 2013. Since 2017 till 2018, he was the manager for the Latvia national football team.

Crossing of the Düna

The Crossing of the Düna (also known as Battle of Riga) took place during the Great Northern War on July 19 1701 near the city of Riga, present-day Latvia. The Swedish king Charles XII was in hot pursuit of king Augustus II the Strong of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Saxony. The crossing was easily made, and the coalition troops were quickly broken and retreated.

Daugava Stadium (Riga)

Daugava National Stadium (Latvian: Daugavas stadions) is a multifunctional stadium in Riga, Latvia, which was first opened in 1927. It holds football and athletics competitions. Since 1992 the Daugava Stadium has been designated as a sports facility of national importance and is owned by the Government of Latvia.

EuroLeague Women

The EuroLeague Women (officially FIBA EuroLeague Women) is the highest professional basketball league in Europe for women's clubs.

Unlike the EuroLeague for men, the competition is entirely organized by FIBA Europe.

FC Daugava

FC Daugava is a Latvian football club, based at the Daugava Stadium, in the city of Daugavpils. They play in the Latvian Second League in 2015 and are one of two clubs representing the city. They are also one of two clubs with the name Daugava and should not be confused with FK Daugava Rīga.

In 2008, they won the Latvian Cup and in 2012 won the Latvian Higher League championship for the first time in the club's history. The current manager of the team is Ivan Tabanov.

FK Daugava (2003)

FK Daugava Rīga was a Latvian football club, based at the Daugava Stadium in Riga. They play in the Latvian Higher League. The current manager of the team is Armands Zeiberliņš.

From the club's foundation in 2003 till 2009 the club was known as FK Jūrmala. In 2010, they changed their name to FK Jūrmala-VV, but in March 2012 the club moved to Riga, changing its name to FK Daugava Rīga.

FK Liepājas Metalurgs

FK Liepājas Metalurgs (Latvian: Futbola klubs "Liepājas metalurgs") was a Latvian football club in the city of Liepāja and playing in the Virslīga. They played at the Daugava Stadium (capacity 5,083). In 2005 Liepājas Metalurgs became the first team other than Skonto Riga to win the Virslīga since the league restarted in 1991. After the 2013 league season the club was dissolved due to the bankruptcy of its sole sponsor metallurgical plant Liepājas Metalurgs. The club was replaced by FK Liepāja, founded in 2014.

FK Rīgas Futbola Skola

FK Rīgas Futbola Skola is a Latvian football club based in Riga that plays in the Virsliga. It is based on the Riga Football School (RFS) academy, established in 1962.

Sergei Korshunov

Sergei Korshunov (8 October 1928 – 12 December 1982) was an association footballer from the former Soviet Union who played for FC Dynamo Kyiv and Moscow teams.

In 1956 Korshunov played couple of games for Ukraine at the Spartakiad of the Peoples of the USSR.

Vidzeme

Vidzeme (pronounced [ˈvid̪͡z̪eme]; Lithuanian: Vidžemė; Livonian: Vidūmō, Russian: Видземе) is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia. Literally meaning "the Middle Land", it is situated in north-central Latvia north of the Daugava River. Sometimes in German, it is also known as Livland, the German form from Latin Livonia, though it comprises only a small part of Medieval Livonia and about half (the Latvian part) of Swedish Livonia.

Vidzemes guberņa – Livland Governorate is also bigger than Vidzeme, since it corresponds roughly to Swedish Livonia.

Yevgeni Yeliseyev

Yevgeni Ivanovich Yeliseyev (Russian: Евгений Иванович Елисеев; born 25 December 1908 in Moscow; died 21 August 1999 in St. Petersburg) was a Soviet Russian football player and coach.

Riga cityscape
Old Town
Hotels
Monuments & memorials
Parks & gardens
Museums & galleries
Theatres
Places of worship
Bridges
Structures
Other
Waterways
Streets

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.